Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators
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Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators

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The employment gap between young people who left high school early and those who completed post-secondary education has continued to widen during the global economic crisis. ...

The employment gap between young people who left high school early and those who completed post-secondary education has continued to widen during the global economic crisis.

New data from the 2013 edition of the OECD's annual ''Education at a Glance'' report shows conclusively that further education is the best way to offset a lack of work experience for young people, and a reliable path to improved opportunities for better earnings and employment prospects.

Read our accompanying ICEF Monitor article "New data shows value of education rises during economic crisis" here: http://bit.ly/1sC5K36.

For more industry news, market intelligence, research and commentary for international student recruitment please visit http://www.icefmonitor.com, subscribe for free daily or weekly updates, and follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/icefmonitor.

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Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators Presentation Transcript

  • EDUCATION AT A GLANCE 2013: OECD INDICATORS Key findings
  • One in three young adults today is expected to complete a university degree before they are 30 Tertiary-type A graduation rates, including and excluding international students, by age (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Iceland Poland UnitedKingdom NewZealand Denmark Australia Finland SlovakRepublic Japan Norway Ireland Netherlands Sweden EU21average CzechRepublic OECDaverage Israel Portugal UnitedStates Slovenia Canada Austria Switzerland Italy Spain Germany Hungary Chile Turkey Mexico SaudiArabia Total of which <30 years old Total of which ≧ 30 years old Total% % Chart A3.3
  • University-level education is more common among younger than older adults Percentage of 25-34 year-olds and 55-64 year-olds who have attained tertiary-type A education (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Korea Japan Canada RussianFederation Ireland UnitedKingdom Norway Luxembourg NewZealand Israel Australia UnitedStates France Sweden Belgium Chile Switzerland Netherlands Finland Iceland Poland Spain Estonia OECDaverage Denmark EU21average Slovenia Greece Hungary Germany Portugal SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Mexico Austria Italy Turkey Brazil 25-64 year-olds 25-34 year-olds% Chart A1.1
  • Upper secondary education--general or vocational--is becoming the norm Percentage of 25-64 year-olds whose highest level of attainment is upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Poland Austria Hungary Slovenia Germany Japan Estonia Sweden EU21average UnitedStates OECDaverage Luxembourg Finland Denmark Switzerland Norway Chile France Italy NewZealand Greece Korea Russian… Netherlands Iceland Canada UnitedKingdom Ireland Belgium Israel Australia Brazil Spain Mexico Turkey Portugal Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (ISCED 3/4) with no distinction by orientation Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (ISCED 3/4) with general orientation Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (ISCED 3/4) with vocational orientation % Chart A1.2
  • More people are participating in education than ever before Proportion of population with tertiary education, and difference in attainment between 25-34 and 55-64 year-olds (2011) AUS AUS BEL CAB CHL CZE DNK EST FIN FRA GER GRC HUN ISL IRL ISR ITA JPN KOR LUX MEX NLD NZL NOR POL PRT SVK SVN ESP SWE CHE TUR UKM USA BRA RUS - 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Proportion of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education OECD OECD average Percentage points Difference between the 25-34 and 55-64 year-old populations with tertiary education. High attainment; decreasing advantage Lower attainment; catching up High attainment; Increasing advantage Low attainment; Getting further behind Chart A1.3
  • More young women than young men have at least an upper secondary education Percentage of 25-64 year-olds who have attained at least upper secondary education, by gender (2011) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Korea Slovenia Poland RussianFederation SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Canada Finland Sweden Israel UnitedStates Estonia Switzerland Chile Ireland Hungary Austria Germany Australia Norway EU21average France UnitedKingdom Luxembourg Netherlands OECDaverage Denmark Greece Belgium NewZealand Iceland Italy Spain Portugal Brazil Mexico Turkey Men Women % Chart A1.4
  • Three out of four young people today will complete upper secondary education before they are 25 Estimated upper secondary graduation rates among those younger than/older than 25 (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Slovenia Finland Japan Korea UnitedKingdom Germany Netherlands Denmark Norway Portugal Ireland Spain Iceland Hungary Canada Israel SlovakRepublic EU21average Poland Chile OECDaverage Italy CzechRepublic UnitedStates Sweden China Luxembourg Greece Austria Turkey Mexico % <25 ≧25 Total % Chart A2.1
  • Graduates of vocational programmes are generally older than graduates of general programmes Average age of upper secondary graduates (2011) 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 Portugal Iceland Brazil Poland CzechRepublic Finland Hungary Ireland Denmark EU21average Norway Chile OECDaverage Argentina SlovakRepublic Belgium Luxembourg Italy Sweden Slovenia Canada Austria Mexico Indonesia Estonia France UnitedStates Turkey Netherlands Israel Australia Age General programmes Vocational programmes % Chart A2.2
  • Preparing for and entering university-level education (2011) Access to tertiary-type A education for upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary graduates under 25 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ireland Finland Israel Chile Sweden SlovakRepublic Italy Poland Australia Belgium Hungary Estonia Netherlands Norway Denmark Iceland Turkey CzechRepublic France Mexico Argentina Slovenia Austria % Graduation rates from upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary programmes designed to prepare students under 25 for tertiary-type A education Entry rates into tertiary-type A education for students under 25 Chart A2.3
  • The average graduate with a bachelor's degree is 27 years old Average age of graduates at ISCED 5A level and age distribution (2011) 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Iceland Sweden Brazil Israel Finland Denmark Chile Norway Czech… NewZealand Spain Austria Australia Portugal OECDaverage Germany EU21average Switzerland Hungary Slovak… Italy Slovenia Poland Turkey Ireland Korea Canada Greece Estonia Netherlands Mexico Indonesia United… % Tertiary-type A programmes (first degree) % Chart A3.1
  • Less than 70% of students entering tertiary education graduate Proportion of students who enter tertiary education and graduate with at least a first degree 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Japan Australia Denmark France Spain Finland Germany Turkey Belgium(Fl.) Netherlands CzechRepublic UnitedKingdom SlovakRepublic EU21average OECDaverage Portugal Mexico Austria Poland NewZealand Norway Sweden UnitedStates Hungary % Chart A4.1
  • More women than men earn a university-level degree Proportion of students who enter tertiary education and graduate with at least a first degree/qualification at this level, by gender (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Japan Australia Spain, Denmark Finland Belgium(Fl.) Turkey Netherlands CzechRepublic Germany Poland EU21average Portugal OECDaverage Mexico Austria Norway NewZealand Hungary UnitedStates Sweden Women Men% Chart A4.2
  • Employment rates are highest among people who have a tertiary education Employment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Norway Sweden Slovenia Iceland Germany Netherlands Austria Switzerland Denmark RussianFederation Luxembourg NewZealand Australia Belgium Brazil Israel Finland Poland Japan EU21average OECDaverage UnitedKingdom Ireland Portugal CzechRepublic France Canada SlovakRepublic Estonia UnitedStates Spain Mexico Hungary Italy Chile Korea Turkey Greece % Lower secondary education Tertiary-type A and advanced research programmes Chart A5.1
  • Adults with no upper secondary education suffer even more in weak labour markets Unemployment rates for 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education (2005, 2008 and 2011) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Korea Mexico Chile Brazil Norway Netherlands Australia Luxembourg NewZealand Austria Israel Iceland Switzerland Turkey Denmark Italy Sweden UnitedKingdom Finland Canada Belgium OECDaverage Slovenia France Portugal Germany RussianFederation EU21average UnitedStates Poland Greece CzechRepublic Ireland Hungary Estonia Spain SlovakRepublic % 2011 2008 2005 Chart A5.2-1
  • Adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education have some insurance against weak labour markets Unemployment rates for 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2005, 2008 and 2011) 0 5 10 15 20 Norway Austria Switzerland Korea Luxembourg Australia Netherlands NewZealand Mexico Chile Sweden Japan Iceland Belgium CzechRepublic Israel Germany UnitedKingdom Italy Denmark Brazil Canada Finland OECDaverage Russian… France Slovenia EU21average Poland Turkey Hungary UnitedStates Portugal SlovakRepublic Estonia Ireland Greece Spain % 2011 2008 2005 Chart A5.2-2
  • A tertiary education is an advantage, even during an economic downturn Unemployment rates for 25-64 year-olds tertiary educated people (2005, 2008 and 2011) 0 5 10 15 Norway Austria Germany Switzerland Czech… Netherlands Australia Brazil Korea Japan Belgium Luxembourg NewZealand Russian… Sweden Israel United… Hungary Finland Iceland Poland Slovenia OECD… Mexico France UnitedStates Canada Denmark Italy EU21… Slovak… Chile Ireland Turkey Estonia Portugal Spain Greece % 2011 2008 2005 Chart A5.2-3
  • Unemployment rates increased in most countries, particularly among those with no upper secondary education Difference in unemployment rates between 2008 and 2011, by educational attainment - 5 0 5 10 15 20 Germany Israel Turkey Chile Brazil Korea Australia Austria Norway Belgium Luxembourg Mexico Switzerland Italy Netherlands Canada NewZealand SlovakRepublic France Finland UnitedKingdom Sweden OECDaverage CzechRepublic Iceland EU21average Denmark Poland Portugal Hungary UnitedStates Slovenia Greece Spain Ireland Estonia % Below upper secondary Upper secondary Tertiary Chart A5.2-4
  • A vocationally oriented upper secondary education offers better insurance against unemployment than a general upper secondary education Unemployment rates among 25-64 year-olds with vocational or general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2011) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Norway Switzerland Austria Netherlands Australia Sweden Iceland NewZealand Belgium Germany Israel Italy Denmark Canada Finland OECDaverage France Hungary Slovenia Turkey EU21average Poland SlovakRepublic Estonia Ireland Spain Greece % Vocational education at ISCED 3/4 level General education at ISCED 3/4 level Chart A5.3
  • A vocationally oriented upper secondary education offers better insurance against unemployment than a general upper secondary education Unemployment rates among 35-44 year-olds with vocational or general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2011) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Austria Sweden Netherlands Switzerland Australia Luxembourg Israel NewZealand Denmark UnitedKingdom Belgium CzechRepublic Germany Italy Finland Hungary Slovenia Canada Turkey OECDaverage France Poland EU21average Estonia SlovakRepublic Ireland Greece Spain % Vocational education at ISCED 3/4 level General education at ISCED 3/4 level Chart A5.3-35-44
  • A vocationally oriented upper secondary education offers better insurance against unemployment than a general upper secondary education Unemployment rates among 25-34 year-olds with vocational or general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2011) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Australia Switzerland Netherlands Austria Luxembourg Sweden UnitedKingdom NewZealand CzechRepublic Germany Canada Finland Belgium Hungary Denmark Turkey Israel Italy OECDaverage EU21average Slovenia Poland France Estonia SlovakRepublic Ireland Spain Greece % Vocational education at ISCED 3/4 level General education at ISCED 3/4 level Chart A5.3-2 25-34
  • People with a tertiary degree will earn 57% more than those with only upper secondary education. Relative earnings of 25-64 year-old employed men, by educational attainment (2011) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Chile Brazil Hungary Slovenia UnitedStates CzechRepublic Ireland SlovakRepublic Greece Portugal Poland Germany Luxembourg Austria EU21average UnitedKingdom OECDaverage Netherlands Switzerland Israel Turkey Finland Japan Italy Korea France Spain Canada Australia Estonia Belgium Norway Denmark Sweden NewZealand Below upper secondary education Tertiary education Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Chart A6.1
  • Men with a tertiary degree will earn 62% more than those with only upper secondary education. Relative earnings of 25-64 year-old employed men, by educational attainment (2011) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Chile Brazil Hungary Slovenia Ireland CzechRepublic UnitedStates Poland SlovakRepublic France Israel Portugal Finland Germany EU21average OECDaverage Austria Greece Luxembourg Canada Turkey Italy UnitedKingdom Switzerland Netherlands Australia Korea Estonia Denmark Spain Sweden Japan5 Belgium NewZealand Norway Tertiary-type A or advanced research programmes Tertiary-type B education Below upper secondary education Men Index Chart A6.2 -1
  • Women with a tertiary degree will earn 61% more than those with only upper secondary education Relative earnings of 25-64 year-old employed women, by educational attainment (2011) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Chile Brazil Greece Ireland Slovenia UnitedKingdom Japan UnitedStates Hungary Canada Portugal OECDaverage Austria SlovakRepublic EU21average Spain Poland Korea Luxembourg Germany Israel CzechRepublic Switzerland Netherlands Turkey Australia Finland France Belgium Estonia NewZealand Italy Norway Sweden Denmark Tertiary-type A or advanced research programmes Tertiary-type B education Below upper secondary education Women Chart A6.2 -2
  • The wage premium for tertiary educated workers increases with age Percentage points difference, earnings relative to upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary - 30 - 20 - 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Ireland Turkey Austria United Kingdom United States New Zealand Estonia Belgium Norway Australia Israel Switzerland Denmark Hungary Czech Republic Sweden Spain Slovak Republic EU21 average OECD average Netherlands Finland Canada Germany Chile Italy Brazil Portugal Luxembourg Japan Slovenia Poland France Greece Korea Percentage points difference Below upper secondary education Tertiary education Relative earnings higher with age Relative earnings lower with age Chart A6.3
  • The net public return on investment for a man in tertiary education is over USD 100 000. Net private and public returns associated with a man attaining tertiary education (2009) 0 50 000 100 000 150 000 200 000 250 000 300 000 350 000 400 000 United States Ireland Czech Republic Poland Slovenia Slovak Republic Hungary Austria United Kingdom Canada Finland EU21 average France Portugal OECD average Korea Italy Australia Israel Netherlands Japan Estonia Germany Spain Belgium Norway Sweden Denmark Greece New Zealand Turkey Equivalent USD Private net returns Public net returns Chart A7.1
  • The private returns on an investment in tertiary education are substantial, especially for men Private costs and benefits for a man attaining upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary education (2009) -200 000 -100 000 0 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000 Greece 14798 Finland 30897 Turkey 35082 Poland 36764 Estonia 45121 Germany 56193 New Zealand 58058 Hungary 63962 France 69168 Italy 72302 Israel 73154 Denmark 80729 Slovenia 80936 EU21 average 89071 Portugal 96530 OECD average 100277 Sweden 104322 Canada 105055 Spain 106512 Australia 122526 Czech Republic 133693 Ireland 142366 Norway 143459 United Kingdom 148730 Austria 156870 Slovak Republic 163387 United States 214382 Korea 252207 Equivalent USD Direct cost Foregone earnings Income tax effect Social contribution effect Transfers effect Gross earnings benefits Unemployment effect BenefitsCosts for a man Chart A7.2 -1
  • The private returns on an investment in tertiary education are substantial Private costs and benefits for a woman attaining upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary education (2009) -200 000 -100 000 0 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000 Finland 16009 Germany 26191 Turkey 33223 Estonia 43139 France 44992 Norway 46450 Poland 47335 Canada 47643 New Zealand 51151 Greece 53481 United Kingdom 59818 Denmark 59882 Australia 60094 Slovenia 64352 Israel 68602 Sweden 68678 OECD average 69124 EU21 average 70941 Korea 71432 Hungary 73554 Italy 74010 Portugal 76019 Austria 93226 Czech Republic 108418 Spain 112703 Ireland 118058 Slovak Republic 137078 United States 141680 Equivalent USD Direct cost Foregone earnings Income tax effect Social contribution effect Transfers effect Gross earnings benefits Net present value Costs Benefits for a woman Chart A7.2 -2
  • Adults with a tertiary education are half as likely to be obese as those with only a below upper secondary education Percentage of adults who are obese, by educational attainment (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 UnitedKingdom UnitedStates NewZealand Chile Australia Canada Iceland Hungary CzechRepublic OECDaverage Estonia Slovenia Poland Greece EU21average SlovakRepublic Israel Ireland Belgium Norway Sweden Turkey France Austria Spain Netherlands Below upper secondary education Upper secondary education Tertiary education % Chart A8.1
  • An individual with a higher level of education is less likely to smoke Percentage of adults who smoke, by educational attainment (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Greece Chile Poland Spain CzechRepublic Hungary Israel SlovakRepublic Estonia EU21average Belgium Norway OECDaverage Netherlands Slovenia France Ireland Austria UnitedStates Canada Australia Iceland NewZealand UnitedKingdom Sweden Below upper secondary education Upper secondary education Tertiary education % Chart A8.2
  • OECD countries spend USD 9 313 per student per year on primary through tertiary education In equivalent USD converted using PPPs, based on full-time equivalents, for primary through tertiary education 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 14 000 16 000 UnitedStates Switzerland Norway Denmark Austria Sweden Netherlands Belgium UnitedKingdom Australia Ireland Japan France Finland Spain EU21average Slovenia OECDaverage Italy Iceland Korea NewZealand Portugal Israel Poland Estonia CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Hungary RussianFederation Chile Argentina Brazil Mexico In equivalent USD converted using PPPs Core services Ancillary services (transport, meals, housing provided by institutions) and R&D Total Chart B1.1
  • Annual spending per primary student ranged from USD 2 400 to USD 21 240 Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, by level of education (2010) 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 14 000 16 000 18 000 20 000 22 000 Luxembourg Norway Switzerland UnitedStates Denmark Austria Sweden Iceland Australia UnitedKingdom Slovenia Belgium Ireland Japan Italy EU21average Netherlands Finland Spain NewZealand France Korea Poland Portugal Israel SlovakRepublic Estonia Hungary CzechRepublic Chile Argentina Brazil Mexico Turkey Primary education Expenditure per student (equivalent USD converted using PPPs) OECD average Chart B1.2-1
  • Annual spending per secondary student ranges from USD 2 600 to USD 17 633 Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, by level of education (2010) 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 14 000 16 000 18 000 20 000 Luxembourg Switzerland Norway Austria UnitedStates Netherlands Denmark Ireland Belgium France UnitedKingdom Australia Sweden Japan Spain EU21average Finland Portugal Italy Slovenia NewZealand Korea Iceland CzechRepublic Estonia Israel Poland SlovakRepublic Hungary Argentina Chile Mexico Brazil Turkey Equivalent USD Secondary education Lower secondary education Upper secondary education OECD average Chart B1.2-2
  • OECD countries spend nearly twice as much per student at the tertiary level as at the primary level Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, by level of education (2010) 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 14 000 16 000 18 000 20 000 22 000 24 000 26 000 28 000 30 000 UnitedStates Switzerland Sweden Denmark Norway Netherlands Finland Japan Ireland UnitedKingdom Belgium Australia France Austria Spain Brazil EU21average Israel Portugal NewZealand Korea Slovenia Italy Poland Hungary Iceland Mexico CzechRepublic Chile SlovakRepublic Estonia Argentina OECD average Expenditure per student (equivalent USD converted using PPPs) Tertiary education Chart B1.2-3
  • In nearly all countries, expenditure per student rises with the level of education Expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, at various levels of education relative to primary education (2010) - Primary education = 100 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Brazil Mexico UnitedStates France Finland Netherlands Chile Sweden Japan Ireland Switzerland Hungary Israel CzechRepublic Spain Portugal Denmark Belgium OECDaverage UnitedKingdom Australia Argentina NewZealand Korea Norway Poland Austria Estonia SlovakRepublic Italy Slovenia Iceland Index Pre-primary education Secondary education Tertiary education 473 Chart B1.3
  • In most countries, spending per primary and secondary student increased by at least 10% between 2005 and 2010 Change in expenditure per student by educational institutions (2005 = 100, 2010 constant prices ) 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Brazil SlovakRepublic Poland RussianFederation Chile Korea Estonia Ireland Australia CzechRepublic Belgium Israel NewZealand Canada OECDaverage EU21average Luxembourg Slovenia Netherlands Spain UnitedStates Sweden Finland Norway Austria Portugal UnitedKingdom Japan Switzerland France Mexico Denmark Italy Hungary Iceland Index of change (2005=100) Change in expenditure Change in the number of students (in full-time equivalents) Change in expenditure per student Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education 473 Chart B1.6-1
  • In some major countries expenditure per tertiary student did not always keep pace with increases in tertiary enrolment Change in expenditure per student by educational institutions (2005 = 100, 2010 constant prices ) 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 Estonia Korea Poland Ireland Brazil Finland France Japan Italy Sweden Spain EU21average Hungary Belgium Chile OECDaverage CzechRepublic Portugal Mexico Slovenia SlovakRepublic Denmark Netherlands Australia Norway Israel UnitedKingdom NewZealand UnitedStates RussianFederation Austria Iceland Switzerland Index of change (2005=100) Change in expenditure Change in the number of students (in full-time equivalents) Change in expenditure per student Tertiary education Chart B1.6-2
  • In 2010, OECD countries spent an average of 6.3% of their GDP on educational institutions Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for all levels of education (2000, 2005 and 2010) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Denmark Iceland Korea Norway Israel UnitedStates NewZealand Argentina Belgium Canada Finland United… Sweden Ireland Chile France Netherlands OECDaverage Mexico Australia Estonia EU21average Slovenia Portugal Poland Austria Brazil Spain Switzerland Japan Russian… CzechRepublic Italy Slovak… Hungary % of GDP 2010 2005 2000 Chart B2.1
  • Nearly two-thirds of spending on educational institutions is devoted to primary, secondary and post-secondary non- tertiary education Expenditure on educational institutions, from public and private sources, as a percentage of GDP (2010) 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 NewZealand Iceland Denmark UnitedKingdom Ireland Argentina Belgium Australia Israel Korea Finland Netherlands France Switzerland UnitedStates Mexico Sweden Estonia Slovenia Portugal Canada Poland Austria Luxembourg Chile Spain Italy SlovakRepublic Japan CzechRepublic RussianFederation Norway Brazil Hungary Turkey % of GDP Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Public expenditure on education institutions Private expenditure on education institutions OECD average (total expenditure) Chart B2.2-1
  • One-quarter of spending on educational institutions is devoted to tertiary education Expenditure on educational institutions, from public and private sources, as a percentage of GDP (2010) 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 UnitedStates Canada Korea Chile Finland Denmark Sweden Netherlands Norway Israel Australia Estonia RussianFederation NewZealand Ireland Japan Austria France Argentina Poland Portugal Belgium Mexico UnitedKingdom Spain Switzerland Slovenia Iceland CzechRepublic Italy SlovakRepublic Brazil Hungary % of GDP Tertiary education Public expenditure on education institutions Private expenditure on education institutions OECD average (total expenditure) Chart B2.2-2
  • Between 2008 and 2010, only five countries cut public expenditure on educational institutions Index of change between 2008 and 2010 in expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, for all levels of education (2008=100, 2010 constant prices) 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 Australia SlovakRepublic Denmark Ireland Portugal Finland NewZealand Netherlands Japan UnitedKingdom Canada CzechRepublic Slovenia Mexico Spain EU21average Austria OECDaverage Norway Korea France Switzerland Sweden Estonia Belgium Israel UnitedStates RussianFederation Poland Iceland Italy Hungary Chile Index of change (2008=100) Change in public expenditure on educational institutions Change in Gross Domestic Product Change in expenditure on education institutions as a percentage of GDP Chart B2.3-1
  • Between 2009 and 2010, public expenditure on educational institutions fell in one-third of OECD countries Index of change between 2008 and 2010 in expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, for all levels of education (2008=100, 2010 constant prices) 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 SlovakRepublic Mexico Israel Australia Japan Chile Korea Finland Poland Belgium Sweden UnitedKingdom Denmark Netherlands OECDaverage France Canada Switzerland Slovenia CzechRepublic Austria NewZealand Ireland Portugal Norway Spain UnitedStates Italy Hungary Estonia Iceland RussianFederation Index of change Between 2008 and 2009 Between 2009 and 2010 Index of change in expenditure on educational institutions Chart B2.3-2
  • In most countries, GDP rose (in real terms) between 2009 and 2010 Index of change between 2008 and 2010 in expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, for all levels of education (2008=100, 2010 constant prices) 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 Chile Sweden Switzerland Korea Mexico Israel RussianFederation SlovakRepublic Poland Japan Canada CzechRepublic OECDaverage Finland Australia Estonia UnitedStates Austria Belgium UnitedKingdom Netherlands Slovenia EU21average Norway France Portugal Denmark Italy Hungary NewZealand Spain Ireland Iceland Index of change Between 2008 and 2009 Between 2009 and 2010 Index of change in Gross domestic product Chart B2.3-3
  • Some 16% of all spending on educational institutions comes from private sources Share of private expenditure on educational institutions (2010) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Chile UnitedKingdom Korea Japan UnitedStates Australia Israel Canada1 RussianFederation NewZealand Italy OECDaverage Portugal Mexico SlovakRepublic Poland Netherlands Estonia Argentina EU21average Spain CzechRepublic Ireland France Slovenia Austria Belgium Sweden Iceland Denmark Finland Norway Switzerland Luxembourg % Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary education Chart B3.1
  • The share of private expenditure on tertiary institutions increased from 24% in 2000 to 32% in 2010 Share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions (2000, 2005 and 2010) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Chile UnitedKingdom Korea Japan UnitedStates Australia Israel Canada RussianFederation NewZealand Italy EU21average OECDaverage Portugal Mexico SlovakRepublic Poland Netherlands Estonia Argentina Spain CzechRepublic Ireland France Slovenia Austria Belgium Sweden Iceland Denmark Finland Norway % 2010 2005 2000 Chart B3.3
  • Public expenditure, per student, is higher on public tertiary institutions than on private institutions Annual public expenditure on educational institutions per student in tertiary education, by type of institution (2010) 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 Norway(86%) Sweden(90%) Denmark(99%) Finland(77%) Belgium(43%) Austria(m) Netherlands(91%) France(82%) Spain(86%) UnitedStates(70%) OECDaverage(68%) Iceland(82%) Australia(93%) Slovenia(90%) NewZealand(89%) Portugal(77%) Italy(91%) Japan(23%) Israel(1%) Hungary(84%) CzechRepublic(85%) Mexico(68%) SlovakRepublic(m) Poland(73%) Estonia(17%) UnitedKingdom(0%) Korea(20%) Chile(16%) In equivalent USD converted using PPPs Public institutions Private institutions Total public and private institutions Chart B3.4
  • In 2010, 13% of total public spending was devoted to education Public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure (1995, 2005, 2010) 0 5 10 15 20 25 Mexico NewZealand Brazil Chile Korea Switzerland Denmark Australia Norway Iceland Estonia Israel Sweden Canada UnitedStates Belgium OECDaverage Finland UnitedKingdom Netherlands EU21average Poland Slovenia Austria Portugal Spain SlovakRepublic RussianFederation France Hungary Ireland CzechRepublic Japan Italy % of total public expenditure 2010 2005 1995 Chart B4.1
  • Between 2008 and 2010, countries varied in the share of total public expenditure they allocated to education Index of change between 2008 and 2010 in public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure for all levels of education combined (2008=100, 2010 constant prices) 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 Australia Iceland UnitedKingdom Switzerland NewZealand Israel Chile Korea Denmark Sweden SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Austria Portugal OECDaverage Finland Estonia Japan France Netherlands EU21average Spain Poland Slovenia Belgium Italy Hungary Norway UnitedStates Brazil Mexico Ireland Index of change Change in public expenditure on education Change in public expenditure for all services Change in total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure Chart B4.2
  • More than one-third of countries offer public support to private entities for university-level education Public support to households and other private entities as a percentage of total public expenditure on tertiary education (2010) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 UnitedKingdom UnitedStates Denmark Slovenia Italy SlovakRepublic Chile Austria Portugal Finland Hungary NewZealand Belgium OECDaverage Ireland Australia Poland Netherlands Norway Israel Sweden Spain France Switzerland Canada Brazil Estonia Mexico Korea CzechRepublic Argentina Japan Iceland % of total public expenditure on tertiary education Scholarships/ other grants to households Transfers and payments to other private entities Student loans Chart B5.3. Public subsidies for education in Chart B5.2
  • The salary cost of teachers per primary student increased by 10% between 2000 and 2011 Salary cost per primary teacher in 2000, 2005 and 2011 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 500 3 000 3 500 4 000 4 500 Denmark Belgium(Fl.) Belgium(Fr.) Portugal Norway Italy UnitedStates Australia Austria Spain Ireland Japan OECDaverage Finland Slovenia Korea France Hungary Israel CzechRepublic Turkey Mexico USD Salary cost in 2011 Salary cost in 2005 Salary cost in 2000 Primary education Chart B7.2-1
  • The salary cost of lower secondary teachers per student increased by 11% between 2000 and 2011 Salary cost of lower secondary teachers in 2000, 2005 and 2011 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 Belgium(Fl.) Belgium(Fr.) Portugal Austria Finland Australia Spain Denmark Italy OECDaverage Norway Japan Ireland UnitedStates Slovenia France Korea Hungary Israel CzechRepublic Mexico USD Salary cost in 2011 Salary cost in 2005 Salary cost in 2000 lower secondary education Chart B7.2-2
  • From 1995 to 2011, participation in education among 20- 29 year-olds increased by more than 10 percentage points Enrolment rates of 20-29 year-olds (1995, 2000, 2005 and 2011) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Finland Denmark Iceland Sweden Netherlands Slovenia Australia Germany Belgium Korea Poland Norway NewZealand EU21average Estonia OECDaverage Argentina Chile UnitedStates Spain Hungary Austria Canada CzechRepublic Switzerland Portugal Israel RussianFederation Brazil Italy Ireland SlovakRepublic Turkey France UnitedKingdom Mexico Indonesia 2011 2000 1995% Chart C1.1
  • From 1995 to 2011, participation in education among 15-19 year-olds increased from 77% to 85% Enrolment rates of 15-19 year-olds for full-time and part-time students in public and private institutions (1995, 2000, 2005 and 2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Belgium Ireland Poland Netherlands Slovenia Hungary Germany CzechRepublic EU21average Iceland Portugal Finland Estonia Denmark Korea Norway Spain Sweden SlovakRepublic Switzerland France Australia OECDaverage Greece NewZealand Italy Canada UnitedStates Austria UnitedKingdom RussianFederation Brazil Luxembourg Chile Argentina Indonesia Israel Turkey Mexico China 2011 2000 1995 %% Chart C1.2
  • Some 82% of 4-year-olds are enrolled in early childhood education Enrolment rates in early childhood and primary education at age 4 (2005 and 2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Spain Mexico Netherlands France Belgium Denmark UnitedKingdom Norway Iceland Italy Germany NewZealand Ireland Luxembourg Sweden Israel Hungary Japan Austria Estonia EU21average Slovenia Portugal CzechRepublic OECDaverage Korea UnitedStates Chile RussianFederation Argentina SlovakRepublic Australia Poland Finland Brazil Canada Switzerland Turkey 2005 2011% Chart C2.1
  • The average age at which mothers have their first child has risen from 24 in 1970 to 28 in 2009. Average age when mothers have their first child, in 1970, 1995 and 2009 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Germany UnitedKingdom Italy Spain Switzerland Luxembourg Japan Korea Sweden Netherlands Greece France Denmark Ireland Australia Portugal OECDaverage Belgium Finland Canada Austria Norway CzechRepublic Hungary SlovakRepublic Iceland Poland Estonia UnitedStates Mexico Age 1970 1995 2009 0 - Chart C2.2
  • Expenditure on pre-primary education accounts for an average of 0.6% of GDP. Expenditure on early childhood educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, by funding sources (2010) 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Denmark Iceland Spain Israel RussianFederation Luxembourg Slovenia France Sweden Hungary Poland Mexico Chile Belgium NewZealand Argentina EU21average Austria OECDaverage CzechRepublic Norway UnitedStates SlovakRepublic Italy Estonia Finland Brazil Netherlands Portugal UnitedKingdom Korea Japan Switzerland Australia Private expenditure on educational institutions in percentage of GDP Public expenditure on educational institutions in percentage of GDP Total % of GDP Chart C2.3
  • The ratio of pupils to teaching staff also indicates the level of resources devoted to pre-primary education Ratio of pupils to teaching staff in early childhood education in public and private institutions (2011) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Mexico Israel China Turkey Chile France Indonesia UnitedKingdom Brazil Korea Belgium Poland Portugal Japan Netherlands OECDaverage Austria CzechRepublic UnitedStates EU21average Spain Germany SlovakRepublic Italy Luxembourg Hungary SaudiArabia Finland Slovenia NewZealand Estonia Sweden Iceland Student to teaching staff ratio Chart C2.4
  • Some 60% of young adults are expected to enter university programmes, 48% before the age of 25. Entry rates into tertiary-type A education (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Australia Iceland Poland NewZealand Norway Slovenia UnitedStates Sweden RussianFederation Denmark Korea Finland Netherlands UnitedKingdom SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Argentina OECDaverage EU21average Israel Spain SaudiArabia Austria Hungary Japan Ireland Italy Germany Chile Switzerland Estonia Greece France Turkey Mexico Belgium Indonesia China % All students Excluding international students Chart C3.1
  • Between 1995 and 2011, entry rates into university programmes increased by more than 20 percentage points Entry rates into tertiary-type A education (2000, 2011) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Australia Iceland Poland NewZealand Norway Slovenia UnitedStates Sweden RussianFederation Denmark Korea Finland Netherlands UnitedKingdom SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic OECDaverage EU21average Argentina Israel Spain SaudiArabia Austria Hungary Japan Ireland Italy Germany Chile Switzerland Estonia Greece France Turkey Mexico Belgium Luxembourg Indonesia China % Tertiary-type A (2000) Tertiary-type A (2011) Chart C3.2
  • The most popular fields of education chosen by new entrants into tertiary programmes are social sciences, business and law Distribution of new entrants into tertiary programmes, by field of education (2011) 20 25 30 35 40 45 Indonesia Mexico RussianFederation Hungary Denmark Turkey France Netherlands Australia Switzerland Israel Portugal Italy Austria Poland NewZealand Argentina Slovenia OECDaverage EU21average CzechRepublic Norway Iceland Belgium Greece Spain Estonia Sweden Japan UnitedKingdom SlovakRepublic Chile Germany Ireland Finland SaudiArabia Korea Humanities, arts and education Health and welfare Social sciences, business and law Services Chart C3.3
  • More than one in 30 students will pursue studies up to the highest academic level, often after the age of 30 Entry rates into advanced research programmes and average age of new entrants (2011) 29 32 29 30 30 28 30 37 36 33 31 30 32 31 36 32 33 33 33 30 35 29 27 31 29 37 36 33 27 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Germany Slovenia Switzerland Austria Denmark CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Iceland Portugal Australia EU21average UnitedKingdom Sweden China Estonia Korea OECDaverage Norway NewZealand Finland France RussianFederation Italy Israel Hungary Netherlands Japan Turkey Argentina Spain Mexico Chile Indonesia SaudiArabia All students Excluding international students Average Age % Ag Chart C3.4
  • In 2011, more than 4.3 million students were enrolled in tertiary education outside their country of citizenship. Evolution in the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship, by region of destination (2000 to 2011) 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Worldwide OECD G20 countries Europe North America Oceania Million students Chart C4.1
  • Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States together receive more than 50% of all foreign students worldwide. Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled, by destination (2000, 2011) 0 5 10 15 20 25 UnitedStates UnitedKingdom Germany France Australia Canada Russian Federation Japan Spain SouthAfrica China Italy NewZealand Austria Korea Switzerland Netherlands Belgium OtherOECD OtherG0and non-OECD 2000 2011 Market share (%) OECD countries Other G20 and non-OECD countries 2000 2011 Chart C4.3
  • At least 10% of tertiary enrolments in Australia, Austria, New Zealand, Switzerland and the United Kingdom are international students International or foreign student enrolment as a percentage of total tertiary enrolment (2011) 0 5 10 15 20 Australia UnitedKingdom Switzerland NewZealand Austria Belgium Sweden Denmark Canada¹ Ireland Iceland Netherlands Finland Hungary SlovakRepublic Japan UnitedStates Portugal Spain Estonia Slovenia Norway Poland Chile France CzechRepublic SouthAfrica¹ Greece Italy SaudiArabia RussianFederation Korea Israel Turkey China Brazil Foreign students2 % International students OECD average Chart C4.4
  • In 2011, 5% of students were employed full-time and 7.3% part-time. Proportion of part-time (PT), involuntary part-time and full-time (FT) workers among 15-29 year-olds in education (2011) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Hungary SlovakRepublic Greece Italy CzechRepublic Belgium Spain Korea Turkey Luxembourg France Chile Mexico Ireland Poland Japan Israel EU21average Estonia Sweden UnitedKingdom OECDaverage Brazil Norway UnitedStates Finland Slovenia NewZealand Canada Austria Germany Australia Iceland Switzerland Netherlands Denmark % Employed FT and in education Employed PT and in education (excluding involuntary PT) Involuntary PT Chart C5.1-1
  • In 2011, 5% of 15-29 year-olds no longer in education were part-time workers; 32% worked full time. Proportion of part-time (PT), involuntary part-time and full-time (FT) workers among 15-29 year-olds no longer in education (2011) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Brazil Austria Czech… Switzerland Norway Canada Mexico Estonia Luxembourg Poland Australia United… Slovak… NewZealand France Sweden Belgium Germany Korea United… Turkey Greece Hungary Netherlands Ireland Chile Slovenia Finland Spain Iceland Italy Israel Denmark Japan EU21… % Employed FT and no longer in education Employed PT and no longer in education (excluding involuntary PT) Involuntary PT Chart C5.1-2
  • On average across OECD countries, 8.2% of 15-19 year- olds were neither in education nor employed in 2011 (2.7% unemployed and 5.8% inactive), Percentage of 15-19 year-olds not in education and unemployed or not in the labour force (2011) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Turkey Mexico Brazil Israel Chile NewZealand Australia UnitedKingdom Canada Norway Spain Italy OECDaverage UnitedStates Portugal Austria Ireland Switzerland Korea Denmark Netherlands Sweden Greece EU21average France Belgium Estonia Iceland Finland SlovakRepublic Germany CzechRepublic Hungary Poland Luxembourg % Not in education and unemployed Not in education and not in the labour force Not in education (Total) Chart C5.2
  • Between 2008 and 2011, the share of NEET among 15-19 year-olds grew in more than half of the OECD countries Percentage of 15-19 year-olds who were neither employed nor in education or training (NEET) in 2008 and 2011 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Turkey-12.3 Switzerland-4.4 Slovenia-1 Hungary-0.9 Norway-0.8 Brazil-0.7 SlovakRepublic-0.3 UnitedKingdom-0.3 Sweden-0.2 Germany-0.2 Austria-0.2 OECDaverage-0.2 UnitedStates-0.1 Greece-0.1 Finland0 Luxembourg0.2 Canada0.5 Belgium0.6 Ireland1.0 Portugal1.0 CzechRepublic1.0 Mexico1.1 France1.2 Denmark1.3 Netherlands1.4 Spain1.5 Poland1.5 Estonia1.5 Australia1.5 NewZealand1.7 Korea1.7 Italy1.8 Israel1.9 2008 2011 % Chart C5.3-1
  • Almost 30% of 15-29 year-olds working part time in 2011 would have liked to work more. Involuntary part-time 15-29 year-old workers among total part-time workers (2011), and change in part-time employment (2008-11) 6 6 9 4 7 2 3 5 6 4 5 9 2 8 3 4 4 7 7 1 6 7 5 1 4 2 6 5 9 5 1 6 2 21 71 57 30 10 24 46 29 8 13 19 020406080100120140160 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Iceland Denmark Netherlands Korea Canada Slovak Republic Turkey Italy Spain EU21 average OECD average Australia Estonia United Kingdom Greece Luxembourg Finland New Zealand Norway Hungary France Belgium Sweden Czech Republic Austria Poland Germany Mexico Japan Switzerland Slovenia Israel Part time (not in education) 2011 in % Part time (not in education) 2008 in % Involuntary part time/Total part time (%) Chart C5.4
  • Students in OECD countries receive an average of 7 751 hours of instruction during primary and lower secondary education, most of which is compulsory Number of intended instruction hours in public institutions (2011) 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 Australia Ireland Netherlands Spain Luxembourg Iceland Israel France Portugal Mexico Canada Chile Denmark England Norway OECD average EU21 average Belgium (Fr.) Italy Germany Japan Indonesia Slovak Republic Greece Belgium (Fl.) Austria Finland Sweden Poland Slovenia Czech Republic Korea Russian Federation Estonia Hungary Turkey Total number of intended instruction hours Compulsory instruction time Non-compulsory instruction time Compulsory instruction time Non-compulsory instruction time Primary education Lower secondary education Chart D1.1
  • Instruction in reading, writing and literature, mathematics and science represents 51% of compulsory instruction time Instruction time per subject in primary education as a percentage of total compulsory instruction time (2011) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Hungary France Mexico Denmark SlovakRepublic Austria Ireland Luxembourg Greece Canada EU21average Portugal OECDaverage Norway Israel Turkey Spain Italy Finland RussianFederation Slovenia Estonia Japan Korea Belgium(Fl.) Argentina Poland Germany Chile Iceland Indonesia Reading, writing and literature Mathematics Science Modern foreign languages Other compulsory core curriculum Compulsory flexible curriculum Chart D1.2a
  • Instruction in reading, writing and literature, mathematics and science represents 41% of compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students Instruction time per subject in lower secondary education as a percentage of total compulsory instruction time (2011) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Ireland Italy Israel Denmark RussianFederation Canada Greece Belgium(Fr.) Spain Hungary Argentina Chile France Poland Norway OECDaverage EU21average SlovakRepublic Mexico Belgium(Fl.) Austria Estonia Germany Iceland England Luxembourg Slovenia Korea Indonesia Finland Portugal Japan Reading, writing and literature Mathematics Science Modern foreign languages Other compulsory core curriculum Compulsory flexible curriculum Chart D1.2b
  • Primary school classes tended to become smaller between 2000 and 2011 Average class size in primary education (2000, 2011) 0 10 20 30 40 China Chile Japan Israel Korea Turkey Indonesia Argentina UnitedKingdom Brazil Ireland Australia France Spain Germany Belgium(Fr.) Hungary Portugal Denmark UnitedStates CzechRepublic Mexico Finland Italy Slovenia Poland Iceland Austria SlovakRepublic RussianFederation Estonia Greece Luxembourg Number of students per classroom 2011 2000 Chart D2.1
  • On average in OECD countries, class size increases by two or more students between primary and lower secondary education Average class size in educational institutions, by level of education (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 China Chile Japan Israel Korea Turkey Indonesia Argentina UnitedKingdom Brazil Ireland Australia France Spain OECDaverage Germany Belgium(Fr.) Hungary Portugal Denmark UnitedStates EU21average CzechRepublic Mexico Finland Italy Slovenia Poland Iceland Austria SlovakRepublic RussianFederation Estonia Greece Luxembourg Number of students per classroom Primary education Lower secondary education Chart D2.2
  • On average, OECD countries counted one teacher for every 14 pupils in pre-primary school Ratio of pupils to teaching staff in educational institutions at the pre-primary level (2011) 0 10 20 30 Mexico Israel China Turkey Chile France Indonesia UnitedKingdom Brazil Korea Belgium Poland Portugal Japan Netherlands Austria CzechRepublic UnitedStates Spain Germany SlovakRepublic Italy Luxembourg Hungary SaudiArabia Finland Slovenia NewZealand Estonia Sweden Iceland Pre-primary education Number of students per teacher in full-time equivalents OECD average Chart D2.3-1
  • On average, OECD countries counted one teacher for every 15 students in primary school Ratio of students to teaching staff in educational institutions at the primary level (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 Mexico Chile Brazil Turkey Indonesia RussianFederation UnitedKingdom Korea CzechRepublic France Japan China SlovakRepublic NewZealand Germany Slovenia Israel Netherlands Ireland Australia UnitedStates Finland Estonia Spain Belgium Austria Italy Sweden Portugal SaudiArabia Poland Hungary Norway Iceland Luxembourg Number of students per teacher in full-time equivalents Primary education OECD average Chart D2.3-2
  • On average, OECD countries counted one teacher for every 13 students in lower secondary school Ratio of students to teaching staff in educational institutions at the lower secondary level (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 Mexico Chile Brazil Korea Indonesia NewZealand Netherlands UnitedStates UnitedKingdom France China Japan Germany Israel SlovakRepublic Italy Sweden CzechRepublic Iceland Hungary Spain Estonia Poland Norway SaudiArabia Finland Austria Portugal Belgium Slovenia Lower secondary education Number of students per teacher in full-time equivalents OECD average Chart D2.3-3
  • On average, OECD countries counted one teacher for every 14 students in upper secondary school Ratio of students to teaching staff in educational institutions at the upper secondary level (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 Mexico Chile Indonesia China Netherlands Turkey UnitedKingdom Brazil Finland Korea UnitedStates SlovakRepublic Slovenia NewZealand Germany Estonia Sweden Italy Hungary Japan CzechRepublic Iceland Israel Poland SaudiArabia Belgium France Austria Spain Norway Portugal Upper secondary education Number of students per teacher in full-time equivalents OECD average Chart D2.3-4
  • Classes in public primary schools have an average of 21 students, while those in private schools have 20 students Average class size in public and private primary schools (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 China Chile Israel Japan Korea Turkey Indonesia UnitedKingdom Brazil Argentina Ireland Australia France OECDaverage Germany Hungary Portugal Belgium(Fr.) Denmark UnitedStates Spain CzechRepublic EU21average Mexico Finland Italy Poland Slovenia Iceland Austria SlovakRepublic RussianFederation Estonia Greece Luxembourg Public institutions Private institutionsNumber of students per classroom Chart D2.4-1
  • In 13 countries, the average lower secondary class is larger in private schools than in public schools Average class size in public and private lower secondary institutions (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 China Indonesia Korea Japan Chile Israel Brazil Argentina Mexico Germany France Spain UnitedStates OECDaverage Poland Australia Portugal EU21average Italy Greece CzechRepublic Austria Hungary UnitedKingdom Denmark Finland SlovakRepublic Iceland Luxembourg Slovenia RussianFederation Estonia Public institutions Private institutionsNumber of students per classroom Chart D2.4-2
  • The statutory salary of lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience averages USD 39 934 Teachers' salaries in lower secondary education in public institutions, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs (2011) 0 20 000 40 000 60 000 80 000 100 000 Luxembourg Switzerland Germany Netherlands Canada Ireland Denmark Australia Korea Scotland UnitedStates Japan Spain Belgium(Fl.) Austria Belgium(Fr.) England NewZealand Finland EU21average OECDaverage Portugal Norway France Italy Sweden Slovenia Greece Iceland Israel Mexico Chile CzechRepublic Poland Argentina Hungary SlovakRepublic Estonia Indonesia Equivalent USD converted using PPPs Chart D3.1-1
  • In only 6 countries were relative salaries for teachers higher than those of comparably educated workers Ratio of teachers' salary to earnings for full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education aged 25-64 (2011 or latest available year) 0 1 1 2 Spain Korea Luxembourg Portugal NewZealand Canada Germany Finland Israel England Australia Denmark Belgium(Fl.) OECDaverage EU21average Netherlands Belgium(Fr.) Ireland Sweden Slovenia France Scotland Poland Chile Norway UnitedStates Estonia Austria Italy Hungary CzechRepublic Iceland SlovakRepublic Ratio Chart D3.1-2
  • Lower secondary teachers' salaries at the top of the scale are 61% higher, on average, than starting salaries Annual statutory teachers' salaries, in public institutions, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs (2011) 0 20 000 40 000 60 000 80 000 100 000 120 000 140 000 Luxembourg Switzerland Germany Denmark Spain Netherlands UnitedStates Canada Australia Ireland Norway Finland Austria Belgium(Fl.) Belgium(Fr.) Portugal Sweden EU21average England OECDaverage Scotland Italy France NewZealand Korea Slovenia Japan Iceland Greece Mexico Israel Chile CzechRepublic Argentina Poland Estonia Hungary SlovakRepublic Indonesia Starting salary and minimum training Salary at top of scale and maximum qualifications Equivalent USD converted Chart D3.2
  • Between 2000 and 2011, teachers’ salaries rose, in real terms, in almost all countries. Notable exceptions are France and Japan. Index of change between 2000 and 2011 (2000 = 100, constant prices), for teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 CzechRepublic Estonia Ireland Portugal Denmark Korea Hungary Scotland Austria Israel EU21average OECDaverage Australia Sweden Mexico Iceland Finland Spain NewZealand England Belgium(Fr.) Belgium(Fl.) Italy UnitedStates Switzerland Greece France Japan 2011 2005Index of change Chart D3.3
  • Between 2009 and 2011, teachers’ salaries fell, for the first time since 2000, by around 2% at all levels of education OECD average of the index of change between 2005 and 2011 (2000 = 100, constant prices), for teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Primary level Lower secondary level Upper secondary level Index of change Chart Box_D3.1
  • Between 2000 and 2011, the number of teaching hours at the secondary level remained relatively stable. Number of teaching hours per year in lower secondary education (2000, 2005 and 2011) - Net statutory contact time in public institutions 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 100 1 200 1 300 1 400 1 500 1 600 Argentina Chile UnitedStates Mexico Scotland NewZealand Australia Portugal Germany Netherlands Canada Luxembourg Ireland Spain OECDaverage England Slovenia Belgium(Fl.) EU21average Norway Belgium(Fr.) SlovakRepublic Denmark France CzechRepublic Italy Iceland Korea Estonia Israel Austria Hungary Japan Finland Poland Indonesia Russian… Greece Hours per year 2000 2011 Chart D4.1
  • Public-school teachers teach between 994 hours per year at the pre-primary level to 664 hours at the upper secondary level of education, on average Number of teaching hours per year, by level of education (2000, 2005 and 2011) - Net statutory contact time in public institutions 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 100 1 200 1 300 1 400 1 500 1 600 1 700 1 800 Argentina Chile UnitedStates Scotland Mexico Australia Portugal NewZealand Netherlands Canada Luxembourg Ireland Germany England Spain OECDaverage France Indonesia EU21average Slovenia Italy SlovakRepublic Belgium(Fl.) Korea Hungary CzechRepublic Belgium(Fr.) Austria Estonia Turkey Finland Iceland Poland Norway Israel Japan RussianFederation Greece Denmark Hours per year Upper secondary education, general programmes Pre-primary education Primary education Lower secondary education Chart D4.2
  • In 2011, 64% of secondary school teachers were at least 40 years old Age distribution of teachers in secondary education (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Italy Austria Germany Estonia Iceland Netherlands Czech Republic Finland Norway Sweden Spain New Zealand Switzerland EU21 average Japan Hungary OECD average Slovenia France Slovak Republic Israel Belgium Ireland Portugal United States Korea Luxembourg Canada Chile Poland United Kingdom Brazil Indonesia % Aged less than 30 Aged 30-39 Aged 40-49 Aged 50 or older Chart D5.1
  • In 2011, 59% of primary school teachers were at least 40 years old Age distribution of teachers in primary education (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Italy Sweden Germany Estonia Czech Republic Austria Hungary New Zealand Iceland Japan Finland EU21 average Slovenia Poland OECD average Switzerland Norway Indonesia Slovak Republic Netherlands Portugal United States Spain Luxembourg Canada Chile France Belgium Brazil Israel Ireland Korea United Kingdom % Aged less than 30 Aged 30-39 Aged 40-49 Aged 50 or older Chart D5.3
  • The proportion of female teachers decreases as the level of education increases Percentage of women among teaching staff in public and private institutions, by level of education (2011) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Estonia Iceland Slovenia Israel Hungary Italy Chile SlovakRepublic Norway CzechRepublic Poland Canada Finland Brazil Austria Portugal Denmark Korea EU21average OECDaverage Sweden UnitedStates NewZealand Ireland France Germany Belgium UnitedKingdom Spain Indonesia Luxembourg Switzerland SaudiArabia Mexico China Netherlands Japan Turkey Lower secondary education Pre-primary education Primary education Upper secondary education Tertiary education % Chart D5.2