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Mekong ARCC - Final Workshop - Natural Systems Study
 

Mekong ARCC - Final Workshop - Natural Systems Study

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Mekong ARCC – Final Workshop – Natural Systems Study ...

Mekong ARCC – Final Workshop – Natural Systems Study
A presentation from the International Centre for Environmental Management (ICEM)
> Further information: www.icem.com.au
This presentation for the Mekong ARCC project was given by ICEM’s Peter-John Meynell, Sansanee Choowaew, Nguyen Huu Thien and Jeremy Carew-Reid at the Final Workshop in Bangkok – held in March 2013. The presentation considers Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) and Crop Wild Relatives (CWRs) in the context of climate change in the Lower Mekong Basin. NTFPs and CWRs are an integral part of the farming systems of the Mekong. CWRs are especially important to breed new varieties through genetic diversity. CWRs are the largest source for crop improvement and the richest source of diversity for adaptive characteristics.The presentation considers the increased market pressures on NTFP resources, the loss of forest habitat due to commercial logging and conversion to agriculture and the importance of protected areas as a last refuge for NTFPs and CWRs.
> Read more about Mekong ARCC on the ICEM website www.icem.com.au

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    Mekong ARCC - Final Workshop - Natural Systems Study Mekong ARCC - Final Workshop - Natural Systems Study Presentation Transcript

    • Natural systems NTFPs,Crop Wild Relatives and Protected Areas 28 March 2013 Peter-John Meynell, Sansanee Choowaew, Nguyen Huu Thien, Jeremy Carew-Reid
    • Overview • 2 components – NTFPs and CWRs – Protected areas • Definition and classification • Methods and limitations • Vulnerability assessment – NTFPs and CWRs use a species approach – Protected Areas use an ecosystem approach • Adaptation for NTFPs, CWRs and Protected areas together
    • Non-Timber Forest Products NTFPs = materials collected and used to support local livelihoods from natural or man-made forests and riverine habitats. Includes: • forest and aquatic vegetables, • fruit, • traditional medicine products, • wild animals • insects • aquatic organisms (fish, mollusks, crustaceans) • wood products for home construction, • fuel wood and charcoal • handicraft products
    • Uses of NTFPs
    • Diversity of NTFPs • In Cambodia – Food, mushrooms, fodder, medicines, resins, rattans • In Thailand – – Food – 500 species, – medicines – 800 species, – Resins - 27 species, dyeing and tanning, – Bamboo 60 species, – Honey, red ants, bamboo borer, wasp larvae • In Vietnam – – Fibres – 242 species, – Resins – 113 species, – Essential oils – 458 species, – Fatty oils – 473 species, – Tannin – 800 species, – Medicines – 557 species, – Dyeing agents – 200 species, – Bamboo and rattan – 93 species, – Starch – 27 species In Lao PDR NTFPs make a significant contribution to national and local economies in the region • Up to 9% of GDP in Lao PDR • Over 30% of the income of some individual farming families.
    • Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) • A CWR is a wild ancestor or closely related to a domesticated plant, • Resource for improving agricultural production and for maintaining sustainable agro- ecosystems. • LMB has 153 species of CWRs – Cambodia 35 – Lao PDR 51 – Thailand 102 – Vietnam 99 • Includes wild Rice, Figs, Mangos, Jackfruit, Peas and Beans, Banana, Eggplant, Yam Geographic origins can be traced to regions known as Vavilov Centers
    • Why are CWRs important? • To breed new varieties, we need genetic diversity. • CWRs are the largest source for crop improvement, • Richest source of diversity for adaptive characteristics • It is a largely untapped source • Many crop wild relatives remain – uncollected, – unevaluated and – unavailable to plant breeders and to farmers, Many are also at risk of extinction.
    • NTFPs and CWRs are an integral part of the farming systems of the Mekong NTFPs + CWRs + Wild fish Social + Livelihoods Aquaculture Livestock Agriculture + Food security, food delicacies + Health/medicines + Income and livelihood source + Raw materials for construction/handicrafts + Fuelwood/charcoal + Recreation and tourism + Cultural values + Protection /management of natural systems + Habitat/refuge + Spawn/feeding + Domestication of wild species - Alien species - Loss of habitat - Pollution source - Eutrophication + Forage source + Appetite stimulant + Wild species/domestication + Gene bank + Traditional medicines - Diseases – bird flu + Fertilizer/ soil conditioner + Gene bank/ +/- Gene flows – e.g. weedy rice +/- Pest control/harbouring pests + Pollination - Alien species - Eutrophication - Landuse/habitat change - Crop intensification - Agricultural chemicals
    • Trends and Threats • Increased market pressures on NTFP resources, • Loss of forest habitat due to commercial logging and conversion to agriculture, plantations e.g. cassava, rubber, eucalyptus • Destructive harvesting practices • Rapid population growth and large population movements over past 30 years • Pressure on NTFPs due to growing insecurity on land tenure and access rights • Domestication of a number of NTFP species Few studies on impacts of Climate Change on NTFPs in the region
    • Importance of Protected areas • Last refuge for NTFPs and CWRs • Forests provide protection against the extremes of temperature and drought. • Provide ecosystem services – Provisioning, Regulating – Supporting, Cultural • 80% of protected areas lie in regions of medium to high poverty incidence • Increasing dependence of poor on PAs as a food security safety net. LMB country No of PAs Area of PAs (km2) PAs as % of basin area Ave size of PAs (km2) No of important wetlands Cambodia 21 3,616 5.7 172 24 Lao PDR 27 3,840 6.1 142 13 Thailand 46 1,786 2.8 39 39 Vietnam 21 380 0.6 18 18 Total 114 9,622 15.3 84 94
    • Trends and threats to PAs • Around 90% of the LMB’s protected areas have communities within them and populations are growing • PAs are used – More than 25% of the area for agriculture, – 30% of area for grazing, – 30% of area for fisheries – 90% of area for hunting, gathering and extraction. • Illegal wildlife trade and export is increasing • PAs are open for concessions and major infrastructure development – hydropower – roads, – mining, – plantations and tourism facilities.
    • METHOD AND LIMITATIONS
    • Grouping of NTFPs Normally NTFPs are categorised by use: • Food • Medicines • Fibres • Extracts and resins • Ornamentals • Wood products and charcoal • Animal products This is not helpful for our purposes, so we have used: • Mushrooms • Grasses and herbs • Aquatic plants • Orchids • Bamboo and rattan • Shrubs • Trees • Insects • Fish and other aquatic animals (fisheries group)
    • We can not consider the impacts of climate change on ALL the different NTFPs or CWRs - Selection criteria NTFPs • Economic/Livelihood importance • Degree of threat – from climate change – from economic development • Availability of information • Where and what type of ecosystem they occur in? CWRs • Genetic importance for the domesticated crop, • Known properties, e.g. – disease resistance, – optimal climatic or – hydrological conditions Simple database of basic biology and ecological tolerances of some key NTFPs and CWRs Vulnerability assessments conducted on 15 species in 5 hotspot provinces
    • Distribution of NTFPs and CWRs chosen in 5 hotspots Kien Giang Mondul Kiri Gia Lai Chiang Rai Khammouan 3. Delta Low lying acidic area swamp forest 6. Low-elevation dry broadleaf forest 9. Mid-elevation dry broadleaf forest 4. High-elevation moist broadleaf forest - North Indochina 7. Low-mid ele moist broadleaf forest NTFP Category Species Common name 2. Delta mangroves and saline water 9. Mid-elevation dry broadleaf forest 12. Upper floodplain wetland, lake (CS to VTE) 4. High-elevation moist broadleaf forest - North Indochina Mushroom Russula sp x x x x Grasses/herbs Ammomum spp False Cardamom x x x x Sesbania sesban Egyptian pea x x Typha orientalis Oriental rush x Lepironia articulata Lepironia Sedge x Climbers Dioscorea hispida Bitter yam x x x Orchids Dendrobium lindleyi x x x x Rattans Calamus crispus x x x x Shrubs Broussonetia papyrifera Paper mulberry x x x x Dipterocarpus alatus x x x x Sonneratia sp Mangrove apple x Insects Apis dorsata Giant honeybee x x x x x Oecophylla smaragdina Red Ants x x x x Invertebrates Earthworms x x x x x O. granulata x O. nivara x x x x x O. officinalis x x x x x O. ridleyi O. rufipogon x x O. sativa/prosativa Floating rice An Giang Province Ecozone Aquatic plants Trees CWRs - Wild Rice
    • Vulnerability assessment for species • Based upon a questionnaire and scoring method • Assesses current status of species degree of existing threats • Uses biological information and ecological tolerances to assess: – Threats of climate change – Protection from extremes of climate change – Sensitivity of the species – Adaptive capacity of species • Plotted on a quadrat showing existing conservation status and CC vulnerability • Protected areas vulnerability assessed by CAM method Climate change vulnerability score Category interval 0.4 Low High Very High Vulnerability 2.7 3 High Vulnerability 2.3 2.6 Moderate Vulnerability 1.9 2.2 Low Vulnerability 1.5 1.8 Very Low Vulnerability 1 1.4
    • Limitations of vulnerability assessment • Species assessed are examples of type of organism NOT representatives • We can use these examples to illustrate vulnerabilities to climate change, but we can not generalise or scale up • Focus is upon species level vulnerability, not upon ecosystem level • Considers biological characteristics and ecological tolerances of species (esp. climate) • Inadequate information about many species, so have to consider similar or proxy species information • Distribution of many species is not fully known, – so can not always tell if a species is present in a hotspot area, or – if it is represented by a sub-species or sister species • Little is known about the ecological linkages and dependencies
    • VULNERABILITY AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT
    • Climate threats for PAs
    • Notes for species vulnerability assessment • Domesticated crops are designed and grown in relative monocultures and in fairly or very exposed situations (e.g. open fields) By contrast: • NTFPs and CWRs live and grow in complex forest or wetland ecosystems. What does this mean? • Forest cover provides refuges and protection from extremes of temperature and drought – maintaining micro-climate • NTFPs and CWRs grow in forest or wetland plant assemblages – Depend on symbioses, synergies and interactions with other flora and fauna – Fungi – degraders – Earthworms – degraders – Pollinators – honey bees, birds, bats • Plants in natural habitats are more tolerant of insect infestation or disease, but less so if stressed or if habitat is degraded
    • Aspects of NTFP/CWR resilience • Withstand extremes of drought at the end of the dry season and lowering of soil moisture availability • Clear seasonal patterns - wet and dry seasons – relative hibernation, – shed their leaves, – store up food sources in tubers, – aestivate (earthworms) – migrate (honey bees) • Different reproductive and seed dispersal strategies – Vegetative reproduction – Rootstock and rhizomes – Seed formation • Critical times of year are flowering, fruiting and seed dispersal
    • SPECIES VULNERABILITIES IN MONDULKIRI
    • Wild mushroom : Russula virescens Habitats : lower part of trees near ground of deciduous, dry dipterocarp forests, marshes, swamps, termite mounds Fruiting : June-Oct. peak at the end of rainy season Temperature range : 30-38˚C 80-90% air humidity Rainfall : 1,350 mm/yr Climate key threats • Future average temperature range 27 – 37 °C is still within the optimal range during fruiting period • Future maximum temperature 44 °C is beyond the comfort zone, but may enhance the decay of leaf litter which become nutrients facilitating growth • Reduced dry season rainfall and soil moisture may affect sub-soil parts • Increase of total rainfall in wet season enhances availability & abundance • Increased forest fires and loss of associated tree species and habitats Existing status: Declining due to overharvesting, habitat loss CC Vulnerability: Moderate in all hotspots
    • False cardamom – Amomum kravanh Habitats and Character • Perennial herb with thick rootstocks, growing 2 – 3.5 m high • Moist riverine places within mixed 2ndry deciduous and evergreen forests; Needs 50% forest cover • Flowers: March – June; Fruits: June – August • Fruit and seeds used for medicinal products esp. export to China Climate key threats • Annual temperature change well beyond comfort zone to 27 – 37C • During flowering season temps increase from 30/31C to 35/36C. Soil moisture in April decreased, May change the flowering patterns • Fruiting season (June-August) less extreme change with av. temps increasing from 26 to 30C Baseline vulnerability = Moderate CC Vulnerability = High Vulnerability Prediction: CC likely to increase vulnerability
    • Asian bitter yam – Dioscorea hispida Baseline Status = Low CC Vulnerability = Very Low Prediction Climate change may enhance the growth Habitats and Character • Perennial climber, up to 2 m long with system of fibrous roots and tubers • Grows in lowland evergreen and secondary forests often with bamboo, up to 1,000m elevation • Grows well in all soil types, but does best on moist clay loam, under shade along streams • Used and traded locally as food during food (rice) shortages. Also used for medicinal purposes Climate key threats • Temperature changes within comfort zone • Rainfall range well within comfort zone, and during rains may increase growth • Vegetative growth from tubers, good recovery after droughts • Extreme events – protected from wind and recovers after fire
    • Wild orchid : Dendrobium lindleyi Habitats and Character • Semi-epiphyte; attached with big trees in dry evergreen, mixed deciduous, open forests; on high canopy • Flowering : only in summer (February–May); flowers last only 4 – 5 days up to 1 week, • Elevation range : 300-1,500 m asl; Temperature range : 7 – 32˚C • Rainfall range : 965 – 1,550 mm/yr • Wild orchid trading, high demand, high market price Climate change threats • Increased future average temperature range 27 – 37 °C well above comfort zone, • Average temperature during flowering period (February-May), and maximum temperature 44 °C may affect growth and flowering • Increase in temperature causes shifts of insect pollinators • Decrease in rainfall during dry season enhances flowering and flowers lasting period • Extreme rainfall and high winds affect orchids that grow on high canopy Baseline conservation status = High CC vulnerability = High Prediction: Climate change is likely to increase overall vulnerability significantly
    • Rattans : Calamus caesius Habitats and Character • Perennial, long life, multi-stems, clustering, in lowlands on alluvial flats, riverbanks, moist evergreen, dry evergreen, peatswamp forests, also at drier sites • Alluvial soils up to 800 m asl • New shoots germinate all year round; Fruiting : November-March • Temperature range : optimal 23-30°C; absolute 16 – 34°C • Rainfall range : optimal 2,500-3,200 mm/yr; absolute 1,700-4,200 mm/yr • Used for handicrafts, shoots used for food • Cultivation possible Climate key threats • Increase in total rainfall enhances growth • Future maximum temperature 44 °C is beyond the comfort zone • Decrease of dry season rainfall may affect growth and fruiting • Possible increase in forest fires which destroy seedlings • High adaptive capacity due to drought tolerance of extensive root system Baseline conservation status = Moderate CC vulnerability = Moderate Prediction: Climate change unlikely to increase vulnerability
    • Habitats and Character • Common, small shrubby deciduous tree. Fast growing pioneer, spreads rapidly after clearance of forests, sprouts after burning • Grows on variety of soils and wide growing conditions up to 1000 m. • Sunlight and moisture demanding. Cultivated along river banks • Flowering May/June, fruiting Oct - Dec • Bark used for paper making, medicines, leaves as forage for livestock, woodfuel, mushroom cultivation Climate key threats • Flowering delayed by high temperatures and low soil moisture, Lower rainfall/soil moisture in dry season • Increased rainfall favours growth in wet season and withstands floods • Exposed to wind and extreme events, branches break easily Paper Mulberry – Broussonettia papyrifera Baseline status = Low CC Vulnerability = Very High Prediction: Climate change will increase overall vulnerability in Mondulkiri
    • Resin Tree : Dipterocarpus alatus Habitats and Character • along riverbanks, bottom of ridges, swampy areas in dry dipterocarp, dry evergreen, lower moist evergreen, semi-evergreen, evergreen forests • Flowering : March-May, Fruiting : April-June • Resin collection : only in summer (April-May) • Elevation range : 100-800 m asl • Temperature range : optimal 22-32˚C, absolute 10-36˚C, can grow in areas with max temperature up to 45 ˚C • Rainfall range : optimal rainfall 3,500-4,500 mm/yr, absolute 3,000- 5,200 mm/yr, found in areas 1,000-2,000 mm/yr Baseline status = Moderate CC vulnerability = High Prediction: Climate change will significantly increase the overall vulnerability Climate key threats • increase in temperature enhances forest fire; forest fires kill seedlings and lower volume and quality of resin/oil • extreme events (storms and high winds) kill seedlings and affect the trees which are improperly tapped and hole maintained • extreme droughts enhance insect attacks (longhorn beetles) and also lower seed germination rate
    • Red Ants : Oecophylla smaragdina Habitats and Character • arboreal, delimited territories, live/nest on a great variety of trees/leaves in big colony in deciduous dipterocarp forests, plantations • Ant eggs collection : dry season (December-May) Most popular food insect, high demand, high market price • Elevation range : <1,000 m asl Rainfall : 1,350 mm/yr • Temperature range : 10-40˚C; 30˚C is optimal for feeding • Quick population recovery, short regeneration time, live in big colony, strong defensive mechanism; delimited territories with wide range of habitats; occupy a great variety of trees in both natural and plantations • good adaptability to the environment; specialized in nest building to avoid damage by rains/winds Baseline status = Low CC vulnerability = Low Prediction: Climate change will have LITTLE effect upon overall vulnerability Climate key threats • Increase in temperature and future maximum temperature 44 °C may affect feeding, enhance forest fires which affect ants abundance • Decrease dry season rainfall and soil moisture enhances population and abundance • Increase in total rainfall affects the nests (disease occurs), population, movement, feeding habits • Heavy rains, high winds may affect ants’ nests and population
    • Earthworms • Density varies according to soil type and texture, soil moisture, rainfall, temperature, total nitrogen and organic matter • Prefer moist slightly warm soil to grow and reproduce. • Optimal soil moisture content is 60 – 80%, • Higher rainfall during wet season months can increase vulnerability • In Mondulkiri – earthworms considered Highly Vulnerable • In other hotspots moderate vulnerability High adaptive capacity, • diverse habitats and different layers of soils. • Specialized burrowers. • During drought can move deeper than 20 m into the soils • Aestivate when conditions are hot and dry.
    • SPECIES VULNERABILITY IN KIEN GIANG
    • Mangroves Sonneratia alba + spp Habitat and character: • Prefers banks of tidal rivers, estuaries, and sheltered bays. Occupies distinct tidal up-river ranges • Tolerant of high salinity (<35ppt), but this may inhibit seed germination proportionally • Temperature ranges not known, but can exist between 20 and 50 oC, but seasonal range not to exceed 10 deg C • Seeds are buoyant - Long distance seed dispersal • Habitat for Dawn Bat, important for pollinating durian, banana, papayas • IUCN Redlist - Least Concern CC Threats • Temperature and rainfall changes less of an issue • Does not like strong winds and strong wave action • Sea Level Rise will increase tidal depth and reduce suitability of existing areas • Can migrate to more suitable areas, but infrastructure may restrict movement Existing conservation status – High CC Vulnerability - Very High
    • Aquatic plants Lepironia articulata Baseline stresses : High and increasing: • land conversion pressure, • increase demand for handicraft making, • invasion of alien species CC vulnerability Low Habitat and character: Only species worldwide of Lepironia genus Distributed widely in tropical and subtropical Asia. Seems to be restricted to coastal acidic areas Grows in wetland inundated up to 5 meters. Propagates with seeds and rhizomes About 1000 ha of L. articulata remains in Phu My grassland in Kien Giang. CC threats Increase temp will not affect L. articulata as it grows in deep water. Drier dry season increase risk of grassland fires, but L. articulata will recover quickly from rootstock. Vegetative reproduction mode allow the plant to wait out adverse conditions
    • Aquatic plants - CWRs Oryza rufipogon Habitat and character: Direct ancestor of cultivated Asian rice. Many favorable genes lost from cultivated rice through forced selection. Perennial species found in wetlands, along borders of rivers and canals. Declining due to conversion of habitat to agriculture, but 1000 hectares in Tram Chim National Park in Mekong Delta. Tolerant of deep inundation, drought, and acidity. Reproduces fast by seeds and rhizome propagation. Considerable gene flow from cultivated rice to wild rice leading to generic erosion. CC threats Flood, drought, temperature increase are not an issue Tolerate up to 480C Seeds may remain dormant up to 3 years to wait out adverse conditions. Baseline stresses increasing • loss of habitat • genetic erosion. CC vulnerability: Very low
    • Honey Bee Apis dorsata Habitat and character • Distributed in forest areas throughout the basin • Tend to forage on trees rather than herbaceous spp. • Can migrate up to 200km: stopover habitats critical. • Optimum Temp range: 22-250C: Tolerate up to 500C; above 380C activities slow down • Declining due to – reduced forest cover, – increasing human modifications of landscape, – increasing use of pesticides & herbicides CC threat • Prolonged and heavy rainfalls affect flowering period and ability of bees to fly out. • Drought and higher temps at end of dry season will cause bee to migrate earlier to riparian and low lands. • Strong winds during big storms might destroy bee combs. Baseline conservation status - Low CC vulnerability Moderate .
    • Diversity of NTFP vunerabilities Kien Giang Mondul Kiri Gia Lai Chiang Rai Khammouan 3. Delta Low lying acidic area swamp forest 6. Low-elevation dry broadleaf forest 9. Mid-elevation dry broadleaf forest 4. High-elevation moist broadleaf forest - North Indochina 7. Low-mid ele moist broadleaf forest NTFP Category Species Common name 2. Delta mangroves and saline water 9. Mid-elevation dry broadleaf forest 12. Upper floodplain wetland, lake (CS to VTE) 4. High-elevation moist broadleaf forest - North Indochina Mushroom Russula sp Russula mushroom x x x x Grasses/herbs Ammomum spp False Cardamom x x x x Sesbania sesban Egyptian pea x x Typha orientalis Oriental rush Lepironia articulata Lepironia Sedge Climbers Dioscorea hispida Bitter yam x x x x Orchids Dendrobium lindleyi Orchid x x x x Rattans Calamus crispus Rattan x x x x Shrubs Broussonetia papyrifera Paper mulberry x x x x Dipterocarpus alatus Resin tree x x x x Sonneratia casseolaris Mangrove apple x Apis dorsata Giant honeybee x x x x x Oecophylla smaragdina Red Ants x x x x Invertebrates Earthworms x x x x x CWRs O. nivara x x x x x O. officinalis x x x x x O. rufipogon x x Landrace rice O. sativa/prosativa Floating rice An Giang Wild Rice Province Ecozone Aquatic plants Trees Insects Very high High Moderate Low Very Low CC Vulnerability
    • In the shorter term, existing stresses and threats to the species may be more important than the climate change. Forest and habitat loss • The main threat to NTFPs is the clearance forests and changes in landuse for agriculture and agroforestry. • For CWRs, exploitation is rarely the issue – considered as weeds, neglected and forgotten. The loss of habitat is the key pressure Over harvesting • Over-exploitation has led to significant reductions in some NTFP species. Poor protection measures • Most of the NTFP and CWR species are not protected by law in any of the LMB countries BUT Climate Change may compound the stress and increase the overall vulnerability
    • Vulnerability of Ecozones and Protected Areas Ecozone Province Protected Areas Temper ature Precipit ation Water availability Salinity Sea level rise Drought Flooding Storm Upper floodplain wetland, lake Chiang Rai, Thailand Nong Bong Kai - Non Hunting Area Mid and low elevation dry broadleaf forest Mondulkiri, Cambodia Mondulkiri PA cluster in Cambodia High elevation moist broadleaf forest Khammouane, Laos Nakai-Nam Theun NBCA Low-mid elevation moist broadleaf forest Khammouane, Laos and Gia Lai, Vietnam Hin Namno, Phoun Hin Poun, Corridor Nakai - Nam Theun, Phou Hin Poun, Chu Prong Delta mangroves and saline water and Delta Low lying acidic area swamp forest Kien Giang, Vietnam Kien Giang PA cluster Very High High Medium Low Very Low
    • CC Implications for Provisioning services • Decline in plant and animal productivity: – Drought in the dry season, – Increased flooding and soil saturation in the wet season – may lead to changes in pollination and flowering, spread and incidence of disease; • Decline and loss of NTFPs: – Reducing habitats and increased reliance and pressure upon NTFPs if agricultural production is impaired • Decline in water quantity and quality: – Increased drought, reduced land cover, and changes in species composition and soil structure may affect the quantity and quality of water. – Changes in surface water temperature, sedimentation and flood regimes will impact on water quality and aquatic systems generally.
    • CC Implications for Regulating services Decreased regulation of erosion and sedimentation: • more extreme dry and wet conditions exposes and flushes sediment into waterways. Decreased regulation of flash flooding and landslides: • degradation of habitats, riverbank erosion, bank collapse, and localized landslides. Decreased pest control functions: • Disturbance of biological control services • Insect co-dependence and pest/predator relationships between insects, birds, amphibians, plants and mammals. • Invasive species favoured, • Mosquitoes and other disease vectors favoured. • Drought conditions favour pests causing damage to crops during drought years. Decreased nutrient recycling functions: • Drier surface litter from higher temperatures will lead to slower decomposition processes • Build up of otherwise recycled products. • Losses or decline in decomposition processes, and nutrient recycling services.
    • CC Implications for Supporting services Shifting/changes in habitat: • Ecosystems are expected to shift or alter under climate change. Loss of habitat: • Increased risk of fire is likely to reduce habitat and support services. • Human settlement and infrastructure limits movement of ecosystems and may prevent ecosystem shifts altogether causing permanent loss of habitats. Reduction/degradation in biodiversity: • Some species are expected to disappear under climate change and be replaced by others • Opportunities for more hardy and aggressive native or exotic species, • Reduction in reproductive cycles and an altered period between flowering and maturing of seeds. Reduction in species population size: • Higher levels of stress on PAs expected to lead to an overall loss in diversity and simplification of plant and animal assemblages. • The number of species and populations is expected to reduce. • Migratory species would seek other areas more suitable for breeding and nesting. • Reduction in top soil moisture would reduce micro flora and fauna suppressing decomposition and nutrient recycling affecting regeneration and plant growth.
    • CC Implications for Cultural services Declines in tourism: • reduced habitat is expected will cause losses in flagship species such as elephant, tiger and other cats – and subsequent losses in tourism. • Increased in intensity and regularity of flooding and storms may destroy tourist facilities and reduce access to tourist sites Damage to infrastructure: • Flooding, storms, and sea level rise will damage infrastructure and cultural assets in and around the protected areas, including roads, bridges, temples, and tourism facilities Reduced community well being and health: • Impact on human well being, especially traditional communities. • Diseases may spread more easily in hotter and wetter climates un-moderated by diverse natural systems.
    • Key climate change induced ecosystem shifts in LMB protected areas include: • Geographic shifts in species ranges due to shifts in regular climate; • Substantial range losses for individual species; • Seasonal shifts in life cycle events such as advances in flowering due to changes in temperature, • Changes in animal migration patterns, • Changes in fish migration due to changes in the onset of the flood season; • Body size changes such as decreased body size due to higher temperatures; • Community composition changes, for example species adapted to higher temperatures will become more predominant; and • Genetic changes such as tolerance shifts. Ecological shifts would lead to fundamental changes to the make-up of LMB protected areas.
    • ADAPTATION FOR NTFP AND CWR AND PROTECTED AREAS
    • Habitat protection - most fundamental conservation and adaptation measure for all NTFPs and CWRs. • Expand and strengthen the protected area system to protect the full diversity of LMB habitats and increase opportunities for dispersal across the landscape • Build on and strengthen existing conservation management approaches • Increasing political commitment towards safeguarding Protected Areas in the LMB – nationally and internationally • Strengthening of capacities and processes for management planning and effective implementation. • Climate change adaptation planning and strategies need to be a fundamental part of overall PA management planning. Adaptation strategies
    • Adaptation strategies Habitat rehabilitation and reforestation • Rehabilitation and enhancement of habitats, both forests and wetlands, • Rehabilitation of degraded areas • Enrichment planting • Use of framework species approach • Building ecosystem resilience – Keystone species – Identification and protection of refugia – Fire and flood control – Management of Invasive species and pests
    • • Water management of habitats – Water management for conservation of NTFP and CWR species – Maintaining soil moisture availability • e.g. Check dam using natural materials – Ensuring flows of water for wetland areas – Ensuring sea walls and storm surge dykes have sluice gates to allow migration of mangroves • Species protection – Species protection programs will be necessary for some species to reduce debilitating stresses – Register specifically threatened NTFPs and CWRs on national protected species lists – In situ and ex situ conservation measures Adaptation strategies
    • • Sustainable management of NTFP harvesting – NTFP harvesting may need sustainable management plans, implementation and enforcement • Non-destructive harvesting • Restriction of offtake – Sustainable management important for continuity of valuable community resources, and to build resilience – Understanding of biology and management needs – Developing community roles and awareness • Domestication and cultivation of NTFPs – Reducing pressure on the wild stock of NTFPs through cultivation and domestication of species. – Maintaining genetic stocks of wild rice separate from hybrid rice Adaptation strategies
    • • Monitoring and research – Monitor changes in NTFPs and CWRs considered at risk in CC hotspots – Scientific research into the basic biology and ecology of the plants and animals concerned and CC impacts and adaptation needs – Adaptation of NTFPs and CWRs Assessing and raising awareness of value of NTFPs, CWRs and PAs • Selection of resilience within species – Selective breeding of individuals that show resilience traits to the changes in climatic conditions for species that are in the process of domestication – Breeding programs Adaptation strategies
    • • Assisted movement of species at risk and shift of habitat – Assisted movement of species at risk and shift of habitat may be considered as a long term strategy for assisting important NTFP habitats to adapt to climate change. – Rehabilitating and maintaining corridors between protected areas – Consider introduction of similar species, sub-species or varieties that show greater resilience to perceived CC threats in a hotspot Adaptation strategies