ICEGOV2009 - Tutorial 2 - part 2 - Architecting the Connected Government: Practices and Innovations in Singapore
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ICEGOV2009 - Tutorial 2 - part 2 - Architecting the Connected Government: Practices and Innovations in Singapore ICEGOV2009 - Tutorial 2 - part 2 - Architecting the Connected Government: Practices and Innovations in Singapore Presentation Transcript

  • MODULE 2/2 Architecting the Connected Government:  Practices and Innovations in Singapore United Nations International Conference on Theory and Practice of E‐Government ICEGOV 2009 November 10 – 13, 2009 Bogota, Colombia Dr. Pallab Saha National University of Singapore Institute of Systems Science © 2009  NUS Institute of Systems Science. The contents contained in this document may not be reproduced in any form or by any means, without the written permission of ISS, other than for the purpose for which it has been supplied.
  • Agenda Linking E‐Government and EA • Evolution of Singapore’s E‐Government  Programme • Singapore Government EA (SGEA) • Early Architecture • Reference Models • Methodology • Differentiated EA Design • Government Transformation with SGEA • Further Activities Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • EA Maturity Stage Model Source: Enterprise Architecture As Strategy; Ross, Weill, Robertson; 2006   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Benefits of EA Source: MIT CISR Research Briefing, Ross, 2005 Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • E‐Government and  E‐Government Stage Models • Refers to the use by government agencies of information and  communication technologies that have the ability to transform relations  with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.  • Several available models (like the Gartner, Deloitte & Touché, Accenture).  • The key stages of E‐Government Maturity include: – Web Presence • Simple, static information through websites. One‐way communication. – Interaction • Simple interaction which is very agency centric. – Transaction • Conduct of complete online transactions. Needs some of cross‐agency  communication – Transformation • Connected government (both vertical and horizontal). Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • EA is Essential for E‐Government Enterprise Architecture  E‐Government  Maturity Stage Explanation / Notes Stage Application  Standardized  Optimized  Business  Data and  Silos Technology Modularity Applications Agencies / departments still operate in  1. Web presence their silos and almost don’t need any  architecture. Simple two‐way communication needs very  2. Interaction basic and few common technology  standards, but still largely within their silos. Complete online transactions needs  moderate level of cross‐agency  3. Transaction collaboration and sharing at the technology  level. Government appears and operates as ONE,  4. Transformation  high degree of integration needs common  (Connected) and shared business functions and  outcomes. Source: Advances in Government Enterprise Architecture; Saha; 2008   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Agenda • Linking E‐Government and EA Evolution of Singapore’s E‐Government  Programme • Singapore Government EA (SGEA) • Early Architecture • Reference Models • Methodology • Differentiated EA Design • Government Transformation with SGEA • Further Activities Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Singapore’s Infocomm Plans Source: Singapore E‐Gov Journey; eGL @ NUS; 2008   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Evolution of Singapore’s  E‐Government Programme E‐Government Plan Key Points / Evolution Stage (Generations) 1. Civil Service  1. Build the IT infrastructure foundation 2. Automation of simple activities (paperwork elimination) Computerization Plan  3. Encourage the use of Internet (1980 – 1999) 4. Maps to Web Presence and Interaction stages in the E‐Government stage model 1. Consolidation of computing resources 2. E‐Government Action  2. Establishment shared data center and civil services network Plan I (1999 – 2003) 3. Maps to Interaction stage in the E‐Government stage model  1. Delivery of accessible, integrated and value added public services 3. E‐Government Action  2. Adoption of common infrastructure, information management and technical standards Plan II (2003 – 2006) 3. Foster cross‐agency collaboration 4. Maps to Transaction stage in the E‐Government stage model 1. Integration of government and public services 4. Integrated Government  2. Enhancement of e‐engagement, capacity and synergy 2010 (2006 – 2010) 3. Maps to Transformation stage in the E‐Government stage model Source: Advances in Government Enterprise Architecture; Saha; 2008   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Agenda • Linking E‐Government and EA • Evolution of Singapore’s E‐Government  Programme Singapore Government EA (SGEA) Early Architecture Reference Models Methodology Differentiated EA Design • Government Transformation with SGEA • Further Activities Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • SGEA – Early Architecture • As part of its E‐Government Action Plan I (E‐ GAP I), there was a need for a well‐designed,  reliable and scalable infrastructure • Triggers for early architecture included: – Inter‐operability – Economies of scale – Cross‐agency collaboration at a technical level • This led to the development of Singapore’s  technology standard blueprint called the  “Service‐Wide Technical Architecture (SWTA)”  in 1999. SWTA Quick Facts Collection of nine technical domains Consists of standards, guidelines, best practices  and recommended implementations Meant for agencies to adapt / adopt Mandated as part of IT Governance policy Updated every six months Well established Source: Handbook of Enterprise Systems Architecture in Practice; Saha; 2007   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • SGEA – The Next Generation Programme is formally called  Enterprise‐Wide Architecture for  Value Enhancement (eWAVE) Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a  New Development blueprint which links  Business functions;  Relevant data standards; Common systems and     services;  and  Technologies  Cross‐agency in order to achieve  enterprise level or whole‐of‐ SWTA government (integrated) goals Source: Handbook of Enterprise Systems Architecture in Practice; Saha; 2007   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • eWAVE – Reference Models • Development of reference models which agencies can refer  to, in order to find out which agencies they can collaborate  with and what shareable data and components are available  for use – Business Reference Model – Data Reference Model – Solution Reference Model – Technical Reference Model (earlier called SWTA) • Identify key potential areas for collaboration • Develop methodology to help agencies develop their own EA Source: Handbook of Enterprise Systems Architecture in Practice; Saha; 2007   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • eWAVE – Business Reference Model (1/2) • Provides an organised view of the business of  Government using common terminologies 2 Business Areas.  Represent the highest level  Business Areas description of the business operations of the  INCREASING GRANULARITY AND DETAIL Government 33 Lines of Business.  These Lines of Business  describe more specifically the services and  Lines of Business products the Government provides to its  stakeholders  Business  137 Business Functions. Describes specific  Functions activities that Agencies perform within each Line  of Business Source: Singapore Government Enterprise Architecture; IDA; 2006   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • eWAVE – Business Reference Model (2/2) (The Business of Government) Source: Handbook of Enterprise Systems Architecture in Practice; Saha; 2007   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • eWAVE – Data Reference Model • Specifies definitions for data elements that are  commonly used across agencies, to enable more  effective data exchange • DRM comprises: – Key data entities (Person, Company, Business, Limited  Liability Partnership, and Land) and numerous data  elements based on the People, Business, and Land Hub – Several sets of codifications Source: Handbook of Enterprise Systems Architecture in Practice; Saha; 2007   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • eWAVE – Solution Reference Model (1/2) • Contains a portfolio of systems and service components that can be  shared / reused across the Government Shared Systems Government‐Wide Shared Systems Corporate Planning  Information Management  Project & Logistics  Public  Finance HR & Development and Consulting Management Communications BLISS MCPS PM2S eventshub@sg GeBIZ SGMS SAS@Gov NFS@Gov PRAISE eventshub@sg PM2S PaC@Gov TRAISI VOG Source: Singapore Government Enterprise Architecture; IDA; 2006   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • eWAVE – Solution Reference Model (2/2) No Attribute Description 1 Business Context <Refers to business function in Business Reference Model> 2 Name Government Electronic Business (GeBIZ) GeBIZ is an integrated end‐to‐end System, which allows public sector  officers to perform a range of procurement and revenue tender  3 Description activities.  It also provides government suppliers access to  procurement opportunities in the public sector and the option to  trade electronically with the government 4 Owner Ministry of Finance (MOF) 5 Platform Web‐based, BEA WebLogic 6 Database Oracle 7 Status PRODUCTION  Source: Singapore Government Enterprise Architecture; IDA; 2006   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • eWAVE – Technical Reference Model  Source: Handbook of Enterprise Systems Architecture in Practice; Saha; 2007   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • eWAVE – MAGENTA (1/5) Methodology for Agency Enterprise Architecture (MAGENTA) • Purpose: – Build consensus and common foundation among agencies – Fill knowledge gaps – Encourage participation and establish commitment – Raise levels of effectiveness, quality, efficiency,  interoperability, and return on investment for EA  capabilities – Use of real life case study for validation Source: Advances in Government Enterprise Architecture; Saha; 2008   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • eWAVE – MAGENTA (2/5) Progress  in Time Stakeholder  Groups Source: Advances in Government Enterprise Architecture; Saha; 2008   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • eWAVE – MAGENTA (3/5) • Methodology – Step‐by‐step instruction oriented – Structure • BRIEF DESCRIPTION: An executive summary type description of the phase.  • PURPOSE: A bulleted list of four to five key points that would capture the intended outcomes and  overall expected results of the phase.  • INPUTS: These identify the critical information that should be available or collected prior to initiating  the phase execution. In many cases, inputs to a given phase can correspond to the outputs from the  preceding phase(s).  • SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES: A flow‐chart (or equivalent) representation of the sequence of activities  that occur in the phase.  • DETAILED ACIVITIES: Textual description of the activities (and tasks) belonging to the phase. The  description will also identify the specific inputs required in performing the activity. • OUTPUTS / OUTCOMES: These identify the resulting architectural information produced by the  activities in the phase. The outputs can include formal architecture artifacts or business outcomes. • GOVERNANCE: This identifies the key stakeholders in the phase and the level of their involvement  (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed) in performing the activities. • SUMMARY CONTENT AREA OF FOCUS: The primary content areas that the phase focuses on. • KEY PRACTICE CONSIDERATIONS: This lists the key factors / points / issues to be kept in mind when  executing the phase.  • TEMPLATES / REFERENCES / GUIDELINES: This is a generic illustration of the architecture output.  Every architecture output produced in the phase will have a template. • SAMPLES: This is an example of the application of the template / reference / guideline.  • CASE STUDY: Demonstrates the use of the methodology with the development of EA for a Singapore  Government Agency  Source: Advances in Government Enterprise Architecture; Saha; 2008   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Conceptual Application Components Processes, Business Operating Activities, Policies, Model Tasks Rules 23
  • Business Architecture Concept Map Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Operationalizing EA with MAGENTA (4/5) Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • MAGENTA Scope and Nature (5/5) • MAGENTA is intended for application at different agencies in the following  clusters: • Government administration • Manufacturing and services • Education and learning • Healthcare and social services Transform Lead • Justice and law enforcement Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Design Models Across Organization Layers Enterprise Line of  Business Segment Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Typical Business Concerns • Redundant and duplicative services and  • Lack of capability to manage system  investments complexity and change • Lack of prioritization mechanisms • Fragmented business processes and  • Technology Diversity systems capabilities • Weak business‐IT alignment  • Lack of methodology to identify  approaches business opportunities by leveraging  • Absence of inter‐agency collaboration  technology innovation (WOG, cluster, ministry) • Limitations in quality aspects of  • Proliferation of numerous strategic &  mission‐critical applications operational management practices  • Absence of strong integration capability with no clear linkages • Weak vendor assessment and  • Weak IT governance capability management capability • Weak technology acquisition discipline • Inability to manage ‘networked virtual  • Spiraling IT costs  organizations’ Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Typical EA Application Scenarios • Technology Standardization • Business Process Harmonisation • Business Transformation / Modernization • Application Harmonization / Modernization • Data Standardization • Data Center Consolidation / Infrastructure Management • Service Consolidation / Shared Services • Investment / Portfolio Management • Application Landscape Planning / IT Planning • SOA Initiation • Virtualization Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Some Facts About MAGENTA 1. Released in January 2007, it is the  world’s first national EA  methodology. 2. MAGENTA will be incorporated  into an industry leading EA tool. 3. It is being adapted and adopted in  the private sector too. 4. It has been referred to for the  development of the Integrated  Methodology for Business  Transformation (iMBT) for  MINDEF. 5. Ideas from MAGENTA are  influencing GEA programmes in  several countries. Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Agenda • Linking E‐Government and EA • Evolution of Singapore’s E‐Government  Programme • Singapore Government EA (SGEA) • Early Architecture • Reference Models • Methodology • Differentiated EA Design Government Transformation with SGEA • Further Activities Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Connected Government • The concept of connected government is derived from  whole‐of‐government approach which utilizes  technology as a strategic tool and as an enabler for  public service innovation and productivity growth Moving to Connected Governance Source: UN E‐Government Survey 2008; United Nations; 2008   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Broad and Deep in Scope Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Towards Connected Government with  eWAVE Source: Advances in Government Enterprise Architecture; Saha; 2008   Transform Line of Lead Inspire Sight © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Structuring the Business Architecture Captured in the BRMs  and does not change very often Collection of Business  Functions for key products  and services makes the  Value chain Roles, Departments, Resources performing a single value chain are collectively called Collaborative Practice Unit (CPU) Focus of architectural  analysis (development of  as‐is and to‐be views) Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Healthcare Stakeholders and Relationships Hospitals, Clinics, GPs, Physicians, Surgeons, Nurses, Medical Practices, Medical Assistants, Physio and Laboratories, Primary Occupational Therapists, Laboratory Health Centers Technicians, Medical Equipment Technicians, Radiographers Government, Quasi- Government and Professional Bodies Healthplans, Insurance Companies, Universities, NGOs / Charities Research Centers Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Generic Care Delivery Value Chain (CDVC) Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • CDVC for Chronic Kidney Disease Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Common Business Activities • Common activities / processes that can be extracted out and  shared across business entities – Sharing within organization LOBs / functions – Sharing between organizations within the cluster – Sharing with external partners • Can be identified from the value chains • Facilitate identification of collaborative opportunities • Allows taking benefit of economies of scale and supports SOA  adoption (if desired) • Can facilitate the move to shared services    Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Using BRM to Identify  Collaboration Opportunities Organization Function Business  Function A group of organization functions collaborating in the context of a  common business process is called the Collaborative Practice Unit (CPU). Every CPU must have non‐ambiguous governance mechanism.  Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Using DRM to Build Agency IA • To align agency data standards with the  Data Reference Model • To identify source data for data reuse  (instead of collecting it again)  • As a reference for agencies to develop  their own Information Architecture Source: Singapore Government Enterprise Architecture; IDA; 2006   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Using SRM to Build Agency AA Agency wants to  develop a system SRM Looks in SRM to see if there  are shared systems or service  components it can use Does not find suitable  Finds a suitable  shared system /  system / service  service component ‐ component and  proceeds to build /  proceeds to use them collaborate Source: Singapore Government Enterprise Architecture; IDA; 2006   Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Disintermediation of Government Agencies Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
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  • Government‐Wide Agency EA Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • MAGENTA Provides Line of Sight (Government‐Wide Agency EA) Vertical Line‐of‐Sight Transform Lead Lateral Line‐of‐Sight Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • National Initiative 1  NEHRA Programme (Illustrative) (1/2) Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • National Initiative 1  NEHRA Programme (Illustrative) (2/2) Healthcare Virtual Organization Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • National Initiative 2  Shared Services (Strategic Outsourcing) • Establishment of a separate  organization to offer common  business services (non‐core for  clients) – Previously known as the Centre for  Shared Services (CSS), VITAL.org is  the public sector’s efforts to  aggregate common corporate  services to drive economies of  scale  – A department under the Ministry  of Finance, VITAL.org serves an  impressive list of Ministries,  Departments, as well as Statutory  Boards in Singapore Transform Source: www.VITAL.org; 2008   Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Mapping the Progress of  EA vis‐à‐vis E‐Gov Transform Source: Advances in Government Enterprise Architecture; Saha; 2008   Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Architectural Challenges for  Connected Government • Multiplicity of links and interactions • Identify management and mapping • Data distribution and ownership • Level of infrastructure centralization • Integration with back‐end services • Flexibility and agility • Scalability, Performance and Availability Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
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  • Agenda • Linking E‐Government and EA • Evolution of Singapore’s E‐Government  Programme • Singapore Government EA (SGEA) • Early Architecture • Reference Models • Methodology • Differentiated EA Design • Government Transformation with SGEA Further Activities Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
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  • EA Initiatives for Architecture Transitioning • An EA initiative (architecture initiative) delivers a subset of the target EA and is capable of returning value to the customer when constructed,  implemented and deployed as an independent entity. • Examples of initiatives include: – Business process reengineering – Technology consolidation / decommissioning  – Database migration – New systems development – Current application reengineering Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • A Cash & Investment Flow  Pattern of a Typical EA Initiative • Cash flow projections form the core of all business cases • Represents a sequence of calculations of a specific financial position over time • Generally calculated at monthly, quarterly or yearly intervals • For each calculation point, all costs and benefits have to be factored in as they occur • By summing costs and benefits, a cash flow analysis allows determination of whether the project is  cash‐positive or cash‐negative over its lifecycle Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
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  • NPV Rank Chronology / Stream NPV (‘000) % Optimal NPV Loss (‘000) 1 CABD 1,804 100% 0 2 CAB 1,787 99% 17 3 CAD 1,761 98% 43 4 CADB 1,758 98% 47 5 CA 1,744 97% 60 6 ACBD 1,734 96% 70 7 ACB 1,717 95% 87 8 ACD 1,691 94% 113 9 ACDB 1,687 94% 117 10 AC 1,674 93% 131 11 CDA 1,616 90% 189 12 CDAB 1,612 89% 192 13 ABCD 1,591 88% 214 14 ABC 1,574 87% 231 15 AB 1,000 55% 804 16 CD 998 55% 806 17 C 981 54% 823 18 A 910 50% 894 Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • • Using the costs and revenues, cash positions for the optimal sequence  and its discounted cash flow is shown Periods (Months) Chronology AI 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 NET D+EB D ‐ 20 ‐ 20 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 40 40 40 40 40 40 392 + E ‐ 50 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 405 B ‐ 20 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 45 + C+A C ‐ 20 ‐ 20 10 13 16 19 22 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 265 + A ‐ 50 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 80 CASH FLOW  ‐ 40 ‐ 40 ‐ 80 52 89 96 102 108 111 114 115 114 113 112 111 110 1,187 (‘000) INVESTMENT ‐ 40 ‐ 40 ‐ 80 ‐ 160 (‘000) ROI (%) 742 SELF FUNDING STATUS X PV (‘000) ‐ 40 ‐ 39 ‐ 78 50 86 92 96 101 103 105 105 104 102 100 99 97 1,083 CUMULATIVE  ‐ 40 ‐ 79 ‐157 ‐107 ‐ 21 70 167 268 371 477 582 686 788 888 986 1083 NPV BREAKEVEN X 6.23 Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Credits and Acknowledgments • Primary Content Sources – Handbook of Enterprise Systems Architecture in Practice; Pallab  Saha; 2007.  – Advances in Government Enterprise Architecture; Pallab Saha; 2008. – Coherency Management–Architecting the Enterprise for Alignment,  Agility and Assurance; Gary Doucet, John Gotze, Pallab Saha, Scott  Bernard; 2009. • Acknowledgments – Ministry of Finance Singapore (MOF) – Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA) – Intellectual Property Office of Singapore (IPOS) – VITAL.org (Center for Shared Services) Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.
  • Thank You pallab@nus.edu.sg (2007) (2008) (2009) Transform Lead Inspire © Copyright 2009  E‐Government Leadership Centre @ NUS.  All rights reserved.