Jordan : Water Secuirty

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Jordan : Water Secuirty

  1. 1. Water SecurityInternational Conference on Policies for Water and FoodSecurity in Dry Areas24th to 26th of June, Cairo, EgyptEng. Mohammed HiaryHashemiteKingdomeofJORDAN
  2. 2. Jordan Overview• Total area 89.213 km2.• $31 Billion GDP.• 6.2 Million Population,80 percent urban.• World TradeOrganization membersince 2000.• upper middle-income,per-capita GNI ofUS$4,340.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt2WB 2012
  3. 3. Jordan Overview• Jordan has limited natural resources, potashand phosphate are the main exportcommodities.• limited agricultural land, and water isespecially scarce.• Ranks as the world’s fourth poorest country interms of water resources.• Services account for more than 70 percent of(GDP) and more than 75 percent of jobs.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt3WB 2012
  4. 4. Jordan’s Agricultural sector• 285 ha cultivated area.• 90 ha forest area.• 2.7 % contribution in GDP.• 18.2% contribution in total exports.• 850.000 tons total exports quantity• $1.217 Billion total exports value.• Net Exporter of Fruits and vegetables(Tomato, Eggplant, Pepper, Peach,Watermelon…)• Net Importer of grains (Wheat, corn,Barley…)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt4
  5. 5. Jordan’s Agricultural sector• Most Vegetable production cultivatedunder drip irrigation systems, bothopen field, and green houses.• Olive Oil mainly produced in Rain fedorchards.• Stone fruits and grape productiondepends on groundwater exploitation.• Irrigation Water resources are Rainfall,springs, Artesian wells, treated wastewater, and dams.• Farming units• 3-4 ha in Jordan Valley• 20-50 ha in high lands• 1 or less ha rain fed orchardsInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt5
  6. 6. Agricultural sector’s Strategicgoals1. Increase food production.2. Sustain natural resourcesand conserve environment.1. Enhance investment in agriculture.2. Achieve Rural development.3. Raise water use efficiency at farm scale.4. Improve Agricultural production add value andincrease its share in GDP.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt6
  7. 7. Crops dataArea(Thousandha)Imports(ThousandTons)Exports(ThousandTons)production(Thousandtons)Item722350055Grains44.491.9754.51918Vegetables16887.2596873Fruit trees284.42528850.52788TotalInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt7DOS 2012
  8. 8. Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR)Totalproduction(Ton)%SufficiencyItem198011.8Wheat292856.1Barley548913.8Beef1078941lamb19048686Chicken777820226Tomato51733105Table Egg21648382Potato19447103Olive oilInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt8DOS 2011
  9. 9. Strategic goals… Irrigationwater1. Reducing the annual water allocation for irrigation inJordan Valley to 261 MCM in 2022 (293 MCM in 2007) andin the Highlands to 191 MCM in 2022 (304 MCM in 2007)2. Establishing efficient bulk water distribution as well asefficient on-farm irrigation systems.3. Using treated wastewater for activities that demonstrate thehighest financial and social return including irrigation andother non-potable uses.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt9
  10. 10. Strategic goals… Irrigationwater4. Establish one service provider for irrigation water for thewhole country, whereas the retail function for irrigation waterwill be privatized and/or handled by empowered farmers’associations.5. Set a Tariff of water and introduce incentives to promotewater efficiency in irrigation and higher economic returns forirrigated agricultural products.6. Promote alternative technologies such as rainwaterharvesting for enhancing irrigation water supply.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt10
  11. 11. Jordan BioclimaticInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt11
  12. 12. Rainfall distributionInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt12Area km2Rainfall VolumeMCM6338493.414Desert19.9142.947Arid2.9471.160Semi Arid1.965513Marginal0.7390Humid89.3008424TotalMOA 2012
  13. 13. Water Resources 2007InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt13Non-RenewableGroundwater(Jafr+Lajjoun)252.9%Desalinated Water(Abu Zeighan+Aqaba)101.2%Peace Treaty505.8%Artificial Recharge556.3%Safe YieldGroundwater27531.7%Developed Surface29534.0%Non-RenewableGroundwater(Disi+Hisban)667.6%TreatedWastewater(Irrigation)8710.0%TreatedWastewater(Industry)40.5%
  14. 14. Projected Water resources 2022InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt14Non-RenewableGroundwater(Jafr+Lajjoun)151%Desalinated Water(Abu Zeighan+Aqaba)201%Desalinated50031%Peace Treaty503%Artificial Recharge252%Safe YieldGroundwater27517%Developed Surface36522%Non-RenewableGroundwater(Disi+Hisban)1358%TreatedWastewater(Irrigation)22013%TreatedWastewater(Industry)272%
  15. 15. Water policies and food securityConstraints• Water demand is over supply.• Water supply exceeds resources.• Population growth and immigrations amplify waterand food demand .• Drought seasons and rain fall uncertainty stress waterresources.• Local Food demand.(regional off season producer)• Employment in the sector.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt15
  16. 16. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt16
  17. 17. Waste water treatment Wateruser AssociationInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt17
  18. 18. Supply management Source allocationInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt18
  19. 19. Water harvest Switch cropInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt19
  20. 20. Desalination Out flow controlInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt20
  21. 21. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt21Water policy Action Justification Results ConstrainsReduceannual waterallocation forirrigationpurposesSouthagriculturalcompaniesstoppage (10thousand ha)Convey 100MCM ofdrinking waterto AmmanReduce totalcountryproduction(23% potato, 17%onion, 9.5% watermelon)•LocalUnemployment.Reduceannual waterallocation forirrigationpurposesControlwater outflowthroughJordan ValleyCanalManage theseasonaldemandChangecroppingpattern•UnplannedchangedImprovewaterdistributionEstablishWater userassociations(WUA)Improve wateruse efficiency16 WUA •Weak teamwork spirit.•FinancedependentAssociations
  22. 22. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt22WaterpolicyAction Justification Results ConstrainsUse ofAlternativetechnologiesImplementwater harvesttechniquesRun off andEvaporation ofrainfall (95%)Construct45 sites (3.3MCM)•Need for FundReinforceregulation(85/2002)EscalatedTariff on wellsexploitationSuppress over-exploitationOnlyGenerateincome•FarmersMentalityReinforceregulation(85/2002)MonitoringwellsSuppress over-exploitationreduction inillegal wellsno.•Conflict ofinterestWaste watertreatment27wastewatertreatmentplantsShortage ofsupply104 MCMused inagriculture•Sewage systemsuncover 33% ofpopulation•Implementationcosts
  23. 23. Results & impacts on Food• Consumption changes due farmers Switchproduction (stone fruits)• Less supply of food• Prices Increase.• Export quantities decrease.• Food Shortage in import countries (winter time)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt23
  24. 24. Recommendationsto policy-makers1. Desalination, waste watertreatment, and waterharvesting are safe substituteresources for Jordan.2. Changing mentality of users willimprove water use efficiency.3. Crop planning is a vital key tosustain water and enhanceagricultural production.4. Water pricing for all uses mustbe cost dependent.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt24
  25. 25. Thanks for listeningQuestions, comments and suggestions are welcome

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