Uzbekistan: Water and Food Security Case Study


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Uzbekistan: Water and Food Security Case Study

  1. 1. Case study water and foodsecurityInternational Conference on Policies for Water and FoodSecurity in Dry Areas24th to 26th of June, Cairo, EgyptViktor Dukhovny (Scientific – Information Center SIC ICWC),Shukhrat Mukhamedjanov (Scientific – Information Center SICICWCUzbekistan
  2. 2. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt2Uzbekistan total area44.74mln.haIrrigated area – 4.223mln.haPopulation:by 2013– 30 mln.growth by 2050 –more than 40 mln
  3. 3. I. Overview of the nationalagricultural sectorInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt3Role of agriculture and irrigated farming in the national economy199060,7739,23share of agriculture and irrigated farming in the nationaleconomyshare of other sectors of the national economy201057,0642,94share of agriculture and irrigated farming in the nationaleconomyshare of other sectors of the national economy
  4. 4. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt4Indicators of social inequity in Uzbekistan
  5. 5. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt5Social accessCountryProportion of undernourished in total population1990-92 1995-97 2000-02 2006-08 Change so far%Uzbekistan 18 12 10 10 -44
  6. 6. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt6Structure of agricultural lands, (th. he.)1980 1990 2010totalpercapita totalpercapita totalpercapitaUnder cultivation 4986 0,33 5190 0,255489 0,19Irrigated 3688 0,25 4324 0,214385 0,15Proportionirrigated area tototal undercultivation 74% 83% 80%
  7. 7. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt7Areas under main crops, th. haCottonCottonFoddeFodderrGrainGraincropscrops OrchardsOrchards CornCorn RiceRiceVegetabVegetableslesVine-Vine-yardsyards PotatoPotatoHome-Home-stead plotsstead plots1990 1854 843 822 294 121 146 146 138 42 462% 38 17 17 6 2 3 3 3 1 92010 1339 316 1442 758 45 80 158 114 65 525% 28 7 30 16 1 2 3 2 1 11
  8. 8. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt8Change in crop yield, ton per hectareCottonCottonCerealCerealssOrcharOrchardsdsVege-Vege-tablestablesVine-Vine-yardsyardsFoddeFodderr19901990 2.76 2.64 3.44 19.2 6.39 9.5420102010 2.76 3.79 2.56 20.0 4.19 11.84
  9. 9. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt9Water supply dynamics in Uzbekistan1980 1990 2000 2011Total water withdrawal,km3 76.7 65.5 53.3 51.5Water withdrawal percapita, th. m3 5,10 3,20 2,20 1,99Water withdrawal forirrigation, km3 58.8 46.1 44.7 43.2Water consumption perha, th. m3 15,90 10,70 8,04 10,30
  10. 10. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt10II. The initial challenge• Climate change impact: reduced flow, severity ofextreme events;• Demographic pressure – population growth 1.2 – 1.8%year;• Land degradation;• Poor water management;• Competition between power and irrigation;• Ongoing restructuring of agrarian farming;• Instability of market and prices.
  11. 11. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt11What we have now?From one side – scientificscientific:• Huge scope of decisions, knowledge, recommendations;• Huge data base in different directions and specifics;• Forecasts and optimizations;• Human potential.From other side - water and land userswater and land users:• Lack of knowledge;• Deficiency of experience;• Weakness of governance;• Difficulty with approach to data and forecast;• Absence of ongoing recommendations.
  12. 12. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt12Change in total amount of precipitation for March-August(Fergana weather station)29,9177,1101,0137,335,185,9124,276,20204060801001201401601802002000 2003 2004 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011YearsPrecipitation,totalChange in total temperatures for March-August (Fergana)130,4120,0127,5119,3137,7124,8127,9129,91101151201251301351402000 2003 2004 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011YearsTotaltemperatures
  13. 13. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt13Water supplied for irrigation is lost due to waterdischarge from irrigated fields and deep infiltration
  14. 14. Transboundary problemArtificial floodsin winterWater shortagesin the summerConsequences of the energy reservoirs regime
  15. 15. Mode of operation of the reservoir (Toktogul)Mode of operation of the reservoir (Toktogul)periodsThe inflow to thereservoir during thevegetationperiodThe volume of water releases ,billionм3vegetationnon-vegetationperiodTotalbefore … 1990 y. 8,9 8,5 3,2 11,7periods 1991…2000 y.8,9 6,0 7,3 13,3After 2000 year 10,4 5,4 8,2 13,6
  16. 16. • In 2007, the Foundation was set up land reclamation.• A state program of reclamation of irrigated lands in the period of 2008 - 2012years.• Allocated about $ 500 million.• Improved reclamation of 1.2 million hectares of irrigated land .• Reduced the area is strong - and medium saline lands by 81.2 thousand hectares• Lowered the water table in the area of 365 ha​​• Particular attention is paid to the development of water-saving irrigationtechnologies, particularly drip irrigation system.• Total area of the drip irrigation system is approximately 10.0 hectares in 2013 is​​planned to 3,5 haMeasures to improve the reclamation of irrigated land andwater useIII. Actions implemented
  17. 17. Diversification of agricultural productionDiversification of agricultural productionOther crops50 %Other crops70 %20201212 гг1919880 г0 гCotton50 %Cotton30 %water capacitywater capacityculturecultureLess watercultureirrigated areairrigated area
  18. 18. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt18Evaluation of water resources available for use in the Aral Sea Basin, km3
  19. 19. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt19Combination of climatic and water managementscenarios
  20. 20. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt20Introduction IWRM
  21. 21. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt21Use of drought-tolerant varietiesVariety “Gulistan" “Turon"Earliness115-118days115-120Mass of 1boll5-7 g 6.5 gFiber yield 38% 0.37Fiber length1.20 inches1.15-1.17inchesMicroneir 4.1-4.3 4.4Tolerance to wilt to wiltYields 3.5-4.0 t/ha 3.5-4.0 t/haIrrigationnorm1200 m3/ha 2500 m3/haCotton Breeding and Seed ageResearch Institute of Uzbekistan
  22. 22. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt22Actual water delivery in growingseason along South Fergana TrunkChannelover 2003-2009IV. Results & impacts
  23. 23. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt23The water supply reduced by 30%, and water lossesreduced from 49% to 20% in relation to water supply
  24. 24. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt24Comparative evaluation of average waterproductivity in the province and on WPI-PL projectpilot sites, m3/ha (cotton)00,20,40,60,81Average forprovince2009 2010 2011Water productivity(cotton), kg/m3Uzbekistan
  25. 25. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt25Soil productivity improvementLEGUMESIt is well-known that such crops as green gram, Russian bean, and soy bean are thesources of protein, the deficit of which affects almost half of the world’s population,according to FAO. However, even in case of provision with the animal protein, thevegetable protein is an essential easily absorbed element. And this is not the onlyadvantage of given family of crops. These crops are capable of improving landfertility by accumulating organic matter. Besides, the absorption and accumulationof nitrogen in the soil makes these crops unique in terms of their utility.The nodule bacteria in the roots of those plants can absorb nitrogen from the air,thus increasing considerably the nitrogen content both in the soil and in the plant.
  26. 26. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt26Calculation of water use in WUA AkbarabadHMZ- hydro module zoning
  27. 27. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt27Transboundary water cooperation inthe Aral Sea basinPRODUCTIVITYOF LANDS IN CREASEDON 116-127%250 mln.mWATER SAVINGPER YEAR37000 PERSONSTRAINING LEVEL OF UNDERSTANDINGMORE THAN 15 THOUSANDPERSONSRESULTS OFIWRM FERGHANAIMPROVEMENTOF WATER USE138 th.ha
  28. 28. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt28V. Lessons LearnedCapacity building and human resources development for broaderimplementation of IWRM in Central Asia (training, social mobilization,etc.)To address principal challenges, it is necessary to:Establish a strong system of innovation implementation and dissemination ofexperience on IWRM.Promote innovations into water delivery services - to create stability and efficientwater supply, including: a) build up strong interrelations between waterhierarchy levels by economic, legal and managerial tools b) Water-Food–Energy nexus.Promote innovations into more effective water use, including: a) broadimplementation of water saving and reduce average water delivery per hectareon 20-30% by 2030, b) increase water productivity on 50% by 2030, c)cultivation of drought resistant crops.Increase women involvement in water management and governance.Pilot testing of IWRM in specific zones: a) in upper watershed, b) in lowlands ofAmudarya and Syrdarya rivers.
  29. 29. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt29What are the new and emerging challenges related to water managementand food security?It was established that in addition to the technological deficiencies and errors made bythe farmers, there are major issues related to improper or inadequate organization ofthe water supply system by water suppliers, which have significant impact.Existing regulations and laws on water planning and supply, set by the relevantdepartments and ministries are mainly only up to WUA level.There is no structure, which on a regular basis during their formation would giverecommendations on how new structures should work keeping in mind that organizedfarms have a much smaller area than the old style of collective farms.How they should use technological approaches in water allocation among farmers, whatlegal operational documentation is necessary to take into account water demand andsupply, what should be the foundation that provides efficiency of the system of fundingthe WUAs.As a result, the first to suffer from a lack of organization, is the farmer and his fields, andthis affects the productivity of land and water.VI. Emerging issues
  30. 30. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt30What ideas, suggestions on policies, investments, practices, technologiesdo you have to tackle these emerging challenges?
  31. 31. VII. Main recommendations to policy-makersfor scaling-up, and for reducing constraintsInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt31
  32. 32. Thanks for listeningQuestions, comments and suggestions are welcome