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Iran: Country Report


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  • 1. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt1Dr J. PourhemmatVice Minister and Head,Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension(AREEO)Country Report, Islamic Republic ofIran
  • 2. Overview of the nationalagricultural sector (1)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt2Islamic Republic of Iran is located in arid and semiarid zones of West Asia, with an average annualprecipitation of 250 mm. The country has a totalarea of 165 million ha, of which around 37 millionha are arable land, 84 million ha rangelands, 14million ha forests and the rest wastelands, deserts,mountains and lakes. 18.5 million ha out of 37million ha is currently under cultivation including8.5 million ha (%46) irrigated and 10 million ha(%54) rainfed. Irrigated agriculture consumes morethan %85 of total available fresh water resources.
  • 3. Overview of the nationalagricultural sector (2)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt3Some 28 agroclimatic zones have been differentiated, of whichonly six (arid-cool winter-warm summer, arid-cool winter-verywarm summer, arid-mild winter-very warm summer, semi arid-cold winter-warm summer, semi arid-cool winter-warm summer,and semi arid-cold winter-mild summer) occupy nearly 90% ofIran.However, country benefits from favorable conditions forproducing vast variety of tropical, sub- tropical and alpine crops.Despite unjustified sanctions imposed to Islamic Republic of Iran,enormous potentials and capacities and a wide range ofdevelopment projects merged with hard efforts of farmers andproducers have made Iran’s agricultural ranking among the top 10producer of 23 crops.
  • 4. Overview of the nationalagricultural sector (3)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt4The agricultural sector remains one of the mostimportant economic sectors in Iran. This sectoraccounts for around %16 of GDP and %22 ofemployment, while providing %90 of food supply,%20 of non-oil exports, and %85 of raw materialsused in agro-industry.Last year Iran produced 107 million tons ofagricultural products, while it was around 30 millionbefore Islamic revolution period of time.
  • 5. Overview of the nationalagricultural sector (4)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt5By the time being Iran is the main producer of saffron,pistachio, caviar, barberry, berries, and holds the ranking ofsecond to tenth in producing apricot, dates, water melon,cantaloupe, cherries, apple, cucumber sheep meat, quince,almond, walnut, wool, vegetables, hops, peas, milk, tomato,grapes, onion, black cherry, kiwi, milk, spices, peach,tangerine, lime and lemon, citrus, squash, winter squash,lentil, tea, honey and persimmons.In spite of decline in world grain production and successivedrought, Iran has increased 3.6 million tons of its grainsproduction reaching to 19.5 tons in 2010. Wheat has been themain grain produced in 2010 in Iran with a 3.2 million tonssurge and reaching to 13 million tons in 2010.
  • 6. Overview of the nationalagricultural sector (5)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt6Wheat is the major crop in the country, where it is grown on6.4 million hectares. Irrigated wheat covers one-third of thetotal wheat area but accounts for more than two-thirds of thetotal wheat production. Iran has attained self-sufficiency inwheat production for the first time since past 40 years duringthe 2003-2004. This testifies the successful adoption ofeffective soil and crop management practices combined withimproved cultivars for increasing the welfare of ruralcommunities in dry areas of Iran through the sustainable useof land and water resources. The participation of farmers,researchers, and extension workers in the testing,demonstration and dissemination of improved technologieshas led to better awareness of the technology and to itsadoption by a large number of farmers.
  • 7. Water used in different sectorsInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt7Sectors Consumption( 109 m3 )Consumption(%)By( 109 m3)By(%)Agriculture 85.2 92.1 99.7 85.3Urban andindustry6.2 6.7 8.7 7.4Environment - - 6.3 5.4Miscellaneous 1.1 1.2 2.3 1.9Total 92.5 100 117.0 100Overall irrigation efficiency is 38% which is lower than the world’saverage irrigation efficiency but, water productivity is roughly 1.25kg.m3 which is good.
  • 8. Structure of Water in IranInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt8 There are several water related research institutes(e.g. AERI , SWRI in Ministry of Agriculture or TAMABin Ministry of Energy), research centers, waterdepartments in the Universities, and ConsultantEngineers Companies (private sector) (e.g. Mahab-eGhods) also have an important role in this regard. There are totally 49 Research/ Education institutesrelated to water and 14 research institutesspecifically on water research, 25 societies on wateror agriculture, 47 consultant engineers in water, and178 manufacturing and or design companies inirrigation (specially in pressurized irrigation systems).
  • 9. Structure of Water in Iran Strategic goals and duties Integrated study of basins (watersheds) Land consolidation, on-farm improvements, andinfrastructure activities in farms and orchards forefficient use of agricultural inputs, especiallywater Management of water delivery in tertiary andlower order irrigation canals and their O&Mactivities Study and execute small scale water supplydevelopment projects (following permission ofMinistry of Energy)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt9
  • 10. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt10The proposed structure of nationalmanagementof waterHigher Council of WaterTechnical Committee of Water CouncilCouncil of Management of Main BasinsWorking group on provincial agriculturaland natural resources water
  • 11. Foroptimumuseof waterallocatedto thefarmers,the followingpoliciesareconsidered:• Control of water resources and volumetric allocation of waterto the farms based on crops water requirement andrecommended irrigation efficiencies.• Based on the established law (established in 1983)water charge of the regulated surface water isbetween 1-3% of value of the cultivated crops• Based on the established law (Dec., 1993), water pumpingfrom groundwater resources must be in accordance with thecrop water requirement and proposed cropping pattern in eachregion. In this case, 0.25-1.0% of the commercial value ofcrop yield is considered for the ground water supervision.• Subsidizing policies for water charging and supervisioncharging for farmers who their yields are higher thanaverage.• Termination of water allocation to the farmers who in twosuccessive years consumed water more than permissible level.• Encouraging policies for the farmers who use lesswater and maintain their production in reasonablelevel using proper management practices.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt11
  • 12. Equitable Distribution of Water Law• This Law is one of the important national acts on waterpolicies in Iran (After Islamic Revolution)• (the law was approved by parliament in 1982 and latersome modifications were made in the law)• The Law consists of five chapters, 52 article and 27 notes The chapters are:Public and national ownership of waterGround water resourcesSurface water resourcesDuties and authoritiesPenalties and regulationsInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt12
  • 13. Some important articles inEquitable Distribution of Water Law• Authority of conservation, permission and oversight to use of water isby the Government• Use of ground water resources needs permission of Ministry of Energy• The wells should be equipped with water measuring devices• Allocation and permission of water resources utilization (for differentusages including agriculture) is by the Ministry of Energy• Distribution of agricultural water, water fee collection, and oversightcharges to ground waters are by the Ministry of Agriculture• Operation and Maintenance of main and secondary canals is theMinistry of Energy task while O&M of tertiary and lower order canals(lined or earth channels) is by the Ministry of Agriculture• The ministry of Energy should determine the water price for all typesof consumption and to receive it from the water users. The water usersare subject to pay for it, otherwise the water distribution to them willbe terminated• The executive manual of this law should be prepared by the tworesponsible ministries (Ministries of Energy and Agriculture) andfollowing its approval by the government will be applicableInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt13
  • 14. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt140204060801001201990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010Area(1000*ha)YearMicroitionrrigSprinkle IrrigationDevelopment of pressurized irrigation (1990-2010)(Department of Soil and Agricultural Water)• The existing surface of pressure irrigated land is about 1 million hectares• The annual plan is 200 thousand hectares• Prediction of 1 million hectares in the 5th development plan of country
  • 15. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt15Based on budget law (2011):85% of the costs ofpressurized irrigation coversby government
  • 16. Agricultural Issues in theKarkheh River Basin(Case study)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt16
  • 17. Geographical location andboundaries of the basinInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt17
  • 18. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt18Distribution of irrigated and rainfedlands in KRBCodeTotal Area(Km2)%Mountain(Km2)Plain(Km2)1 11459 22.6 6220 50392 5350 10.5 2547 28033 16411 32.3 11914 44974 8955 17.7 5811 31445 8589 16.9 953 7636Total 50764 100 27645 23119Total arable Land in Karkheh basin=1064085 haPlain and mountain-sideCodeTotal(ha)Irrigated(ha)Rain-Feed(ha)Remained(ha)1 503900 136101 186716 1810832 280300 27605 136588 1161073 449700 48963 344462 562754 314400 54331 221157 389125 763600 111164 5201 647235Total 2311900 378164 894124 1039612Total area under irrigated and rain feed crops is1272288 ha and percentage of lands under irrigatedcrops is %30 and rain feed crops is %70Plain and mountain-sideCodeTotal(ha)Irrigated(%)Rain-Feed(%)Remained(%)1 503900 27 37.05 35.952 280300 9.85 48.75 41.43 449700 10.9 76.6 12.54 314400 17.3 70.3 12.45 763600 14.6 0.7 84.7Total 2311900
  • 19. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt19Irrigation and water consumption in the BasinThe common method of irrigation in the Basin is surfaceirrigation (basin and furrow).Irrigation efficiencies in the plains and Sub-Basins ofKRB varies between 28-36%. As a general, in theregions which farmers only use ground water it is higherand inversely and in the regions which mainly usesurface water resources it is quite low.The rate of irrigation water consumption per hectare inthe Sub-Basins varies. The highest amount is inKashkan Sub-Basin (due to more frequent irrigationand low irrigation efficiency) and it is about 12000CM/ha and the lowest amount is in Seymareh Sub-Basin and is about 9800 CM/ha.
  • 20. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt20ProblemsandLimitationsof theKRB• High irrigation losses and low irrigation efficiency(Conveyance and Distribution) due to lack ofinvestment on infrastructures.• Lack of farmers knowledge and skills andinappropriate use of resources and agriculturalinputs including water, fertilizer, pesticide,improved seeds, and machinery.• Lack of enough research about on-farm activities,plant improvement, and soil fertility.• In appropriate land use (irrigated and rain-fed) insome parts of the basin.• Sever water scarcity in some basins, e.g.Seymareh.
  • 21. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt21ProblemsandLimitationsof theKRB (Cont’d)• Water logging and drainage requirement in the landswhich are irrigated by the irrigation networksespecially Salinity hazard in south regions of thebasin.• Irrigation networks in the basin are not in satisfactorycondition and O&M in the systems is poor.• Traditional irrigation networks also are in poorcondition and are the major factor for water lossesand land degradation.• Agricultural activities, except in some cases are mostlytraditional and not adopted to new technologies.
  • 22. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt22• Agricultural units are small scale (50.2 % of the basinbeneficiaries have small scale farms ( less than 5 ha ).This together with its scatter in some regions causes wasteof efforts, loss of water and agricultural inputs, and finallylow production.• Pressurized irrigation systems (mostly sprinkler system)are not efficiently used and in most cases they are replacedby surface irrigation method again due to inappropriatedesign, lack of service and spare parts, and in most casesdue security requirements.• Low interest of private sector for investment in agricultureespecially in soil and water related activities due to low rateof investment return in comparison to other activities inother sectors.ProblemsandLimitationsoftheKRB (Cont’d)
  • 23. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt23Problemsand Limitationsof the KRB (Cont’d)• There is no irrigation association or institution amongfarmers because of cultural problems. Some farmerscultivate their farms just for social ethics.• Low administration and organizational developmentfor efficient use of skilled technique and humanresources for agricultural production.• The farmers of the Basin are mostly uneducated andold.• Villages in the basin are too scattered therefore serviceto them is difficult.
  • 24. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt24Problemsand Limitationsof the KRB (Cont’d)• There is no irrigation association or institution amongfarmers because of cultural problems. Some farmerscultivate their farms just for social ethics.• Low administration and organizational developmentfor efficient use of skilled technique and humanresources for agricultural production.• The farmers of the Basin are mostly uneducated andold.• Villages in the basin are too scattered therefore serviceto them is difficult.
  • 25. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt25ProblemsandLimitationsof theKRB (Cont’d)Problems especially in dry-land areas of theBasin:• Low water productivity of the dry landfarming.• Inappropriate land preparation in dry-landfarming.• Inappropriate cultivation methods.• Lack of suitable and specialized machine fordry-land farming.
  • 26. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt26SomeLessonsfromIRAN-ICARDAJointResearchinKRBFarm Level:- Promotingmoreproductivefarmlevelpractices.- Matchingcropstosoilandwaterconditions.- Micro-irrigation.- DeficitIrrigation.
  • 27. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt27Basin Level:- Water resourcesdevelopment.- Groundwatermonitoringand regulation.- Soil salinity monitoring.- Monitoringand the developmentof a centralcoordinateddatabase.Some Lessons from IRAN-ICARDA JointResearch in KRB
  • 28. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt28PolicyIssues:-DroughtInsuranceschemes.- Waterallocationbetweensectors.- Establishmentof astrongbasinlevelwatermanagementauthority.-Training.Some Lessons from IRAN-ICARDA JointResearch in KRB
  • 29. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt29SomeLessonsfromIRAN-ICARDAJointResearchinKRBbyimplementing2 CPprojects1- Improving on-farm agriculturalwater productivity in the KRB.2- Strengthening livelihoodresilience in upper catchmentsareas by integrated naturalresources management
  • 30. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt30AchievementsOptions for improved WP in rainfedand irrigated areas at the farm andthe basin:developed through SI, deficitirrigation, full irrigation and salinitymanagement
  • 31. InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt31Thank you for your kindattentionQuestions, comments and suggestions are welcome