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Turkey: Water Management for Water and Food Security


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  • 1. GroundwaterManagementfor WaterandFoodSecurityandImportanceof CooperativeIrrigationManagementsin TurkeyInternational Conference on Policies for Water and FoodSecurity in Dry Areas24th to 26th of June, Cairo, EgyptPresenter: Metin TÜRKER, Ph.DDeputy General DirectorMinistry of Food Agriculture and LivestockTURKEY
  • 2. Contents• Introduction• Agricultural Sector• Water and Land Resources in Turkey• Groundwater Policy, Organization, Investment• Groundwater Management• Challenges on Groundwater Use – Learned Lessons• Good Experiences• RecommendationsInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt2
  • 3. Geographic Location of Turkey Total Population 75 Million Rural Population 17 Million (23%) Urban Population 58 Million(75%)26 °- 45 ° eastern longitudes36 ° - 42 ° northern altitudesLand Use Area Mha %Agricultural land 38,2 49,1Farm (Cultivated) land 24,5 31,5Natural grass land 14,6 18,8Forest land 21,5 27,6Settlement and others 3,5 5.0Total 77,8 100.03InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 4. Agricultural Sector In Turkey74 million domestic, 30 million touristLiving regionEmploymentFood ProductionRow materialExport23 % of population lives in rural6,1 million employees (25 %),11% of all export share (16 Billion $)3622 $For Industry such as textile, sugarindustry,Agriculture is an economic sectorIncome4InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 5. TURKEY• is self-sufficient country in terms of food• exports many agricultural products such ascereals, pulses, industrial crops, sugar, nuts, fresh anddried fruits, vegetables, olive oil, and livestock products.• is the top producer ofhazelnut, cherries, fig, apricot, quinces andpomegranates• has an estimated total of 12,054 plant species, whereasthe total number of species in Europe is 12,500.5Agricultural Structure andProductionInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 6. Land Total area : 78 million ha Agricultural area : 24,5 million ha Arable land : 18,4 million ha Economically Irrigable area : 8,5 million ha Irrigated area (2012) : 5,5 million ha Rate : 65 %Water Surface water : 98 Billion m3 Groundwater : 14 Billion m3 Total available Water (net) : 112 Billion m3Land And Water Resources6InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 7. AGENCIES(investor)Ministry of Forestry andWater Affairs(large scaled irrigation)Ministry of InteriorAffairs(small scaled irrigation)Ministry of FoodAgriculture and Livestock(production & productivity)DSIGroundwater Dep.Local Agencies&AuthoritiesTRGMIrrigationSystemsIrrigation Works in Turkey• Agencies Responsible for Irrigation, Development andManagementPrivate Sectors – NGO’sWater User Associations & Irrigation CooperativesTAGEMAgriculturalResearch andPoliciesInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt7
  • 8. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt8Groundwater Policy andImplementationsGroundwater ExplanationStatus belongs to Public (state)Legislation 167 numbered «Groundwater Law»Conditions of use Permission of well is compulsory (to search, useand development)Investments Public investment for beneficiariesTransfer to WUORepayment for investment 15 yearsOperation andmaintenanceWater User Organizations(Irrigation Cooperatives and Water UserAssociations)Supports Investment and production supports bygovernment
  • 9. Irrigated% 65To beirrigated% 35Irrigation Development• Irrigable Area(Econ.) 8,5 Mha• Total Irrigated Area 5,6 MhaDams53%Lake7%LowDams3%River18%Groundwater19% Irrigation Water Resources• Groundwater 19 %• Surface water 81 %SOURCE: DSİ 2012InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt9
  • 10. Groundwater Availabilityhm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3hm3 hm3hm3hm3Safe yield groundwater 13,7 Billion m3(% 13)Allocations final stageNo problem allocationsAllocations completed• 25 hydrological basin• 30 agricultural basin• 200 > plate10InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 11. Reserves and AllocationOperating Reserve (yearly) : 13,7 Billion m3Groundwater Allocations : 13,0 Billion m3Allocation Ratio : 95 %117,2 Billion m352 %5,9 Billion m343%0,7 Billion m35 %IrrigationDomestic andındustryInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 12. 12organizations units wells irrigatedarea (ha)rate%Irrigation Cooperatives 1.400 11.368 456.709 82Combined Irrigations (WUO’s) 28 1.692 84.982 15State agriculture enterprises (TİGEM) 25 342 16.140 3Total 13.402 557.831 100In addition;195.000 certifieddeep groundwaterWells (250.000 ha)> 700.000 Agricultural holdingsSource: DSİ 2012Groundwater Irrigations (GWI)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 13. Irrigation CooperativesInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt13• To establish a cooperative - 7 farmers• To benefit from state investment - atleast 15 farmers• General Assembly (all members)• Board of Directors (elected member)• Supervisory BoardInvestmentperiodOperation Period (12 years)1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12EstablishmentofcooperativeDrilling wellsPumpsElectrificationIrrigation networkTransfer3 yearsNo paycost of the investment is paid back in 12equal installments without interest
  • 14. 14Konya Closed Basin2005,4 hm3Kızılırmak1332,1 hm3Yeşilırmak579 hm3Susurluk1519,4 hm3West Blacksea412,2 hm3East Blacksea435,6 hm3Çoruh20 hm3Aras204 hm3Van148,2 hm3Tigris-Euphrates2789,2 hm3Asi304,5 hm3EastMediterranian70,5 hm3Antalya526,3 hm3Burdur89,5 hm3Akarçay182,1 hm3Gediz248 hm3Susurluk575,1 hm3K. Ege221,9 hm3Marmara205 hm3Meriç-Ergene498,2 hm3Less critical watershedsNon-Critical watershedsCritical watersheds 95 % of the groundwater reserves have been allocated, no moregroundwater Effects of Global Climate Change on agriculture, Drought treats water use and increases the food crisis. Irrigation is necessary for increasing yields of products, Food production 2/3 is realized from irrigated areas.Challenges on GroundwaterInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 15. Problems - Groundwater UseOverpumping (decrease of groundwater level)Network water lossesSalt water inclusion into coastal aquifersOperation and production issues123415InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 16. Solutions and Experiences-1Overpumping- Uncontrolled and over irrigation- Decrease of groundwater level1 • water meteringsystems• ControlledirrigationIn all public and private wells,water metering system will have to beinstalled until 2015(legislation 2012) To protect groundwater quality and quantity, To balance the recharge – discharge in aquifer To control use of water according to allocation, To manage production during drought season To ensure sustainable management of groundwater,16InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 17.  88 % Gravity Irrigation 12 % Piped Irrigation Half of them is over the age of 30 Fragmented and scattered parcels (Appr. 10). Parcel size (not enough) to reach to canal directly (less than 50%) Parcel is not suitable for mechanization2• ModernIrrigationSystems• LandConsolidation17Solutions and Experiences-2Network water lossesInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 18. 299 000 ha65%160 000 ha35% Open canalirrigation areaPressuredirrigation area18/Irrigation Networks-Transformation pressurizedirrigation networks2-a2004 - Decision of piped irrigation network (DSİ)2006 - Modern irrigation systems are supported by theRDS programme (50 % grant) - TRGMSolutions and Experiences-2InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 19.  % 30-80 water saving % 20-50 yield increase % 40 energy saving % 50 fertilizer % 30 saving chemicals.Subject Total Area (da) Farmers• Collective Pressure Irrigation Systems(75 % Grant)539 279.236 55.603• Support for Irrigation Machine&Equipment ( 50 % grant)6.424 398.022 6.316• Individual support from Banks 3.350.000 144.000General Total 6.963 4.027.258 205.919 2006-2012 – 206.000 farmers have been supported by RDS Programme 400 000 ha has been irrigated by modern irrigation systems.Thus, primarily of water and other inputs has been saved largelyIrrigation Supports by the MoFAL (2006-2012)192-bSolutions and Experiences-2InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 20. Why Land Consolidation? LC. is key;2-cTo solve social and physical infrastructure problemsTo decrease public investment costsWithout land consolidation With land consolidationChannel network Road and channel networkInvestment cost decrease - 40 %Irrigation efficiency increases (from 60% to 90%)20Solutions and Experiences-2InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 21. Indication Map of the Old Cadastral StatusOld Parcels:11.342 UnitNew Parcels:2.745 UnitParceling Map after the ConsolidationBefore After27 ------ 1 peace23------- 121 ------- 120 ------- 1Denizli Tavas Büyükkonak Land Consolidation Project (1050 ha)21InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 22. Year Kisecik Irrigation2.475 haWellUnitFlowl/sWorkinghoursOut flowm3Rate%1999 Gravity Irrigation System 45 2.365 74.273 14.583.0222009 Piped Irrigation System 46 1.725 68.416 9.681.290 342010 Consolidation + PipedIrrigation System40 35.064 5.253.177 45groundwater saving ratio 64Source: Irrigation and Consolidation Project of Karaman Kisecik (2011)LC + Pressurized Irrigation System and Water Saving 64 % savings in water use Yields of products increased by 2-3 times Operating expenses came down by 50 % Energy costs decreased22Solutions and Experiences-22-dInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 23. Karaman Merkez Kisecik LC + Modern Irrigation Project(2750 ha)Average parcel size1,61 ha 3,61 haDirect access to theirrigation line61 % 100 %Consolidation and modern irrigation system ensured64 % of water saving23InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 24. Distribution of the suitable areas for land consolidation in TurkeyThe areas can be consolidated 14,0 Million ha- Irrigated areas 8,5 Million ha- Dry areas 5,5 Million haGAP (2008-2013) A.P.2 Million ha will beconsolidated(80 % completed)KOP Action Plan700.000 ha will beconsolidatedThe LC of 5,5 million ha will provide a significant amount of water savingsNew strategy;is basin based and multipurpose land consolidation projects1961-2002 450.000 ha2003-2012 2.503.000 haTotal 2.952.000 ha24InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,EgyptSolutions and Experiences-2
  • 25. Land Parcel Information SystemAccording to data;• Agricultural parcels : 30 million• Agricultural holdings : 3.1 million• Average land size : 6 ha• Parcels per capita : 10 parcelAgricultural parcels were digitized and Land ParcelInformation System (LPIS) was establishedFarmerRegisterSystemLocation dataParcel data(class, str, slope, dry, irrigated )Ownership dataUsage data….identification number of each parcelto monitor the parcel based production andsupportsSolutions and Experiences-22-e
  • 26.  Irrigation Networks will be digitalized It will be integrated with Land Parcel Information Systemand Farmer Registry system Irrigation will be controlled parcel based26Solutions and Experiences-2Main CanalIrrigationDrainageHydrantInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 27. Salt water inclusion into coastal aquifer3 During drought and lack of precipitation It can be seen increase the rate of salt insome coastal plains27Solutions and Experiences-3InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 28.  Electricity charges are very high (15-30% of cost) Monitoring and evaluation for irrigation networks Deficit-limited irrigation during drought Production Systems Changes Water harvesting Drought-resistant varieties Zero Tillage Good agricultural practices Organic farmingSolutions and Experiences-44-a Operation and production issuesInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 29. RiskManagementinAgriculture(GoodExperiences) Turkish Agricultural Insurance System (TARSİM)• Crop Insurance• Greenhouse Insurance• Livestock Insurance• Poultry Insurance• Aquaculture Insurance Drought Action Plan (2013-2017) Agricultural Research Master Plan (2010-2015)• hail• storm• flood• fire, EQ• landslide• quality loss• frost (fruits)29Solutions and Experiences-4Operation and production issues4-bInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  • 30. Recommendations• Groundwater reserves should be currently monitored andevaluated• Modern irrigation systems which provides water saving• Land consolidation should be constructed with modernirrigation systems• Institutional capacity of water users should be increased,• Production planning should be prepared with respect towater capacityInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt30Government supports well-managed collaborative programs forsustainable agricultural water management and food security
  • 31. Thanks for listeningQuestions, comments and suggestions are welcome31InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,EgyptHistoric Peninsula, Istanbul