Yellow Rust: Threat to Global Wheat Production S. Rajaram Consultant, ICARDA & A. Yahyaoui Senior Cereal Pathologist, ICARDA Coordinator, ICWIP
Wheat Area (Mln. ha), Production (Mln.MT), and Yield (T/ha) FAO Statistics, 2008 Region Area (Mln) Production (Mln.MT) Yield (T/Ha) World 222.76 683.41 3.06 North Africa 6.08 14.47 2.38 Western Asia 12.37 25.57 2.07 Central Asia 15.84 22.79 1.44 Eastern Asia 24.05 113.74 4.73 South Asia 36.00 112.53 3.11 North America 33.37 100.64 3.01 South America 7.37 11.91 1.61 Europe 61.60 248.00 4.03 Australia, NZ 13.57 21.76 1.60
Top 20 wheat Producing countries FAO Statistics, 2008 Rank Country Production (Mln .MT) Rank Country Production (Mln.MT) 1 China 112.46 11 Turkey 17.78 2 India 78.57 12 U.K 17.23 3 USA 68.02 13 Kazakhstan 12.54 4 Russian Fed. 63.76 14 Poland 9.27 5 France 39.00 15 Italy 8.85 6 Canada 28.61 16 Argentina 8.51 7 Germany 25.98 17 Egypt 7.98 8 Ukraine 25.88 18 Iran 7.95 9 Australia 21.42 19 Romania 7.18 10 Pakistan 20.96 20 Brazil 6.03
World total wheat utilization was forecasted to rise by 17 million tonnes, or 2.7 percent, from the stagnant level in 2007/08 World food consumption of wheat in 2008/09 was forecasted to rise to 453 million tonnes, up by 7 million tonnes, or 1.6 percent, from 2007/08 FAO Statistics, 2008
Wheat Yellow (Stripe) Rust <ul><li>Most common and </li></ul><ul><li>widespread rust disease of </li></ul><ul><li>wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Yield losses (10-80%) in CWANA </li></ul><ul><li>Est. value of crop loss could reach > 1 billion USD. </li></ul>Puccinia striiformis fsp tritici Potential affected area of over 30 mln ha in CWANA
Cyclic occurrence of yellow rust epidemics In the Mediterranean Region “ Historical Events”
Production loss of cultivar Achtar : 100,000 T Monetary loss : $ 30 m US dollars Reoccurrence of Yellow rust in Morocco & Turkey Estimated Yield loss Gereck : 40% Monetary loss : > $52 m US dollars
Chemical control of Yellow rust in major wheat producing countries In CWANA Country Fungicide Use Use frequency Uzbekistan, Common Annual basis Azerbaijan Frequent Epidemic years Iran Frequent Epidemic years Turkey Less frequent Sparsely used in 2009; Widely used in 2010 Morocco Not common Sparsely used in 2009; Widely used in 2010 Syria Not common Pakistan Less frequent Sparsely used in 2010 Algeria, Tunisia Not common Fungicide application in epidemic years Egypt Not common Used as request by plant protection Ethiopia Not common Widely used in 2010
Pre-Breeding/ Breeding for yellow rust resistance <ul><li>Previous conferences on yellow rust (Iran 2000, </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan 2004, Uzbekistan 2006, and recently </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>strongly recommended use of Yr5 and Yr15 genes </li></ul><ul><li>Where do we stand on utilization of these genes? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there cultivars released with these genes ? </li></ul>
Pre-Breeding/ Breeding for yellow rust resistance <ul><li>Could key location testing be sufficiently funded to screen </li></ul><ul><li>germplasm and varieties on time and recommended </li></ul><ul><li>to NARS? </li></ul><ul><li>Could field pathology be reinvented to support </li></ul><ul><li>the breeding? </li></ul>
Concluding remarks <ul><li>Varietal Diversification Absolute Necessity in CWANA </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical applications as an important component of YR control </li></ul><ul><li>Seed multiplication of newer varieties on timely basis as </li></ul><ul><li>replacement strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Timely detection and identification of new races of yellow rust </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemic forecasting system in place as regional strategy to advise </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Ministry </li></ul>
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