Inclusion and Successful Placement 
of Students with Hidden Disabilities 
in Tertiary Settings
ROB & VERONICA CRAWFORD
Lif...
Copyright: Crawford 2013
Dealing with the “D” Word
Copyright: Crawford 2007
Many Global Young Adults
Without Disabilities 
Struggle to Find 
the Right Path
College & University Students with 
Hidden Disabilities
Crawford 2010
Crawford 2010
US Students Study Abroad
• 273,996 US students 
• 4.1% Disability status known
• 70% “Hidden”
• Only 16% of US College/Uni...
Top 10 US Institutions Reporting 
Study Abroad Students with 
Disabilities
• Stanford
• Calvin college
• University of Wis...
Learning
Difficulty 
or
Learning 
Disability 
What is the Difference??
Brain Dysfunction?
• Input: Receiving information and
recording it into the brain.
• Integration: Once recorded needs to
b...
Specific Learning Disabilities
Input
• Visual perception
– MISPERCEIVING a “d” and a “b” or a “6 and 9”
– Judging distance or depth.
• Auditory perceptio...
Integration
 Three steps are needed to understand what is 
recorded in the brain.
1. Sequencing
• May start at the wrong ...
Memory
• Usually have excellent long term memories
• Can learn but needs repetition
• Poor working memory
• Lack ability t...
Output
 Called a language‐based disability when impacting 
oral communication.
– May speak with ease when initiating
– Ca...
Executive Functioning
• Time management
• Organizational skills
• Prioritizing
• Non‐verbal cues
ADHD
Crawford 2010
ADHD
 THREE TYPES OF BEHAVIORS
1. HYPERACTIVE
• CHILDREN RUN AROUND A ROOM, FIDGET, SQUIRM
• ADOLESCENCE & ADULTS MAY SHO...
The Overactive Or Inattentive Client
• Puts things off until last minute
• Is always on the go
• Has multiple ideas or pro...
Asperger’s &
High Functioning Autism
Asperger’s & Social Skills Issues
• POOR SOCIAL SKILLS
• DOES NOT LOOK YOU IN THE EYES
• DOES NOT GET SARCASM
• IS SARCAST...
Things They May Say To You
• I’M NOT GOOD AT ANYTHING
• I’M SO STUPID
• I REALLY HATE MYSELF
• I CAN’T DO IT
• WHY BOTHER ...
“Attitude” You May Get
• VERY QUIET
• VERY UNWILLING TO RECEIVE HELP
• VERY UNREALISTIC
• VERY RESISTANT TO CHANGE
• NOT W...
The Agent 
and 
Compassionate
Coaching
First Meeting 
• Work History
• Diagnosis – Medications
• Immediate Family Background
• Educational Background
• Hobbies, ...
Help The Client
• Break down the old information
– Negative feedback
– Unrealistic expectations (theirs and others)
– Feel...
This Will Help You Obtain Information 
And Build Trust
• Rebuild the old into new
– Show empathy, respect, and compassion
...
Helping Them Transition to Appropriate 
Program with Confidence
• Set new methods into action
– Build opportunities for su...
Practices That Work
US Placement Advantages
• Colleges/Universities can’t discriminate based on 
disability
• Inclusive & accessible courses, ...
Leadership for Life Development
Learning Community
1. Articulated curriculum between LDI & PVCC
2. Four linked classes
3. ...
Outcomes Snapshot
Academy of Lifelong Learning
High School 
• NCA accredited
• Soft skills
• Stackable diversity & employment 
certificates
...
Emerging Leaders Summer Academy
• Private/public funding
• Collaborative partnerships
• Cultural & personal leadership com...
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Disabled
Non-
Disabled
Sources: Current Population Survey, 2005; National Center for Education St...
Things You Can Try To Help Your Client 
Who Struggles
• Teach understanding of realistic expectations
• Teach concepts of ...
Let’s Find The Next Piece Of The 
Life Puzzle Together...
rcrawford@discoverldi.com
vcrawford@discoverldi.com
www.discover...
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education
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Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education

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Education agents know most countries have some level of special education needs provision at the primary and secondary levels for students deemed to have disabilities, differences or disadvantages, as well as anti-discrimination laws in place to ensure ongoing social inclusion. Most agents likely do not know that there is a large, untapped and underserved population of bright, gifted college-capable students with non-apparent or hidden conditions such as dyslexia, ADHD, Autism Spectrum Disorders and other similar mental health conditions.

This is a presentation by Rob and Veronica Crawford, co-founders of the Life Development Institute (LDI), which provides sector/trend analysis, examples of successful models, and strategies for agents, educational institutions or service providers interested in sourcing, recruiting, and placing students with hidden disabilities in the US, or building similar linkages within their countries.

In addition, please see Mr Crawford's guest post on icefmonitor.com (http://bit.ly/1nOI6Zu) which discusses the challenges we face in helping students with disabilities to succeed, and provides background data, resources and strategies for working with this often overlooked market.

For more industry news, market intelligence, research and commentary for international student recruitment please visit http://www.icefmonitor.com, subscribe for free daily or weekly updates, and follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/icefmonitor.

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Inclusion and Successful Placement of Students with Hidden Disabilities in Tertiary Education

  1. 1. Inclusion and Successful Placement  of Students with Hidden Disabilities  in Tertiary Settings ROB & VERONICA CRAWFORD Life Development Institute Glendale, Arizona, USA November 3, 2013
  2. 2. Copyright: Crawford 2013 Dealing with the “D” Word
  3. 3. Copyright: Crawford 2007 Many Global Young Adults Without Disabilities  Struggle to Find  the Right Path
  4. 4. College & University Students with  Hidden Disabilities
  5. 5. Crawford 2010
  6. 6. Crawford 2010
  7. 7. US Students Study Abroad • 273,996 US students  • 4.1% Disability status known • 70% “Hidden” • Only 16% of US College/University reporting
  8. 8. Top 10 US Institutions Reporting  Study Abroad Students with  Disabilities • Stanford • Calvin college • University of Wisconsin‐ Milwaukee • California Polytechnic  State University‐San Luis  Obispo • University of Denver • American University • Arizona State University • New York University • San Diego State  University • University of Kansas
  9. 9. Learning Difficulty  or Learning  Disability  What is the Difference??
  10. 10. Brain Dysfunction? • Input: Receiving information and recording it into the brain. • Integration: Once recorded needs to be understood. • Memory: Store and retrieve. • Output: Information communicated from the brain.
  11. 11. Specific Learning Disabilities
  12. 12. Input • Visual perception – MISPERCEIVING a “d” and a “b” or a “6 and 9” – Judging distance or depth. • Auditory perception – Distinguishing subtle sounds such as: hair and air or ball and bell – Confuse what sounds to listen to when there is more than one source – May have trouble processing sounds quickly – May have trouble processing words and sentence meanings
  13. 13. Integration  Three steps are needed to understand what is  recorded in the brain. 1. Sequencing • May start at the wrong place 2. Abstraction • Understanding the correct meaning 3. Organization • Pulling together information • Separating information
  14. 14. Memory • Usually have excellent long term memories • Can learn but needs repetition • Poor working memory • Lack ability to concentrate on information and store it – Spelling list – Math concept – Can be visual or auditory or both
  15. 15. Output  Called a language‐based disability when impacting  oral communication. – May speak with ease when initiating – Can not articulate on specifics when asked &  struggles for words/ramble/says wrong word  Called a motor coordination disorder when  impacting use of muscles. – Gross motor‐‐clumsy – Fine motor‐ writing/typing
  16. 16. Executive Functioning • Time management • Organizational skills • Prioritizing • Non‐verbal cues
  17. 17. ADHD Crawford 2010
  18. 18. ADHD  THREE TYPES OF BEHAVIORS 1. HYPERACTIVE • CHILDREN RUN AROUND A ROOM, FIDGET, SQUIRM • ADOLESCENCE & ADULTS MAY SHOW FIDGETING IN  FINGER TAPPING, FOOT PUMPING OR OTHER • MAY TAKE ON MULTIPLE PROJECTS & BECOME  DISORGANIZED 2. INATTENTIVE • EASILY DISTRACTED, AUDITORY‐ VISUAL OR BOTH,  SHORT ATTENTION SPAN  • ADOLESCENCE AND ADULTS MAY HAVE INTERNAL  DISTRACTIONS. 3. COMBINED TYPE‐CAN BE BOTH HYPERACTIVE AND  INATTENTIVE
  19. 19. The Overactive Or Inattentive Client • Puts things off until last minute • Is always on the go • Has multiple ideas or projects going • Thinks they are invincible  • Is easily distracted • Does not seem to pay attention • Lacks organization • Tends to talk incessantly 
  20. 20. Asperger’s & High Functioning Autism
  21. 21. Asperger’s & Social Skills Issues • POOR SOCIAL SKILLS • DOES NOT LOOK YOU IN THE EYES • DOES NOT GET SARCASM • IS SARCASTIC AT INAPPROPRIATE TIMES • FIXATTED ON ONE OR TWO SUBJECTS • HAS ONE OR TWO FRIENDS, IF ANY • DELAYED MATURATIONALLY
  22. 22. Things They May Say To You • I’M NOT GOOD AT ANYTHING • I’M SO STUPID • I REALLY HATE MYSELF • I CAN’T DO IT • WHY BOTHER TRYING. I WON’T DO IT RIGHT ANYWAY • YOU JUST DON’T UNDERSTAND • SO WHAT IF I FAIL • NO ONE LIKES ME • I WISH I WERE MORE LIKE... • I’M SLOW • I’M DIFFERENT
  23. 23. “Attitude” You May Get • VERY QUIET • VERY UNWILLING TO RECEIVE HELP • VERY UNREALISTIC • VERY RESISTANT TO CHANGE • NOT WANTING TO LEARN ANYTHING NEW • ACTING LIKE THEY ALREADY HAVE IT ALL  UNDER CONTROL • PRETENDING NOTHING IS WRONG
  24. 24. The Agent  and  Compassionate Coaching
  25. 25. First Meeting  • Work History • Diagnosis – Medications • Immediate Family Background • Educational Background • Hobbies, interests, leisure time • Organizations, clubs past and present • Presenting concerns • Services requested • Information they know about their disability or issue • What they know about their strengths • What they think others think of them • Impressions of their work and educational experiences • Any goals and dreams they have • Plans they have set if any to achieve goals • Concerns or barriers they have related to career, educational or personal – Lieb, 1997
  26. 26. Help The Client • Break down the old information – Negative feedback – Unrealistic expectations (theirs and others) – Feelings of inadequacy – Aspects of negative behavioral training – Fear of trusting
  27. 27. This Will Help You Obtain Information  And Build Trust • Rebuild the old into new – Show empathy, respect, and compassion – Be open, honest, concrete, and responsive – Help them to believe in their abilities – Show them the simple how to’s – Locate strengths and relate interests – Develop specific steps in finding and guiding  toward the use of new information you find
  28. 28. Helping Them Transition to Appropriate  Program with Confidence • Set new methods into action – Build opportunities for success – Provide support and encouragement – Breakdown into small parts any difficulties – Help them process the next steps they will be  taking to reduce fears – Let them fly away with tools and your sincere  belief in them
  29. 29. Practices That Work
  30. 30. US Placement Advantages • Colleges/Universities can’t discriminate based on  disability • Inclusive & accessible courses, campus and services • Must provide disability‐related accommodations and  ensure equal access • Accommodations and services provided to ALL students  with documentation • Services & supports determined on individual basis 
  31. 31. Leadership for Life Development Learning Community 1. Articulated curriculum between LDI & PVCC 2. Four linked classes 3. Group of students taking the same classes 4. Team focus ‐ teachers, advisors, tutors,  other support services
  32. 32. Outcomes Snapshot
  33. 33. Academy of Lifelong Learning High School  • NCA accredited • Soft skills • Stackable diversity & employment  certificates • Non‐traditional graduation requirements • No exit exam
  34. 34. Emerging Leaders Summer Academy • Private/public funding • Collaborative partnerships • Cultural & personal leadership competence • 2 college credits & national student  leadership certificate
  35. 35. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Disabled Non- Disabled Sources: Current Population Survey, 2005; National Center for Education Statistics, 2009; National Longitudinal Transition Study II, 2010 Becoming an Adult: Achievement Comparisons of 18‐25 year olds
  36. 36. Things You Can Try To Help Your Client  Who Struggles • Teach understanding of realistic expectations • Teach concepts of effective problem solving, decision making,  and dealing with conflict • Teach how to locate resources so they have some autonomy • Teach methods of self‐evaluation • Develop a relationship of trust and respect • Teach how to organize and prioritize in the areas of personal,  educational, and career skills with appropriate training • Teach about the realities of various outcomes based on their  behavior • Show how goals can be accomplished with the appropriate  knowledge.  – Lieb, 1997/2013
  37. 37. Let’s Find The Next Piece Of The  Life Puzzle Together... rcrawford@discoverldi.com vcrawford@discoverldi.com www.discoverldi.com (623)773‐2774, ext. 208 

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