International Wheat Stripe Rust Symposium, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria, 18-20, April 2011<br />Status of Wheat Stripe in CWANA: ...
More than 50 m ha of wheat production in CWANA<br />25% of the total global wheat areas fall in CWANA<br />
Stripe (Yellow Rust)<br />Leaf (Brown Rust)<br />Stem (Black) Rust<br />
Stripe (yellow rust) local names in CWANA<br />Arabic: Shakiran"  شَقِران meaning blond, and "Hummaira" حميرة meaning redd...
Pathogen Nomenclature<br />PathogenCommon Name<br />P. striiformis sensustricto			Stripe rust<br />P. striiformoides(P. st...
Important Epidemiological Factors in CWANA & CAC<br />Conducive climatic conditions<br />Similarity of wheat genotypes <br...
Mega-cultivar: Genetic similarity<br />1980-1997:  The Yr9-Outbreak<br />Syria and Lebanon:  Mexipak<br />Ethiopia: Dashen...
Earth Rotation and easterly trade winds<br />
Risk of Accidental Transfer (the “747 route”)<br />A small world: A Single Airline Flight Map!<br />Plus – Very long dista...
We can also transfer the rust spore if….<br />
Crop calendar “Green Bridge” & Continues cropping system<br />A. Yahyaoui<br />
Historical Example of regional yellow rust epidemic<br />1980’s in CWANA <br />classical example of transboundary wheat ru...
Yr27Pst pt; A New Threatto wheat production in CWANA<br />Mega-cultivarsInqualab-91		5 million ha in PakistanPBW343			6 mi...
Wide spread of new Yr race: Yr27 virulence race in southern part<br />Cool and humid weather in warm area<br />Yellow rust...
Early infection foci<br />Yellow rust epidemic Akhtarcv-Morocco 2009 (75% of wheat growing areas)<br /> (Ezzahiri et al., ...
Yellow rust high infection Uzbekistan, 2009<br />Bezostaja become susceptible (R. Sharma)<br />
Early Yr infection March 17, 2010, Aleppo<br />
Early infection foci<br />Syria 2010, Hassakeh, March 17<br />Cham 8<br />
Syria 2010, Cham6<br />
Early infection on Tetraplois wheat genotypes<br />Yellow rust outbreak Ethiopia 2010<br />
Number of freezing days at Tel Hadya between November-January, 2006-2010<br />
Yr race analysis of Pst in CWANA<br />Syria: Yr1, Yr(2), Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr(8), Yr9, Yr10, Yr27,  Yr25, Yr(Sd)<br />Morocco...
Challenges ahead<br />Regional and international rust laboratory<br />Expanding current rust surveillance<br />Capacity bu...
He was happy when he had a bread <br />but when he didn’t !?<br />
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Status of Wheat Stripe in CWANA: Analysis of Current Outbreaks

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Status of Wheat Stripe in CWANA: Analysis of Current Outbreaks

  1. 1. International Wheat Stripe Rust Symposium, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria, 18-20, April 2011<br />Status of Wheat Stripe in CWANA: Analysis of Current Outbreaks<br />Kumarse Nazari<br />k.nazari@cgiar.org<br />
  2. 2. More than 50 m ha of wheat production in CWANA<br />25% of the total global wheat areas fall in CWANA<br />
  3. 3. Stripe (Yellow Rust)<br />Leaf (Brown Rust)<br />Stem (Black) Rust<br />
  4. 4. Stripe (yellow rust) local names in CWANA<br />Arabic: Shakiran" شَقِران meaning blond, and "Hummaira" حميرة meaning reddish, " الصدأ الأصفر(Yellow rust); "SadaaMokhatat" الصدأ المخطط (Stripe rust) ; "SadaaBurtokali" الصدأ البرتقالي (orange rust) B. Baya, <br />Persian: زنگ زرد (yellow Rust), سرخه (reddish); زنگال (rustic), Zardi, Zang, Sorkhi, J. Kamali K. Nazari<br />Georgia called “KviteliZhanga” (ყვითელი რუსტი ) Z. Sikharulidze<br />Nepal: PaheloSindure or DharseSindureS. Sharma<br />Pakistan Zard or DhariDharKungi (Urdo) Atiq Rattu<br />In Hindi is called “PilaRatua” (पीला जंग) M. Prashar<br />Morocco: Bouzadaghbut in SAIS area (meknès – Fès); Berber language, Ramdani, Amri<br />In Turkish and Azeri: Sarı Pas (farmers call Kinacik; means henna)<br />Kazakhstan; Sary Tat Alma Kokhmetova <br />Russian: Zheltoĭ Rzhavchinжелтой ржавчине K. Aslanova<br />Ethiopia , Amharic name: Bitchawag Bedada Girma<br />
  5. 5. Pathogen Nomenclature<br />PathogenCommon Name<br />P. striiformis sensustricto Stripe rust<br />P. striiformoides(P. striiformis f.sp. dactylidis) Cocksfoot stripe rust<br />P. pseudostriiformis(P. striiformis f.sp. poae) Bluegrass stripe rust<br />P. gansensis<br />Liu, M. and Hambleton, S. (2010). "Taxonomic study of stripe rust, Puccinia striiformis sensulato, based on molecular and morphological evidence.", Fungal Genetics and Biology, 114(10), pp. 881-899<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Important Epidemiological Factors in CWANA & CAC<br />Conducive climatic conditions<br />Similarity of wheat genotypes <br />Mean of transportation: West-East wind movement, <br />Overlapping crop calendar e<br />Co-evolution of host pathogens <br />Vide range of host plants<br />
  8. 8. Mega-cultivar: Genetic similarity<br />1980-1997: The Yr9-Outbreak<br />Syria and Lebanon: Mexipak<br />Ethiopia: Dashen<br />Iran: Falat<br />Pakistan: Pak 81<br />Turkey: Seri 82<br />2000-2010: Yr27 virulent outbreak<br />Syria: Cham 8<br />Kubsa<br />Chamran & Shiroudi<br />Pakistan and India: Inquilab 91 & PBW343<br />Susceptible mega cultivars<br />Sardari (Iran), Gerek (Turkey), Akhtar (Morocco), Bezostaya (CAC), ….. <br />
  9. 9. Earth Rotation and easterly trade winds<br />
  10. 10. Risk of Accidental Transfer (the “747 route”)<br />A small world: A Single Airline Flight Map!<br />Plus – Very long distance natural “rare” events can occur!<br />
  11. 11. We can also transfer the rust spore if….<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Crop calendar “Green Bridge” & Continues cropping system<br />A. Yahyaoui<br />
  14. 14. Historical Example of regional yellow rust epidemic<br />1980’s in CWANA <br />classical example of transboundary wheat rusts<br />
  15. 15. Yr27Pst pt; A New Threatto wheat production in CWANA<br />Mega-cultivarsInqualab-91 5 million ha in PakistanPBW343 6 million ha in India<br />Yr27Pst pt<br />Syria, Morocco, Uzbekistan (2009)<br />India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan<br />Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran<br /> - Inqualab-91, MH97, Chamran, Imam and Kubsa: Yr27<br />- PBW343, Shiroudi, Bakhtawar and WH542 : Yr9 and Yr27<br />
  16. 16. Wide spread of new Yr race: Yr27 virulence race in southern part<br />Cool and humid weather in warm area<br />Yellow rust epidemic, Darab, Dezful and Ilam, 2007<br />
  17. 17. Early infection foci<br />Yellow rust epidemic Akhtarcv-Morocco 2009 (75% of wheat growing areas)<br /> (Ezzahiri et al., 4th RYRC-Turkey)<br />
  18. 18. Yellow rust high infection Uzbekistan, 2009<br />Bezostaja become susceptible (R. Sharma)<br />
  19. 19. Early Yr infection March 17, 2010, Aleppo<br />
  20. 20. Early infection foci<br />Syria 2010, Hassakeh, March 17<br />Cham 8<br />
  21. 21. Syria 2010, Cham6<br />
  22. 22. Early infection on Tetraplois wheat genotypes<br />Yellow rust outbreak Ethiopia 2010<br />
  23. 23. Number of freezing days at Tel Hadya between November-January, 2006-2010<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Yr race analysis of Pst in CWANA<br />Syria: Yr1, Yr(2), Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr(8), Yr9, Yr10, Yr27, Yr25, Yr(Sd)<br />Morocco: Yr(2), Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr27, Yr(Sd)<br />Afghanistan: Yr1, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr27, Yr (Sd), YrSu<br />Kenya: Yr1, Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr25, Yr27<br />Ethiopia: Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr27<br />Tajikistan: Yr1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 25, 32<br />Iraq: Y2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr25, Yr27<br />Turkey: ?<br />IRAN: Y2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8, Yr9, Yr25, Yr27<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Challenges ahead<br />Regional and international rust laboratory<br />Expanding current rust surveillance<br />Capacity building<br />Reactivation rust networks<br />Exchanging/ sharing information<br />New platform toward understanding pathogenic variability at farmer field<br />Revision differential cultivars<br />Standardization of rust laboratory protocols and Revision differential cultivars<br />Characterization and filed assessment of adult-plant resistance genes<br />Breeding for resistance (long lasting resistance)<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. He was happy when he had a bread <br />but when he didn’t !?<br />

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