Yellow rust epidemic on bread wheat, and population of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici virulences in Syria GCSAR Report for International Wheat Stripe Rust Symposium, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria (18 - 20 April, 2011) Al-Chaabi, S., T. Abu-Fadel, Y. Omran and W. Taweel General Commission of Scientific Agricultural Research, Syria, Damascus, Douma, P. O. Box 113, E [email_address]
Introduction: The total population of Syria is about 20 millions, the amount of wheat grain needs for seed and consumptions about 3.6 million tons, the total production was about 3 million tons in 2010 growing season, whereas the annual average of wheat grain production was 5 million tons. Some biotic and abiotic stresses (Yellow rust, harmful insects, warm weather in the beginning of season, Frost, drought…) were the main reasons for decreasing wheat grain production during previous growing season.
Wheat rusts presented in Syria during 2010 growing season The environmental conditions (Rainfall frequency, high humidity and moderate temperature) during January, February, March 2010 were favorable for the development of yellow rust disease in most of governorates. Yellow rust was recorded in all governorates where the bread wheat was grown, meanwhile leaf rust was more adapted to durum wheat. Stem rust was recorded in four governorates (Dara’a, Hama, Homs and Tartous) on differentials set. SR was also observed on Cham 4, Cham 6, Bohouth 4, Bohouth 6, ACSAD 981, ACSAD 1071, ACSAD 1133, Douma 42151, Douma 40447, Douma 40444 and Douma 48114 cultivars in Jilen research center (Dara’a). The disease severity (%) and infection type ranged from 5MS to 80S. Jilen (Dara’a research center) Al-Kamishly research center (AL-Hasakeih) AL-Tanboo research station (Malkeih) Yahmool research station (Aleppo) Al-Ghab research center (Hama) Al-Jemaseih research station (Tartous) Homs research center Rusts + + + + + + + Yellow rust + + + + + + + Leaf rust + _ _ _ + + + Stem rust
Yellow rust was recorded on all growing bread wheat cultivars “ mainly on cham 8, Cham 10, Cham 6 and Bohouth 8 ", Leaf rust was recorded on many durum wheat cultivars in all governorates. Whereas Stem rust was recorded on some differential and grown cultivars in some research centers Distribution of wheat rust diseases incidence in Syria during 2010 growing season
- Absent, + Sporadic (Low), ++ Moderate, +++ Wide spread (High) The incidence of wheat yellow rust disease in different agro-climatic settlements of Syria during 2010 growing season YR incidence was widespread, high epidemic on bread wheat in most surveyed settlements of Syrian governorates during 2010 season, mainly in irrigated and 1 st settlements. YR incidence was moderate in 2 nd settlement on bread wheat at Edlib, Hama, Homs governorates and in Latakia and Damascus countryside. YR incidence was sporadic or absent in DC, Tartous, Dara’a and Al-Qunaitrah governorates Wheat growing zones Governorate Second settlement First settlement Irrigated zone Durum Bread Durum Bread Durum Bread - +++ + +++ + +++ Aleppo - ++ + +++ + +++ Edlib - ++ + +++ + +++ Hama (Al-Ghab) - ++ + +++ + +++ Homs - +++ + +++ + +++ Al-Raqqa - - - - + +++ Dair Al-Zour - +++ + +++ + +++ Al-Hasakeh - ++ Latakia - + - ++ Damascus countryside - - Tartous - - Al-Qunaitrah - - - - Daraa
+++ Wide spread (High); ++ Moderate; + Sporadic (Low); - Absent The incidence of yellow rust disease on bread wheat in different agro-climatic settlements of Syria during 2010 growing season
Source of YR primary inoculum (urediniospores) for Syria was from the outside the country, due to two reasons:
The green bridge is not existing for the pathogen asexual reproduction during long dry warm summer and autumn.
No alternative host needs for pathogen sexual reproduction has been recorded in Syria.
The pathogen (urediniospores) was possibly introduced to Syria by north or north-east or north west winds based on:
The disease incidence was varied among locations, it was high (widespread) in north and north-east of Syria, and sporadic or absent in west and west south of the country.
The number of YR population virulences also was varied among locations, It was 19 virulences in north-east of Syria, and 10 virulences in west –south of country and one in west of Syria.
Performance of some released bread wheat cultivars to yellow rust in on-farm and large scale field trials during 2010 growing season All released bread wheat cultivars were infected with YR but in different values of disease severity (%) and reaction type Homs (First zone) Dara’a-Jileen (First zone) Hama-Al-Ghab (First zone) Hama-Jurjeseih (Irr.) Aleppo-Yahmool(First zone) Dar Al-Zor (Irr.) Al-Raqqa (Irr.) Al-Kamishly (First zone) Malkeih-Al-yanboo (Irr.) Cultivars O - 5MS 17MR 20MS 70S 60-100S Goulan2 O - R 10R R-5MR 25MR 30-60 MSS Douma2 O TR 10R 5R-MR 25MS 20-40MS Douma4 20MR O 50MS 5MR-75S 40MS 25S 50MS 30-60 MS, 50S Cham 4 50MSS O 60S 50MR-15MS 70S 50S 60S 90S Cham 6 50MS-85S O 80S 100S 20MR-20MS 70S 60-70S 70S 100S Cham 8 O 95S 20MS 70S 60-70S 10S 90-100S Cham10 O R 25MR 10MS 35MS 60MS Bohouth4 10R-MR O 20MS 15MR 25MR 15MS 35MS 60MS Bohouth6 O 100S 20MS 60S 45-60S 60S 90-100S Bohouth8
Performance of some promising bread wheat varieties to yellow rust in some Syrian zones, 2010 All promising bread wheat varieties were infected with YR but in different values of disease severity (%) and reaction type Dara’a-Jileen (First zone) Homs (First zone) Hama-Jurjeseih (Irr. zone) Dar Al-Zor (Irr. zone) Al-Raqa (Irr. zone) Al-Kamishly (First zone) Malkeih-Al-yanboo (Irr. zone) Varieties O - 10R 10MS - 20-30MSS ACSAD 981 O - - 15MR TR ACSAD 1133 O - - 25MR 40MS ACSAD 1071 O - 70S 40S - 100S Douma 17322 O - - 60S 80S Douma 42064 O - - 60S 100S Douma 42151 O - - 50MS 60MS Douma 40447 O - - 40MS 60MS Douma 40444 O - - 40MS 60MS Douma 48114 100S 65S - 90S Douma 40306 70S 40MS 40MS Douma 40765 70S 45MS - 90S Douma 40697 80S 30MS - 90S Douma 40700 100S 80S - 90S Douma 42828 20MS 15MR - 50MS Douma 48335 TR Babaqa 3
Disease severity (%) and infection type Governorates 60-80S 80-100S Al-Hassaka (Tal-Tamr, Markadeh, Ras Al-Ain) Al-Kamishly (Research Center in Al-Kamishly and Al-Yanboo, Malkeih) 70-80S Dar Al-Zor 70S Al-Raqqa 20MS-60S Aleppo 50-80S Idleb 90-100S Hama (Al-Ghab, Jurjeseh) 60-80S Lattakia (Farmer fields) 60-80S Homs 20MS Damascus countryside (Katana) - Dara’a - Tartous Cham8 (the most grown cultivar in Syria) was high susceptible to YR in all governorates with exception for Damascus countryside, its infection type was MS, whereas it was resistant/moderate resistant under artificial infection conditions by ICARDA data for 2008/2009 season Performance of Cham8 bread wheat cultivar to yellow rust disease in Syrian governorates, 2010
Cham8 (the most grown cultivar in Aleppo governorate) was susceptible in all irrigated zones, meanwhile its infection type was MS in 1 st and 2 nd settlements Disease severity (%) and infection type Regions 10-15S Hamemeih (Irrigated Zone) 20S Mabaker Maskaneih (Irrigated Zone) 20-40S Monshait Al-Asaad (Irrigated Zone) 40S Radaeih Al-Haberah (Irrigated Zone) 60S Maskaneih Shark (Irrigated Zone) 20MS Yahmool (1 st settlement) 15MS Tal-Hadia (2 nd settlement) Performance of Cham8 bread wheat cultivar to yellow rust disease in different regions of Aleppo province, 2010
Performance of some released and promising durum wheat cultivars to yellow rust in on-Farm field trials during 2010 growing season The reaction types of released and promising durum wheat cultivars to YR ranged between R and MS under natural infection conditions, they were more adapted to leaf rust. Disease severity and infection type Promising genotypes Disease severity and infection type Released cultivars R - 5MS Douma 43505 R - 10MS Bohouth 7 Douma 41149 Bohouth 9 Douma 45797 Bohouth 11 Douma 45367 Douma 1 Douma37163 Cham 1 Douma 41008 Cham 3 Douma 43205 Cham 5 Douma 41063 Cham 7 SH-7361 Cham 9 Douma 45404 ACSAD 65 Douma 41239 Hourani Douma 41240 -
Recorded P. striiformis f. sp. tritici virulences on differential cultivars in different Syrian zones during 2010 growing season Total numbers of presented YR virulences were varied among locations, it was 19 virulences in north east of Syria, 11-13 in central longitude (Aleppo, Al-Ghab and Homs), 10 in south-west of the country (Dara’a), whereas it was one in the west of country at Mediterranean seaside (Tartous). Yr7 virulence was found in all locations; Yr6, Yr9, YrA, Yr18, Yr20, Yr21, Yr27 and Yr28 in six locations; Yr25 in five locations; Yr2 and Yr31 in four locations; Yr29 in three locations; Yr22, Yr23, YrMor, Yr18+, YrCv and Yr17 in two locations; Yr27+? In one location. Homs Tartous Hama (Al-Ghab) Dara’a (Jileen) Aleppo (Yahmool) Al-Kamishly Al-Kamishly, Malkeih (Al-yanboo) Pathogen virulences Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr9, YrA, Yr18, Yr20, Yr21, yr25, Yr27 , Yr27+?, Yr28, yr31 Yr7 Yr6, Yr7, Yr9, YrA, Yr18, Yr20, Yr21, Yr25, yr27 , Yr28, Yr31 Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr9, YrA, Yr18, Yr20, Yr21, Yr27, Yr28 Yr6, Yr7, Yr9, YrA, Yr18, Yr20, Yr21, yr25, yr27 , Yr28, Yr29 Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr9, YrMor, Yr17 , YrCv, YrA, Yr18, Yr18+, Yr20, yr21, Yr22, Yr23, Yr25, yr27 , Yr28, Yr29, Yr31 Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr9, YrMor, Yr17 , YrCv, YrA, Yr18, Yr18+, Yr20, yr21, Yr22, Yr23, Yr25, yr27 , Yr28, Yr29, Yr31 Presented P. striiformis f. sp. tritici virulences 13 1 11 10 11 19 19 Total number of presented YR virulences
Pedigrees and origins of released bread wheat cultivars in Syria Except for Cham8, Cham10 and Bohouth8, the pedigrees of grown bread wheat cultivars in Syria are not identical and their effective resistant genes to YR pathogen are not known. the resistant genes in most of them were over come by new PST virulences during 2010 growing season Origin Pedigree Released year Environmental region Symbol Cultivar CM39816-1S-1AP-OAP Flk's'- Hork 1986 Irrigated and first zones Flk's'- Hork Cham-4 CM39992-8M-7Y-OM W3918/Jup 1991 First and second zones Niser Cham-6 CM67458-4Y-1 M-3Y-1 M-4Y JOPATICOCM67458-F-3/BLUEAY/VEE`S`-T-81 (KAUZ) Memof 22 2000 Irrigated zone Memof 22 Cham-8 FAO S201* 1987 Irrigated and first zones S-201 Bohouth-4 CM40457 Crow"s" 1991 Irrigated and first zones C-6419 Bohouth-6 ACSW-7957-2IZ-8IZ-3IZ-OI2 VEE'S'/BOW'SV/ALD'S'-PVN'S' 2004 Second zone أكساد 885 Douma-2 CMBW90M4994-OTOPY-BI< KAUZ/KAUZ//STAR 2004 Irrigated zone KAUZ/KAUZ//STAR Cham-10 CM67458 JAPATEiCO-F-73/BLUEJAY//URESVee'S'-T-81 2007 Irrigated zone D-19918 Bohouth-8 ATRIS-1 (SHUHA-17/GHURAB-1) 2007 First zone عتريس -2 Golan-2 ACSW-8024-14IZ-1IZ-3IZ- ACSAD592/4/C182.24/C168.3/3/Cno*2/7c//Cc/Tob 2007 Second zone أكساد 901 Douma-4
Reasons of epidemic status of yellow rust disease on grown bread wheat cultivars in Syria during 2010 growing season
Unusually favorable environmental conditions, which prevailed where bread wheat was grown, For example in Malkeih (monthly average rainfall ranged between 40 - 88 ml during January and April 2010), weekly rainfall frequency, daily decreasing sunshine hours, daily mean temperature ranged between 2-25 C). These conditions played an important role for YR epidemic status incidence in previous season.
71-80% of wheat cultivated area in Al-Raqqa, Al-Hasakeih and Dar Al-Zor governorates (North and north-east of the country) were grown with susceptible bread wheat cultivars (Cham8, Cham10, Cham6 and Bohouth8).
Present of some YR virulences, such as; Yr27 in most locations and Yr17 and Yr27 in North-east of the country which able to attack new resistant genes.
Application of high rates of wheat seed and nitrogen nutrients …etc. actively shared in the incidence of YR epidemic status in previous season.
Except for Yr2 , Yr6 , Yr7 , Yr9 , YrMor , Yr17 , YrCv , YrA , Yr18 , Yr18+ , Yr20 , Yr21 , Yr22 , Yr23 , Yr25 , Yr27 , Yr27+? , Yr28 , Yr29 and Yr31 , many other resistant genes ( Yr1 , YrHVII , YrSD , YrSu , Yr3a , Yr4 , Yr4a , Yr4b , Yr5 , Yr8 , Yr10 , Yr15 , Yr16 , Yr19 , YrCle , YrSp , APR , and Yr32 have remained effective against presented virulences.
More than one YR virulences ( Yr7 , Yr17 and Yr27 ) were contributed in outbreak of severe epidemic status on most grown bread wheat cultivars in Syria during the previous season. The pedigrees of grown bread wheat cultivars in Syria are not identical and their effective resistant genes to YR pathogen are not known.