ICEGOV2009 - Tutorial 6 - Visions and Challenges for Leading Public Sector Transformation for the Information Age

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  • 1. ICEGOV 2009 – eLeadership Tutorial Visions and Challenges for Leading Public Sector Transformation for the Information Age Jean-Pierre Auffret Elsa Estevez International Academy of CIO, USA U.N. University, Macao
  • 2. Contents Motivation for eLeadership and CIOs CIOs and Government Institutional Frameworks CIOs in Government – Roles and Potential National Legislation and Policies to Promote eLeadership Developing a CIO System Guide Posts for Facilitating eLeadership in Government International Collaboration for Developing eLeadership in Government
  • 3. Motivation for eLeadership and CIOs
  • 4. ICTs Strategic Role “After many years of rapid growth and demonstration of its tangible benefits, ICT is now accorded a “strategic” role in most economies. This prominence is bringing a greater level of scrutiny of technology infrastructure from various sections of society, as well as international organizations. Ereadiness will advance, but governments should take care to ensure that their countries’ digital development proceeds in harmony with their social, economic and political objectives.” - Economist Intelligence Unit in “eReadiness Rankings 2009 – The Usage Imperative”
  • 5. eGovernment “eGovernment is about using the tools and systems made possible by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to provide better public services to citizens and businesses. ICTs are already widely used by government bodies, just as in enterprises, but eGovernment involves much more than just the tools. Effective eGovernment also involves rethinking organizations and processes, and changing behavior so that public services are delivered more efficiently to the people that need to use them. Implemented well, eGovernment enables all citizens, enterprises and organizations to carry out their business with government more easily, more quickly and at lower cost.” - European Union
  • 6. ICTs Strategic Role IT is integral to organizational strategy - but is also a key part of organizational day to day operations. IT is transformational – but also enables organizations to provide existing services better. IT is specialized, but has broad impact. Good IT Leadership is Good Executive Leadership
  • 7. Source: OpenSourceCommunity.org
  • 8. Hon. Mutahi Kagwe, MP and Minister for Information and Communication Source: The Guardian February 2008
  • 9. The IT Challenge – New Technology (Apple)
  • 10. The IT Challenge – New Technology
  • 11. The IT Challenge – Improving Service and Operations (Walmart)
  • 12. Sao Paulo Timesaver
  • 13. Sao Paulo Timesaver Sao Paulo is one of the five largest cities in the world and has rapidly grown from population of approximately 3 million in 1960 to over 10 million today. Licenses, permits and public services have traditionally been provided by different governments (local, state and national), different government agencies and in different locations.
  • 14. Rankings, Indices and Stages ICT eReadiness Rankings (Economist) Connectivity and infrastructure (20%) Business environment (15%) Consumer and business eGovernment Web Measure adoption (25%) Index (U.N.) Legal and policy Stage I - Emerging environment (10%) Stage II - Enhanced Social and cultural Stage III - Interactive environment (15%) Stage IV - Transactional Government policy and vision (15%) Stage V - Connected
  • 15. Rankings, Indices and Stages eGovernment Readiness Index (U.N.) Composite comprised of web measure index, telecommunications infrastructure index and human capital index. eGovernment Rankings (Waseda University) Based on 28 factors including ICT Development network preparedness, national Index (ITU) portal and CIO in government Based on three categories of factors – access, usage and skills.
  • 16. Barriers and Challenges for Successful eGovernment - OECD Legislative and regulatory Budgetary frameworks Planning for technological change Digital divide Developing a roadmap for new technologies Human capacity development Fostering leadership for eGovernment Public private partnerships Cross agency coordination
  • 17. CIOs and eGovernment Institutional Frameworks
  • 18. National ICT Policy Framework Source: UNCTAD - Promoting Growth and Development through ICTs (2006)
  • 19. National ICT Plans in Developing and Transition Countries 2006 No information available Country in the process of developing a national ICT Strategy Country with a national ICT Strategy Source: UNCTAD - Promoting Growth and Development through ICTs (2006)
  • 20. UNCTAD ICT Policy Review Model Framework Assessment of existing ICT master plan Implementation & ICT environment ICT policy framework Institutional framework Objectives and priority areas Transparent and continuous consultation ICT uptake and & strategic approach Integration of ICT policies use indicators ICT infrastructure development in national development Legal and regulatory framework plans /PRSP ICT infrastructure & access Institutional setup for Access to & use of ICTs by ICT human resources/skills Business development implementation of ICT plan households and individuals process with all stakeholders ICT-related trade & investment Policy coordination Use of ICTs by businesses Financial resources ICT sector and trade in ICT policies E-government Monitoring and evaluation goods Other ICT indicators Technological innovation (R&D) Indicators of achievement – identification of success factors, best practices, lessons learnt and challenges ahead Policy recommendations Revised ICT master plan/policies Source: UNCTAD - Promoting Growth and Development through ICTs (2006)
  • 21. eGovernment Institutions OECD Countries (Christian Vegez, OECD, 2006) ←More administrative control More political control→ 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ministry with specific Ministry of Ministry of Ministerial Unit/group Minister responsibility for IT Finance1 Interior/ Public board or created by or in within Administration2 shared executive office executive ministerial office responsibility Belgium Australia Germany Denmark Austria Portugal Czech Republic Canada Greece Japan France Italy3 Finland Luxembourg Korea Hungary Poland Ireland Mexico Switzerland Iceland Sweden The Netherlands Slovakia Turkey New Zealand United Norway Kingdom Spain United States* 1. Have shared budget/finance and public administration portfolios. 2. Interior (Germany, Greece). Public Administration (Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Norway), 3. The Italian Ministry of Innovation and Technology shares some e-government responsibility with the Ministry of Public Administration. Source : OECD country reports (February 2004), updated through end-2004.
  • 22. eGovernment Institutions – Another View
  • 23. CIOs in Government – Roles and Potential
  • 24. The Ideal CIO What do CIO’s do? - Lead, Motivate, Build, Manage, Coordinate, Connect, Plan, Structure
  • 25. The Ideal CIO U.S. Federal CIO Council - CIO Executive Council - Core CIO Competencies Future State CIO C-Level 1.0 - Policy and Competencies Organization Results Orientation 2.0 - Leadership and People and Organizational Management Development 3.0 - Process and Change Team Leadership Management Collaboration and Influence 4.0 - Information Change Leadership Resources Strategy and Planning Strategic Orientation 5.0 - IT Performance Commercial Orientation Assessment External Customer Focus 6.0 – IT Project and Market Knowledge Program Management 7.0 – Capital Planning and Investment Control
  • 26. The Ideal CIO U.S. Federal CIO Council Core Competencies 8.0 – Acquisition 9.0 - EGovernment 10.0 – Information Security and Information Assurance 11.0 – Enterprise Architecture 12.0 – Technology Management and Assessment
  • 27. Ideal CIO – Differences in Challenges in Public Sector and Private Sector Public Sector (National and Local Government) - Citizen service Continuity Political appointees Citizen satisfaction metric Private Sector Customer sales and support SOX compliance Profit metric
  • 28. The Ideal CIO How has the ideal CIO evolved over time? Early CIOs had roles similar to those of CIOs in early National ICT Readiness stages. As ICT and its connection to strategy has evolved, the ideal CIO has become more strategic and outward facing. And with the changing role – CIOs are part of executive team, where early CIOs were more often “IT managers” and then “Vice Presidents of Information Systems”. Is CIO the proper title? The CIO title may not reflect and be perceived of as a strategic function. Fairfax County, U.S.A. has enhanced the role and named it the Deputy County Administrator for Information. (Day to day IT and technology management is overseen by a CTO reporting to the Deputy County Administrator.)
  • 29. The U.S. CIO Today Majority of CIOs have had careers in IT. 41% report to the CEO, 23% to the CFO and 16% to the COO. On average, CIOs stay in their roles approximately four years. Source: CIO Magazine – 2008 State of the CIO
  • 30. The U.S. CIO Today – How Do They Spend Their Time? Function Head Transformational Business Strategist Managing IT crises Leader Developing and Developing IT Redesigning refining business Talent business processes strategy Improving IT Aligning IT with Understanding operations business strategy market trends Improving system Cultivating IT and Developing external performance business customer insight partnerships Developing Security management Leading change business Implementing new innovations Budget management systems and Identifying architecture opportunities for Mapping IT strategy competitive to enterprise differentiation strategy Re-engineering and developing sales channels Source: CIO Magazine – 2008 State of the CIO
  • 31. The U.S. CIO Today – How Are They Perceived? 39% of corporate managers believe the influence of CIOs is increasing. 33% of corporate managers believe that CIOs are involved in major corporate decisions. And corporate managers believe that important attributes for CIOs are: • Leadership (94%) • Team building (80%) • Ability to execute and • Consensus building meet deadlines (89%) (68%) • Collaboration and • Technical breadth and communication (88%) depth (55%) • Vision (85%) • Raw intellect (53%) • Innovation (81%) • Sales orientation (35%) Source: Information Week – August 5th,2008
  • 32. The U.S. CIO Today – Major Obstacles (Survey of Corporate Managers) IT is still perceived as a cost center (70%) Responsibility of ongoing IT maintenance (57% ) Lack of technology vision by top management (41%) Inability to attract and retain top business technology talent (31% ) Risk averse corporate culture (29%) Business executives involvement in technology strategy (22% ) Diminished influence of the CIO in the senior management ranks (20% ) Source: Information Week – August 5th,2008
  • 33. Can CIOs Succeed? Operational success is a baseline for strategic success: Projects on-time and on budget Systems online Applications user oriented. Strategic success elevates role of CIO and leads to greater organizational success: Describing IT and technology in terms of value to the organization Developing strong organizations Using technology as basis for organizational and business innovation.
  • 34. National Legislation and Policies to Promote eLeadership
  • 35. Philippines
  • 36. U.S. Clinger Cohen Act of 1996 Established CIOs and IT management processes in government including oversight by Office of Management and Budget and establishment of CIO Council. Motivations – implementations of ineffective information systems, inadequate planning and assessment of new information systems, outdated approaches to procuring information technology, insufficient attention to enhancing business processes in advance of investing in information technology.
  • 37. Macao
  • 38. Macao
  • 39. Thailand
  • 40. Developing a CIO System
  • 41. Developing an ICT System – Fairfax County Best practices, examples of good CIOs Fairfax County
  • 42. Developing a CIO System eProcurement – A System Look from the Project Perspective CIO Councils Broadening to Include the Private Sector Government, Private Sector, NGO and University Roles CIO Education
  • 43. eProcurement Background and Objectives - A System Look from a Project Perspective Increase transparency and efficiency in government procurement Transform procurement processes Facilitate economic development Lower procurement costs comprised of price reductions and administrative cost savings
  • 44. eProcurement Readiness Survey – Criteria for Success (World Bank 2006) Government leadership and planning Direct and supporting legislation Regulation Infrastructure and technology Industry and business development Procurement management Environmental influences Current eProcurement initiatives
  • 45. eProcurement Stages (World Bank 2006) Information Transaction Integration Procurement Document Online Policies download qualification Procurement Online Contract law clarification management Procurement Electronic bid Supply chain regulations submission management Procurement Online bid Systems policies opening integration Online request for quotation Electronic catalogs Reverse auctions
  • 46. ChileCompra
  • 47. CIO Councils Established CIOs and IT management processes in government including oversight by Office of Management and Budget and establishment of CIO Council. Motivations – implementations of ineffective information systems, inadequate planning and assessment of new information systems, outdated approaches to procuring information technology, insufficient attention to enhancing business processes in advance of investing in information technology.
  • 48. U.S. CIO Council
  • 49. Broadening to include the Private Sector - Public Private Partnerships and the Division of Risk 100% 0% Government Private Risk Risk 0% 100% Complete Public PPPs Concessions Privatisation Government Procurement Source: OECD (2008) Public-Private Partnerships: in Pursue of Risk Sharing and Value for Money
  • 50. OECD Public Private Partnership Best Practices Affordability Value for money Fiscal rules and expenditure limits Risk sharing Competition and transparency Regulatory Institutional capacity Public sector benchmarking Political support
  • 51. Governance Challenges –Guidebook for Promoting Good Governance in Public – Private Partnerships - U.N. Economic Commission for Europe The interests of stakeholders are not always taken into account in developing PPPs. Some governments undertake PPPs without an overall PPP policy. PPPs are complicated and require new skills. Legal processes in many countries are insufficient. Parties are unable to agree on an allocation of risk. There are sometimes management gaps in ability to develop select partners in a neutral and transparent manner. Citizens are often insufficiently consulted in the PPP process. PPPs should contribute to sustainable development and protection of the environment.
  • 52. Government, Private Sector, NGO and University Roles Government Developing eGovernment success oriented regulation and legislation Developing career paths Striving for competitive salaries and benefits Elevating and codifying the role of CIO Supporting IT and CIO education Private Sector Providing and promoting training and education Developing co-op programs Developing certifications Fostering Public – Private partnerships
  • 53. Government, Private Sector, NGO and University Roles NGOs Fostering a government leader, policy maker and CIO dialog Convening roundtables Facilitating exchange of best practices Institutionalizing initiatives. Universities Offering CIO and eGovernment degree programs Conducting research and fostering exchange of best practices Developing partnerships with government and industry With support of all sectors, CIOs and eGovernment begin to attain their promise.
  • 54. CIO Education CIO universities and related education are a key component of government and private sector CIO and IT human resources development. In early National ICT Readiness stage countries – CIO and human capacity building provide a foundation for government IT and a catalyst for the IT private sector. In later National ICT Readiness stage countries, CIO education combines best CIO practices and current theory together with context to provide a solid background for CIO leadership. Life-time learning and CIO networking increase the educational possibilities and assist in developing and maintaining a strong cadre of IT leaders.
  • 55. CIO Education U.S. Federal CIO University – established in 1997, first graduating class in 2000. Seven partner universities Mix of public sector and private sector students Tailored curriculum covering the Federal CIO Council Core Competencies UN University Waseda University Thamassat University, Thailand Bandung University, Indonesia De LaSalle University, Philippines
  • 56. International Collaboration for Developing eLeadership in Government
  • 57. International Academy of CIO International Academy of CIO (IAC) Promoting development and exchange of CIO and CIO Council best practices National chapters in Japan, Thailand, Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia, U.S. , India and Switzerland; planned chapters in Vietnam, Russia, China and Korea; and discussions and partnering with additional countries in Asia, Central and South America, Europe and Africa. Partnerships with U.N. University and World Bank.
  • 58. International Academy of CIO New Initiatives – Global Accreditation Center The IAC Global Accreditation Center (GAC) aims to promote and enhance the development and quality of CIO and Executive IT Leadership programs in developing countries. Through a network of partnerships with universities, private sector corporations, governments and NGOs, the IAC GAC develops metrics for quality, curricula and best practices for the CIO and Executive IT Leadership education field. The IAC GAC supports CIO and Executive IT Leadership programs and their ongoing continuous improvement efforts by facilitating a voluntary peer review program evaluation process based upon these metrics. The IAC GAC further supports CIO and Executive IT Leadership programs by connecting program administrators and educators to colleagues around the world who have similar goals of providing quality CIO education consistent with meeting current and future eGovernment challenges. (IAC)
  • 59. International Academy of CIO New Initiatives – Global Resource Center To supplement the GAC efforts for regions and countries that are beginning to develop CIO and Executive IT Leadership programs in advance of accreditation, the IAC is developing the Global Resource Center (GRC) as part of the IAC GAC. The IAC GRC will address considerations of enabling policies, regulations and structures for CIO and Executive IT Leadership; and will champion the adoption of enabling policy, regulatory, organizational and technology frameworks for cross agency and cross ministry coordination. The IAC GRC is going to make available conceptual models for developing CIO and Executive IT Leadership programs; standard curricula for CIO education in the public sector targeted at developing countries at different stages of eGovernment and ICT development; guidelines for tailoring standard curricula to local needs and circumstances; and educational modules to implement concrete curricula. The materials of the IAC GAC will be vetted and subject to standards on format and quality.
  • 60. Open City Portal