Yellow Rust Status In Wheat In Kenya


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Wanyera R.1,P.Njau1,S.Bhavani2,K.Nazari3
1 Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Njoro
2 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center( CIMMTY), Nairobi, Kenya
3 International Center For Agricultural Research in Dry Areas( ICARDA), Allepo, Syria

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Yellow Rust Status In Wheat In Kenya

  1. 1. YELLOW RUST STATUS IN WHEAT IN KENYA International Wheat Stripe Rust Symposium 18-20 April, ICARDA Allepo, SyriaWanyera R.1,P.Njau1,S.Bhavani2,K.Nazari31 Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Njoro2 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center( CIMMTY), Nairobi, Kenya3 International Center For Agricultural Research in Dry Areas( ICARDA), Allepo, Syria
  2. 2. IMPORTANCE OF WHEAT KENYA Wheat is 2nd most important cereal to maize Wheat crop grows in wide range of altitudes 1800 - over 2700 MASL Maturity is between 90-145 days depending Location Cultivar Only bread wheat is cultivated Current area - 150,000 ha/year  20% of large scale farmers produce 80%  80% of small scale farmers produce 20% Annual production 313-397 MT Demand /requirement -900,000MT/year Import >60%
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE OF WHEAT KENYARising demand is due to: High population growth Changing eating habits Increased urbanization Also enhanced by exports of wheat products to the neighbouring countries  East Africa Community (EAC)  Common Market for Eastern and South Africa ( COMESA)
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE OF WHEAT IN KENYAProduction has been steadily increasing over the last 20 years • From an average of 1.9t/ha-2.5t/ha • Improved( superior) varieties • Movement to the non-traditional wheat growing areas
  5. 5. CHALLENGES Reappearance of a more virulent stem rust race (Ug99) Other biotic and abiotic factors:  Yellow (stripe ) rust**  Leaf (brown) rust  Septoria spp  Loose smut  Fusarium spp  Spot bloch among others  Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus  Cereal aphids ( e.g. Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA)  Acid soils  Climate change (drought & etc)  High cost of inputs
  6. 6. CHALLENGES The wheat crop is attacked by a number of fungal diseases in Kenya and the major and most important are rusts:
  7. 7. YELLOW(STRIPE) RUST Yellow rust attacked wheat as early as 1908 Major threat a very year and no commercial variety is resistant Disease severity increases with altitude Serious epidemics also occur in lower altitudes (1800 masl) In the past resistance became ineffective in less than six years, but now newly introduced resistant varieties loose resistance within a short time Now even latest releases have succumbed to Yr infection (e.g NjoroBWII) among others
  8. 8. COMMERCIAL VARIETIESVariety Parentage and Pedigree Year of releaseNjoro BWII CM8181-12y-06PZ-4y-5m-0y-2AL-0AL-0M 2001Njoro BWII Mutant 2001Chozi F1271/CoC//Gen.CM76689-3y-08m-02y-4B-2y-0B- 1999Kenya Heroe Mbuni/SRPC64//YRPC1 1999K.Yombi Mbuni/SRPC64//YRPC5 1999Mbega Fink “S” 1993Duma R674-AV/UP301//GLL/SX/3/PEW ‟S‟/4/MAI ”S”//PEW „S‟- 1993 CM67245Ngamia SW53=Buck Buck”S”CM31678 1993K.Chiriku KTB/Carpintero “S” 1989Kwale Kinglet,Cm33089-W 1987Mbuni Za75/Ld357E-T3x Gu,x30520-IB-IB-3Y-0Y 1987K. Kulungu On/Tr.207/3/CNO//SON64/4/6648-2- 1982
  9. 9. COMMERCIAL VARIETIESVariety Parentage &Pedigree Year of releaseK. Kongoni C18154/2*Fr/2/*Romm/3/WIS.245-II-50-17/C8154/2/2*Fr 1981K. Nyangumi R23/AFM//K6877=TZPP//SK6 1979 E/LR64HDM/3/AFM/4/KWS/K6661-53K. Paka Wis.245/II-50-17//C18154/2*Fr/3/2*Tob.66 1977K.Fahari Cross.6582xTobari66=TOBARI 66/SRPC527//eI8154/3/2 1977 K6661-53K.Tembo Wis.245/II-50-17//CI8154/2*Fr/3/2*Tob.66 1975
  10. 10. OLD WHEAT VARIETIESVariety Pedigree Year of releaseK. Kudu K131XK184.P.2A.I.F-K.7.K.2 1966K.Leopard (lagxK354P3)X(C.1.12632X354.P3)- 1966 A.2.A.1Trophy T-K2XY50-V1-42-17h-1r-1m 1968
  11. 11. EVALUATION OF YELLOW RUST ON COMMERCIAL VARIETIES 36 39 42 16-18 commercial wheat SUDAN ETHIOPIA varieties evaluated in 8 sites Lake Turukana 3 3 ( 5yrs) UGANDA Design RCB in 3 replicates ENDEBBES SOMALIA ELDORET TIMAU 0 0 Plot size 1.5x6m (8 rows) MOLO NJORO Mount Kenya Lake LANET Victoria MAU-NAROK NAIVASHA NAIROBI Disease score taken twice ( modified Cobb scale 3 TANZANIA 3 Indian Ocean 0 100 200 km Mombasa 0 100 200 ml 36 39 42
  12. 12. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF COMMERCIAL VARIETIES TO YELLOW RUST IN SELECTED SITESVariety Year of 2002 2001 2002 2004 release Timau MauNarok Timau MauNar Endebess MauNar Njoro Molo MauNaro ok ok kNjoro BWII 2001 - - - - - 40M 50S 20S 0NjoroBWI 2001 - - - - - 40MR 90S 60M 30S SChozi 1999 0 80MS 40MS 60S 40R 40S 70S 50S 50SKenya 1999 0 TR TMS 30MS 30R 5MR 40S 10S 70SHeroeK.Yombi 1999 - - TMS TS 30R 30MS 30MS 40S 0Duma 1993 1 60S TR 60S 10R 30M 90S 50S 30SMbega 1993 30S 80S 60MS 60MR 5MS 15S 50S 20S 30SNgamia 1993 0 60MS 70MS 60MS 30R 60S 70S 50S 50SPasa 1989 0 60MS 20M 50S 40MR 20S 60S 30S 30SK.Chiriku 1989 20S 85S TS 50S 30R 30M 40S 70S 60SKwale 1987 0 60MS 30MS 70S 40MR 10S 20MR 60S 20S 1Mt. Kenya Region 3North Rift 2Central Rift
  13. 13. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF COMMERCIAL VARIETIES TO YELLOW RUST IN SELECTED SITESVariety Year of 2002 2001 2002 2004 release 1Tima 2MauNar 1Tima 2MauNar 3Endebes 2MauNaro 2Njoro 2Molo 2MauNar u ok u ok s k okMbuni 1987 20MS 30MS TMR 60S 30R 70S 40S 60S 20SK.Popo 1982 0 25MR TMR 40S 30R 20S 70S 50S 40SK.Kongoni 1981 30MS - 10M 50S 50S 20MR 60S 50S 20SK.Nyangumi 1979 40S 50MS - 60S 30R 40S 40S 60S 20SK.Paka 1977 10MS 90S 60MS 50S 40MR 30M 0 20S 60SK.Fahari 1977 30MS 60MSS - 40S 30R 40M 80S 60S 40SK.Tembo 1975 15MS 60MS 5M 40S 30R 20S 40S 40S 30S 1 Mt. Kenya Region 2 Central Rift 3 North Rift
  14. 14. SURVEYSSurvey areas: South Rift (Narok) North Rift (Uasin-Gishu,Elgeyo Marakwet,Trans-Nzioa, Mt.Elgon) Central Rift ( Nakuru, Naivasha, Njoro, Rongai, Bahati) Mt. Kenya region ( Laikipia, Nyahururu, Meru)• Farms were picked at random stopping at 3-5 km ornearest farm in sparsely distributed areas Survey Form is used to record GPS readings on: Way point Elevation Latitude Longitude Growth stage of the crop Disease severity (modified Cobb scale) among others
  15. 15. OCCURRENCE OF YELLOW RUST IN COMMERCIAL FIELDSYear Region Site (s) No.of %Yr Yr severity farms infection sampled2007 South Rift Narok 75 4 TR-30S2008 South Rift Narok 65 17 0-75S2008 North Rift Uasin-Gishu,Elgeyo 99 26.6 0-100S Marakwet,Trans- Nzioa, Mt.Elgon Central Nakuru, Naivasha, 59 3.5 0-20S Rift Njoro, Rongai, Bahati Mt. Kenya Laikipia, Nyahururu, 70 10.0 0-80S Meru2009 South Rift Narok 131 7.6 0-80S North Rift Uasin-Gishu,Elgeyo 88 21.6 0-80S Marakwet,Trans- Nzioa, Mt.Elgon
  16. 16. YELLOW RUST OCCURRENCE IN COMMERCIAL FIELDSYear Region Site(s) No.of % infection Severity farms sampled2010 South Rift Narok 101 11.0 0-60S2010 Central Nakuru, 40 17.0 0-60S Rift Naivasha2010 North Rift Uasin- 82 10.9 0-50S Gishu,Elgeyo Marakwet,Tra ns-Nzioa, Mt.Elgon
  17. 17. TRAP NURSERY Disease Trap nursery comprising : 3rd IYRTN ( 75 entries) was planted in Timau (3079 MASL) March 2010) 4th IYRTN ( 85 entries) Eldoret(2181 MASL), June 2010 4th IYRTN ( 75 entries ( MauNarok(2806 MASL) Each entry was planted in double rows of 0.5M Disease notes taken twice (modified Cobb scale)
  18. 18. RESULTS -TRAP NURSERY Severe infection of yellow rust in the 3 sites: Minimum infection in Eldoret (60%) Maximum infection (100%) in both Timau and MauNarok Results indicated the presence of virulence for: Yr1, Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr25 and Yr27
  19. 19. TRAP NURSERYCultivar Yr Gene Mau Narok( Eldoret(2181 Timau(3079 (2606masl) (masl) masl)Super Kauz Yr9,Yr27,Yr18 30S 60M 100SPastor Attila Yr31+APR 5S 40M 100SMorocco 100S 40S 100SAttila CM85836-50Y-OM-OY-3M-0Y Yr27+? 0 40M 100SChines 166(w;Yr1) (W;Yr1) 100S 20S 100SLee ( S:Yr7) (S;Yr17) 20S 15MS 100SHeines Kolben (S;Yr6+1) (S;Yr6+1) 5S 0 100SVilmorin 23 (W:Yr3a, 4a+other) (W;Yr3a,4a+other) 40S TR 100SMoro(W:Yr10) (W;Yr10) 0 TR 100SStrubes Dickopf( W:2-More?) (W;2-more?) 0 TR 100SSuwon 92xOmar (W) (W) 0 TR 80SClement (W:Yr9+Yr2+?) (W;Yr9+Yr2+?) 60S 0 20SMorocco 100S 30S 100SHybrid 46(W:Yr14) (W;Yr4) 5S 0 10SReinchersberg 42((W:Yr7+1) (W;Yr7+) 0 15MS 80SHeine’s Peko (S;Yr6+1) (S;Yr6+?) 0 30S 100SNord Desprez (W;YrND) W;YrND) 0 5MS 10S
  20. 20. TRAP NURSERYCultivar Yr Gene Mau-Narok Eldoret TimauCompaire (S;Yr8) (S;Yr8) 0 0 5SCastens V(W;Yr32) (W;Yr32) TR TR 80SSpalding Prolific( W;YrSP) (W;YrSP) 100S 40M 100SHeines VII(W;Yr2+?) (W;Yr2+?) 40S 0 100SFederation 100S 30MS 100SMorroco 100S 30S 100SFed.4/Kavkaz(Yr9) Yr9 100S 30M 100STriticum spelta (Inter,Yr5) Yr5 10S 5S 15SKalyansona (s) Yr2 90S 30M 10MTATARA CM85836-50Y-0M-0Y- 20S 40S 100S2M-0Y-0PAKAnza Yr A,Yr8 60S 30M 100SCham 1(DW) DW 100S 5R 100SCook (S) APR 60S TR 50SJupateco ‘R’(S) Yr18+ 100S 40S 10SJupateco ‘S’ 30S 60S 100SMorocco 100S 30S 100SAvocet S 40S 10R 100S
  21. 21. TRAP NURSERYCultivar Yr Gene Mau-Narok Eldoret TimauAvocet R YrA 60S 10R 10MSYr1/6/* Avocet S Yr1 30S 40S 100SYr5/6/* Avocet S Yr5 10S 5MR 70SYr6/6/* Avocet S Yr6 20S 15MR 100SYr7/6/* Avocet S Yr7 20S 10MR 100SYr8/6/* Avocet S Yr8 60S TR 100SYr9/6/* Avocet S Yr9 70S 5MR 100SYr10/6/* Avocet S Yr10 10S R 100SMorroco 100S 30S 80SYr15/6/* Avocet S Yr15 0 R 5SYr17/6/* Avocet S Yr17 0 R 100SYr18/6/* Avocet S Yr18 0 15M 100SYr27/6* AOC Yr27 0 5MAVOCET- Yr28 40S 15MR 80SYRA*3/3/ALATAR84/AE.SQ//OPATACGSS00Y0024T-099M-20YAvocet-YRA83/PASTOR CGSS00Y00207T- Yr31 0 60M 40S099M-1YYrSP/6*Avocet S YrSP 60S 50S 100SYRCV/6*AOC Yr CV 60S 15MR 100SYr26 Yr Line R55 40S TR 40S
  22. 22. TRAP NURSERYCultivar Yr Gene Mau-Narok Eldoret TimauMorroco 100S 20S 80SYr24 Yr24 20S TR 90SYr26 Yr26 5S 5M 50SYr27 Yr27 60S TR 100SYrSp Yrsp 5S TR 40STre/6*AVS TR TR 100STP981 ? 15S -TP1295 Yr25 25S -Ciano 79 Yr27 20S -Lai Bahadur/Pavon 1BL Yr27 15S -Morrocco 20S -Inia66 YrA 20S -Lee Yr22,Yr23 15S -Fieder Yr6,Yr20 50S -Lemhi Yr21 25S -Thatcher Yr7 20S -
  23. 23. CONCLUSION Results revealed severe infection of yellow rust Yellow rust is on the increase in Kenya Strengthen race typing Joint effort is required for resistance breeding
  24. 24. THANK YOU