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Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust
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Zafer mert i̇zmir 2. strşpe rust

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  • 1. Current situation of wheat stripe rust in Turkey: Yr27 virulence and potential effects Z. Mert, K. Akan, L. Çetin, A. Yorgancılar, B. Ercan, R. Ünsal, A. Tülek, V. Urin, C.Şermet, Ü. Küçüközdemir, H. Ay, A. İlkhan1 and M. Karaman1
  • 2. Outline  Wheat in Turkey  Records of stripe rust  Stripe Rust situation  Institutions involved, coordination and planning approaches for management  Race identification of stripe rust  Resistance of the cultivars to stripe rust  Conclusion
  • 3. The staple crop Ranking of wheat crop in the country compared to other annual crops 60% Wheat production area; Irrigated wheat 25% and Rainfed wheat 75% Winter Wheat sowing areas 75 % Spring wheat sowing areas 25% Winter Wheat productions 65 % Spring wheat productions 35% Wheat in Turkey Wheat production Bread Durum Total Producing area (ha) (x 1000) 6.765 1.335 8.100 Production (ton) (x 1000) 16.860 3.740 20.600
  • 4. Central Anatolia, WW South East Anatolia-SWAegean Region- SW East Anatolia, WW Blacksea region , WW, FW Thrace region WW Marmara region, FW,SW Area % Planting date Harvesting date Coastal 20 1 November- 25 November 25 May-10 June Planes 35 1 October-20 October 15 July- 15 August Highlands 45 25 September-15 October 20 July-30 August BLACK SEA MEDITERRANEAN Çukurova, SW Wheat in Turkey BLACKSEA Yellow Rust Yellow Rust Yellow Rust Yellow RustLeaf rust Leaf rust Leaf rust Leaf rust Leaf rustStem Rust Stem Rust Stem Rust
  • 5. Historical yellow rust hot-spots – locations, frequency of occurrence In 1991 26.1% loss in potential yield of Gerek 79 in Central Anatolia (Braun 1991)  1995 epidemic caused at least 0.5 million tons of wheat loss (Çetin et al. 1998)  In 1998 69% of Gerek 79 fields in Central Anatolia was affected heavily (over 50S)  In 2009 70 % of Gerek 79 fields in Central Anatolia was affected heavily (over 50S)  In 2010, severe epidemics in South East Anatolia and Central Anatolia, Kaşifbey, Gerek 79 cultivars Stripe rust played an important role in changing cultivar preference by the farmers following epidemics of 1995 in Cukurova and of 1998 in Central Anatolia Yellow rust records
  • 6. ŞANLIURFA
  • 7. - Yellow rust started at beginning of the season in southeast and mediterranean but fungicide applications prevented epidemics. - Farmers applied fungicides twice in some areas. 9 In 2013
  • 8. 10 2014 stripe rust situation
  • 9. 11 Thrace Region (Border of the Europe)
  • 10. 12 Thrace Region (Border of the Europe)
  • 11. 13 Thrace Region (Border of the Europe)
  • 12. 1. Central Research Institute for Field Crops (CRIFC), Ankara 2. Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute, Eskisehir 3. Aegean Agriculture Research Institute, Izmir 4. Bahri Dagdas International Agriculture Research Institute, Konya 5. Maize Research Station, Sakarya 6. East Mediterranean Agriculture Research Institute, Adana 7. GAP International Agricultural Research Institute, Diyarbakir 8. Black Sea Agriculture Research Institute, Samsun 9. Thrace Agriculture Research Institute, Edirne 10. Eastern Anatolia Agriculture Research Institute, Erzurum 11. GAP Soil - Water Resources and Agriculture Research Institute, Sanlıurfa 12. East Mediterranean Transitional Zone Agriculture Research Institute, K.Maraş National Research Project for Diseases of Temperate Cereals Institutions involved, coordination and planning approaches for management
  • 13.  Survey activities to determine current and potential epidemics in the region.  Screening of the wheat and barley germplasm under natural and artificial condition in the multiplication.  Coordination of the institute and material changing among institutes Aim of the project
  • 14.  Monitoring of the pathogenic variation for resistance breeding study  Pathotype / Race analyses.  Determination of the resistance sources for breeding programmes.  Improve technical capacity through training activities as theoretical and practical. Aim of the project
  • 15. * Artifical inoculation Thrace ARI LR,YR Sakarya ARI SR,LR, YR Karadeniz ARI LR,SR, YR East Anatolian ARI YR,SR Kastamonu SR Şanlıurfa AARI YR, SR, LR South East Anatolian ARI LR,YR, SR EMARI YR *,LR,SR CRIFC YR*,SR*, LR Bahri Dağdaş IARI YR,SR TZARI YR *, SR, LR Aegean ARI YR *,LR, SR ARI YR,LR,SR Institutions involved, coordination and planning approaches for management
  • 16. Winter Wheat National Rust Program Spring Wheat
  • 17. Breeding for resistance  Breeding program conducted by agricultural research institutes in their own regions,  National Program facilitates collaboration between institutes  International Winter Wheat Improvement program (IWWIP), Turkey-CIMMYT-ICARDA collaboration Institutions involved, coordination and planning approaches for management
  • 18. Yellow Rust Stem RustLeaf Rust Trap nurseries Resistance genes Common cultivar Some cultivars which have important genes Pathotype/race analyses under controlled greenhouse condition on differential sets Monitoring of Pathogenic Variation
  • 19. Race identification by GRRC (Denmark)
  • 20. 22 Old Race New Race Old Race New Race Genotypes Resistance genes Scores 0-9 scale Scores 0-9 scale Scores Scores Chinese 166 Yr1 0 0 0 0TR Lee Yr7, + 7 7 90S 100S Heines Kolben Yr 6,(Yr 2) 7 7 70SMS 20MR Vilmorin 23 Yr 3+ 1 1 T-10MS R Moro Yr 10 1 1 10MR R Strubes Dickkopf Yr Sd, Yr25 7 7 T-30MS 30R Suwon 92*Omar Yr SU 2 7 0 30S Clement (W-Kışlık) Yr9+, Cle 3 3 T-10MS 10MR Triticum spelta album Yr5 0 0 0 R Hybrid 46 Yr4+ 1 1 0 R Reichersberg 42 (W;Yr7+?) 6 6 0 R Heines Peko Yr6,Yr2,Yr25,+ 7 6 20R 30MS Nord Desprez 3N 1 2 20MSS R Compair Yr8, + 7 7 0 R Carstens V Yr32, Yr25, + 0 1 0 R Spaldings Prolific SP 0 0 0 R Heines VII Yr2,Yr25+ 7 7 30MS 5R Selkirk Yr27 6 8 20R-MR 100S Avocet Yr 24 Yr 24 2 2 40R 70 SMS İzgi 2001 ATAEM/ESK 0 0 R R Opata 85 Yr27,Yr18 5 7 10R 100S *New race were recorded in 2010 by GRRC, Denmark in samples collected Adana.  Yr 27 virulence was recorded in Turkey in the 2000-2003 years but Yr Su is the first record.  Yr 27 virulence is widespread in the world. So people must be awareness to this new virulence. Yellow rust- new race
  • 21. Yellow rust was not widespread in 2013 20 infected samples were collected by NARS 15 of them recovered and conduct race analyses study by CRIFC. 23 Race analyses in 2013
  • 22. 13/ 2 13/ 3 13/4 13/5 13/ 6 13/ 7 13/ 8 Chinese 166 Yr1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 Lee Yr7, + 8 7 7 7 8 8 8 Heines Kolben Yr 6,(Yr 2) 8 7 8 8 8 7 7 Vilmorin 23 Yr 3+ 4 6 3 3 5 3 3 Moro Yr 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Strubes Dickkopf Sd, Yr25 7 7 7 7 8 7 7 Suwon 92*Omar SU 7 7 7 7 8 7 7 Clement (W) Yr9+, Cle 7 7 7 5 7 6 7 Triticum spelta album Yr5 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Hybrid 46 Yr4+ 3 5 3 3 4 5 5 Reichersberg 42 (W;Yr7+?) 6 6 7 7 7 8 7 Heines Peko Yr6,Yr2,Yr25,+ 7 7 8 7 8 8 8 Nord Desprez 3N 6 5 5 6 4 7 6 Compair Yr8, + 7 7 7 7 8 7 7 Carstens V Yr32, Yr25, + 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 Spaldings Prolific SP 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Heines VII Yr2,Yr25+ 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Selkirk Yr27 8 7 8 8 8 8 8 Avocet Yr 24 Yr 24 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 İzgi 2001 ATAEM/ESK 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 Opata 85 Yr27,Yr18 8 8 7 8 8 8 8 Federation*4/Kavkaz Yr9 8 8 7 8 8 8 8 Heines VII Yr2,Yr25+ 7 7 7 8 8 9 7 Yr26 Yr26 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 Yellow Rust and Pathotypes
  • 23. 13/ 9 13/18 13/19 13/22 13/32 13/41 13/53 13/54 Chinese 166 Yr1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 Lee Yr7, + 8 7 8 8 7 7 7 7 Heines Kolben Yr 6,(Yr 2) 8 7 7 7 7 7 * 7 Vilmorin 23 Yr 3+ 5 5 1 2 1 1 1 5 Moro Yr 10 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 6-7 Strubes Dickkopf Sd, Yr25 7 7 5-6 7 7 6-7 1 7 Suwon 92*Omar SU 7 7 7 8 7 6-7 1 6 Clement (W-Kışlık) Yr9+, Cle 7 7 5 6-7 1 7 7 7 Triticum spelta album Yr5 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Hybrid 46 Yr4+ 5 1 0 6 1 1 1 1 Reichersberg 42 (W;Yr7+?) 7 7 7 7 6-7 4 5 7 Heines Peko Yr6,Yr2,Yr25,+ 8 5 0 7 7 6 7 6-7 Nord Desprez 3N 6 1-4 0 0 6 6 6 6 Compair Yr8, + 7 6-7 6 0 7 7 6 * Carstens V Yr32, Yr25, + 2 1 1 0 3 2 7 3 Spaldings Prolific SP 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 Heines VII Yr2,Yr25+ 7 5 6 0 7 4 5 1 Selkirk Yr27 7 6 7 8 7 7 6 * Avocet Yr 24 Yr 24 2 1 0 0 2 1 5 1 İzgi 2001 ATAEM/ESK 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 Opata 85 Yr27,Yr18 8 6 8 8 7 7 5 2 Federation*4/Kavkaz Yr9 7 7 8 8 7 7 7 * Heines VII Yr2,Yr25+ 8 7 8 8 8 8 7 1 Yr26 Yr26 2 1 0 0 1 1 * 2 Yellow Rust and Pathotypes
  • 24. 26 Registered varieties Private company Public institute University Total Bread Wheat 58+29 152+2 8 218+31 Durum Wheat 11+3 51 8 70+3 No Cultivar % No Cultivar % No Cultivar % No Cultivar % 1 Ceyhan 99 11 9 Sonmez 2001 2,7 17 Ahmetaga 1,4 25 Basribey 95 0,9 2 Pehlivan 10 10 Kasifbey 95 2,7 18 Cumhuriyet 75 1,2 26 Gelibolu 0,8 3 Bezostaja-1 8 11 Esperia 2,6 19 Quality 1,2 27 Ziyabey 98 0,8 4 Tosunbey 7,2 12 Krasunia Odes'ka 2,3 20 Aldane 1 28 Osmaniyem 0,8 5 Pandas 6,9 13 Sagitario 2,1 21 Syrena Odes'ka 1 29 Meta 2002 0,7 6 Bayraktar 2000 4,8 14 Gonen 98 2,1 22 Altay 2000 1 30 Gun-91 0,7 7 Flamura 85 4,6 15 Selimiye 2 23 Golia 0,9 31 Ekiz 0,4 8 Kate-A1 3,4 16 Adana 99 1,4 24 Konya-2002 0,9 32 Enola 0,4 Registered varieties and estimated planting area of mega cultivars
  • 25. WHAT IS POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE THIS NEW RACE TO THE CULTIVAR IF IT WILL BE SPREAD AND CAUSE EPIDEMIC? 27 -Turkish registered varieties (200 cultivar) were tested against to this new race (Vir Yr27+YRSu) in İzmir under artificial epidemic condition (highly pressure) in the 2013 growing season . -Turkish registered varieties (200 cultivar) were tested against to old race (avir Yr27+Yr Su) in Ankara under artificial epidemic condition (highly pressure) in the 2012 growing season.
  • 26. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Yüreğir-89 Yıldız98 Soyer02 KaşifBey95 Carisma Sagittario Altay2000 Tina Ankara98 Nurkent Murat-1 Aksel2000 ES26 Beşköprü Karacadağ… Colfiorito Pamukova… Meta2002 Gelibolu Kaklıç88 İzmir85 Genç88 BasriBey95 Genç-99 Kenanbey Tahirova… Alibey Menemen Çukurova86 Doğankent1 Seyhan95 Abuşbey Bancal new race (vir on yr 27 +Yr Su) old race CI CULTIVARS CI: Coeficient of the infection The reactions of the bread wheat cultivars to New race and old race of yellow rust
  • 27. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Sivas111/33 Gerek79 Harmankaya-99 Kıraç66 Köksal-2000 Nenehatun Selçuklu-97 Konya-2002 Kaan May8462 SürakM. 1593/51 Mızrak Tosun144 Eminbey Levante Zenit Cemre Özdemirbey-97 new race (vir on yr 27 +Yr Su) old race CI CULTIVARSCI: Coeficient of the infection The reactions of the bread wheat cultivars to New race and old race of yellow rust
  • 28. • Some cultivars were susceptible against new yellow rust race (Vir to + Yr27) –Cultivars Kaşifbey, Basribey, Ziyabey, Meta, Yı ldız, Sagittario, Gelibolu, Enola etc. 30 Control and Alarming
  • 29. 31 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 800,000 900,000 1,000,000 1980's 1990's 2000-2005 2006-2010 2011-2014 Gerek 79 Bayraktar 2000 Sönmez 2001 •Cv. Gerek 79, winter wheat, highly adaptable, drought tolerance, susceptible to yellow rust •Cv. Bayraktar 2000 and Cv. Sönmez 2001 , winter wheat, highly adaptable, drought tolerance, Resistant to new and previous races of yellow rust Total sowing area (ha) Years A success story
  • 30. • In an epidemic season, we assume 30% yield losses in a susceptible cultivar such as Gerek 79, this means around 1 tons/ha. • In total sowing area for two resistant cultivars (Bayraktar 2000 and Sönmez 2001): 650.000 ha*400 USD= 260.000.000 $ USD Through development of the resistant varieties, farmers have income 260.000.000 USD $ in only one epidemic season. 32 Income of the this resistant varieties to the farmers
  • 31. • Especially some old cultivars originated CIMMYT germplasm and introduced from the outside of the country were susceptible to this new race. • Cultivars Kaşifbey, Basribey, Ziyabey, Meta, Yıldız, Sagittario, Gelibolu, Enola etc. • Some old cultivars Kıraç, Gerek 79, Konya 2002 gave lower reactions to new race than the previous races. • The combination of the new yellow rust race and previous races must be taken into consideration by breeder (IWWIP/National) during development of the germplasm 33 Summary
  • 32. Central Research Institute for Field Crops Şehit Cem Ersever Cad. 9-11 Yenimahalle/Ankara Tel: 0 312 343 10 50 / 13 17 Fax: 0 312 343 62 94 Dr. Zafer Mert, mert_zafer@yahoo.com • National Agricultural Research Institutes • ICARDA, Turkey • GRRC, Denmark Acknowledgement

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