Status of Wheat Stripe in CWANA: Analysis of Current Outbreaks

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Kumarse Nazari, ICARDA

Kumarse Nazari, ICARDA

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  • 1. International Wheat Stripe Rust Symposium, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria, 18-20, April 2011
    Status of Wheat Stripe in CWANA: Analysis of Current Outbreaks
    Kumarse Nazari
  • 2. More than 50 m ha of wheat production in CWANA
    25% of the total global wheat areas fall in CWANA
  • 3. Stripe (Yellow Rust)
    Leaf (Brown Rust)
    Stem (Black) Rust
  • 4. Stripe (yellow rust) local names in CWANA
    Arabic: Shakiran" شَقِران meaning blond, and "Hummaira" حميرة meaning reddish, " الصدأ الأصفر(Yellow rust); "SadaaMokhatat" الصدأ المخطط (Stripe rust) ; "SadaaBurtokali" الصدأ البرتقالي (orange rust) B. Baya,
    Persian: زنگ زرد (yellow Rust), سرخه (reddish); زنگال (rustic), Zardi, Zang, Sorkhi, J. Kamali K. Nazari
    Georgia called “KviteliZhanga” (ყვითელი რუსტი ) Z. Sikharulidze
    Nepal: PaheloSindure or DharseSindureS. Sharma
    Pakistan Zard or DhariDharKungi (Urdo) Atiq Rattu
    In Hindi is called “PilaRatua” (पीला जंग) M. Prashar
    Morocco: Bouzadaghbut in SAIS area (meknès – Fès); Berber language, Ramdani, Amri
    In Turkish and Azeri: Sarı Pas (farmers call Kinacik; means henna)
    Kazakhstan; Sary Tat Alma Kokhmetova
    Russian: Zheltoĭ Rzhavchinжелтой ржавчине K. Aslanova
    Ethiopia , Amharic name: Bitchawag Bedada Girma
  • 5. Pathogen Nomenclature
    PathogenCommon Name
    P. striiformis sensustricto Stripe rust
    P. striiformoides(P. striiformis f.sp. dactylidis) Cocksfoot stripe rust
    P. pseudostriiformis(P. striiformis f.sp. poae) Bluegrass stripe rust
    P. gansensis
    Liu, M. and Hambleton, S. (2010). "Taxonomic study of stripe rust, Puccinia striiformis sensulato, based on molecular and morphological evidence.", Fungal Genetics and Biology, 114(10), pp. 881-899
  • 6.
  • 7. Important Epidemiological Factors in CWANA & CAC
    Conducive climatic conditions
    Similarity of wheat genotypes
    Mean of transportation: West-East wind movement,
    Overlapping crop calendar e
    Co-evolution of host pathogens
    Vide range of host plants
  • 8. Mega-cultivar: Genetic similarity
    1980-1997: The Yr9-Outbreak
    Syria and Lebanon: Mexipak
    Ethiopia: Dashen
    Iran: Falat
    Pakistan: Pak 81
    Turkey: Seri 82
    2000-2010: Yr27 virulent outbreak
    Syria: Cham 8
    Chamran & Shiroudi
    Pakistan and India: Inquilab 91 & PBW343
    Susceptible mega cultivars
    Sardari (Iran), Gerek (Turkey), Akhtar (Morocco), Bezostaya (CAC), …..
  • 9. Earth Rotation and easterly trade winds
  • 10. Risk of Accidental Transfer (the “747 route”)
    A small world: A Single Airline Flight Map!
    Plus – Very long distance natural “rare” events can occur!
  • 11. We can also transfer the rust spore if….
  • 12.
  • 13. Crop calendar “Green Bridge” & Continues cropping system
    A. Yahyaoui
  • 14. Historical Example of regional yellow rust epidemic
    1980’s in CWANA
    classical example of transboundary wheat rusts
  • 15. Yr27Pst pt; A New Threatto wheat production in CWANA
    Mega-cultivarsInqualab-91 5 million ha in PakistanPBW343 6 million ha in India
    Yr27Pst pt
    Syria, Morocco, Uzbekistan (2009)
    India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
    Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran
    - Inqualab-91, MH97, Chamran, Imam and Kubsa: Yr27
    - PBW343, Shiroudi, Bakhtawar and WH542 : Yr9 and Yr27
  • 16. Wide spread of new Yr race: Yr27 virulence race in southern part
    Cool and humid weather in warm area
    Yellow rust epidemic, Darab, Dezful and Ilam, 2007
  • 17. Early infection foci
    Yellow rust epidemic Akhtarcv-Morocco 2009 (75% of wheat growing areas)
    (Ezzahiri et al., 4th RYRC-Turkey)
  • 18. Yellow rust high infection Uzbekistan, 2009
    Bezostaja become susceptible (R. Sharma)
  • 19. Early Yr infection March 17, 2010, Aleppo
  • 20. Early infection foci
    Syria 2010, Hassakeh, March 17
    Cham 8
  • 21. Syria 2010, Cham6
  • 22. Early infection on Tetraplois wheat genotypes
    Yellow rust outbreak Ethiopia 2010
  • 23. Number of freezing days at Tel Hadya between November-January, 2006-2010
  • 24.
  • 25. Yr race analysis of Pst in CWANA
    Syria: Yr1, Yr(2), Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr(8), Yr9, Yr10, Yr27, Yr25, Yr(Sd)
    Morocco: Yr(2), Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr27, Yr(Sd)
    Afghanistan: Yr1, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr27, Yr (Sd), YrSu
    Kenya: Yr1, Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr25, Yr27
    Ethiopia: Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr27
    Tajikistan: Yr1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 25, 32
    Iraq: Y2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr25, Yr27
    Turkey: ?
    IRAN: Y2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr25, Yr27
  • 26.
  • 27. Challenges ahead
    Regional and international rust laboratory
    Expanding current rust surveillance
    Capacity building
    Reactivation rust networks
    Exchanging/ sharing information
    New platform toward understanding pathogenic variability at farmer field
    Revision differential cultivars
    Standardization of rust laboratory protocols and Revision differential cultivars
    Characterization and filed assessment of adult-plant resistance genes
    Breeding for resistance (long lasting resistance)
  • 28.
  • 29. He was happy when he had a bread
    but when he didn’t !?