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International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm
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International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm

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A. Morgunov (CIMMYT-Turkey) …

A. Morgunov (CIMMYT-Turkey)
B. Akin (CIMMYT-Turkey),
Y. Kaya (B. Dagdas International Agric. Research Institute, Turkey)
M. Keser (ICARDA-Turkey)
K. Nazari (ICARDA-Syria)
Z. Mert (Central Field Crop Research Institute, Turkey),
R. Sharma (ICARDA-Uzbekistan)
T. Wuletaw (ICARDA-Syria)

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  • 1. International Winter Wheat Improvement Program: breeding strategies and methodologies to develop stripe rust resistant germplasm A. Morgunov (CIMMYT-Turkey) B. Akin (CIMMYT-Turkey), Y. Kaya (B. Dagdas International Agric. Research Institute, Turkey) M. Keser (ICARDA-Turkey) K. Nazari (ICARDA-Syria) Z. Mert (Central Field Crop Research Institute, Turkey), R. Sharma (ICARDA-Uzbekistan) T. Wuletaw (ICARDA-Syria)
  • 2. Presentation outline
    • IWWIP objective, operations and products
    • Importance of rusts for winter wheat
    • Durability of Yellow rust resistance: case of Bezostaya 1
    • Turkey and regional variation in pathogen virulence
    • Genetics of resistance to Yellow rust
    • Breeding system to develop resistance germplasm
    • Germplasm performance
  • 3. IWWIP
    • The objective is improvement of winter/facultative wheat on a global scale with focus on CWANA region through international breeding program in Turkey, facilitation of international germplasm exchange and networking.
  • 4. IWWIP operational network Location Yield Potential Drought Cold Stem Rust Yellow rust Leaf rust DH Quality Mol. Mark. Adapazari + Aleppo + + + + + Ankara + + + + Diyarbakir + + Edirne + + Erzurum + + + Eskisehir + + Konya + + Kastamonu + Mexico + + Samsun + +
  • 5. IWWIP international nurseries
    • Facultative and Winter Wheat Observation Nursery (FAWWON)
      • Irrigated and Semiarid
      • IWWIP and introduced germplasm
      • 120 cooperators 50 countries
    • International Winter Wheat Yield Trials (IWWYT)
      • Irrigated and Semiarid
      • Regional focus
    FAWWON Introduced germplasm
  • 6. Long term records of rusts in winter wheat
    • Disease (LR, YR, SR. PM) data extracted from the following international nurseries
      • International Winter Wheat Performance Nursery:1969-1981
      • International Winter Wheat Screening Nursery: 1985-1991
      • Facultative and Winter Wheat Observation Nursery: 1992-2010
    • Disease severity data extracted for:
      • Most susceptible genotype in each nursery
      • Bezostaya 1 – long term check available in all nurseries
    • Data grouped by time periods and regions:
      • Global – 1047 records, including CWANA (252), W. Europe (284), E. Europe (324), N. America (107)
      • 1969-81 – 420 records; 1988-2000 (427); 2001-2010 (200)
    In cooperation with R. McIntosh
  • 7. Frequency of rusts reported in winter wheat int. nurseries Yellow Rust Leaf Rust Stem Rust In cooperation with R. McIntosh
  • 8. Effect of variety Bezostaya 1 on winter wheat breeding and production
    • Bezostaya 1 (Lutescens-15/Skorospelka-2 = KievT-139/Ukrainka/3/Kanred/Fulcaster//Klein33)
      • Developed by P.P. Lukyanenko at Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute, Russia, and was released in 1959
      • By early 1970 was cultivated across Southern Russia, Ukraine, Central and Eastern Europe, Turkey, the Caucasus and Central Asia on an area exceeding 10 mln ha annually.
      • Even today this variety is still grown in low input areas of CWANA on an estimated area of 0.5 - 1 mln ha.
      • Durable resistance to rusts: Lr 34 – Yr 18 plus other genes.
    Source: http://genbank.vurv.cz/wheat/pedigree Number of WW varieties Originating from Bezostaya 1 Country No. of var. Country No. of var. Armenia 2 Lithuania 1 Austria 9 Macedonia 4 Azerbaijan 3 Moldova 9 Belorus 1 Poland 1 Bulgaria 46 Romania 17 China 2 Russia 17 Croatia 4 South Africa 1 Czech Rep. 3 Switzerland 6 France 2 Turkey 3 Germany 5 Turkmenistan 1 Hungary 19 Ukraine 28 Italy 16 USA 7 Kazakhstan 17 Uzbekistan 4 Kyrgyzstan 7 Yugoslavia 50       285
  • 9. Severity of Yellow and Leaf rusts of Bezostaya 1 as compared to susceptible genotype, 1969-2010 Yellow Rust Leaf Rust Most Susceptible genotype Bezostaya 1 In cooperation with R. McIntosh
  • 10. Bezostaya 1 study conclusions
    • Current wheat improvement programs stress the importance of using sources of durable resistance in breeding new cultivars. The Lr34/Yr18/Pm38 pleiotrophic set together with a potential contribution to stem rust resistance is currently an important target for selection because it is now amenable to molecular selection.
    • Nevertheless continued monitoring of disease response levels over time will be essential to ensure that adequately low disease levels are maintained.
    • Increased use of genes like Lr34 combined with strategies to minimize the cultivation of extremely susceptible varieties, that allow inoculum build-up during the cropping season and contribute to pathogen survival during the non-cropping phase, will contribute to long term maintenance of low non-damaging disease levels.
    • Durable disease resistance of Bezostaya 1, combined with its adaptability and good end-use quality, was a significant reason for its huge impact in agriculture.
  • 11. Virulence of Yellow Rust population in winter wheat areas
    • Summary of yellow rust samples analyzed at USDA-Washington State University, Pullman (Dr. Chen Xianming) in 2009 and 2010
      • All isolates were virulent to YrA, Yr6, Yr26, Yr28, Yr31, and YrExp2 .
      • All isolates were avirulent to Yr1, Yr5, Yr10, and YrSP.
      • Most isolates were virulent to Yr2, Yr7, Yr8, Yr17 , and Yr27.
      • Most isolates were avirulent to Yr15, Yr24, Yr25, and Yr32.
    Number of entries with different reaction to Yellow Rust in 2010 Candidates FAWWON Advanced Yield Trial Location 0-20% 20-40% >40% Haymana 218 17 22 Uzbekistan 190 48 31 Location 0-20% 20-40% >40% Haymana 80 7 5 Diyiarbakir 52 12 25 Erzurum 29 5 64
  • 12. Genetic basis of resistance in IWWIP germplasm
    • Study by Dr. Beyhan Akin at WSU-Pullman in 2009
      • 162 genotypes resistant in Turkey and the region
      • Seedlings and adult plant tests using US isolates
    Type of resistance/Resistance genes All germplasm studied IWWIP germplasm Number of entries % Number of entries % Adult Plant Resistance (APR) only 44 27 8 15 Including Yr18 16 19 2 4 Major genes only 11 6 0 0 Major genes and APR 107 67 44 85 Including: unknown major gene + Yr18 40 24 24 46 Yr1 + unknown APR gene/s 5 3 0 0 Yr17 + unknown APR gene/s 3 2 0 0 Yr17 + Yr18 1 0.6 1 2 Yr9 + unknown APR gene/s 4 2 1 2 Yr9 + Yr18 8 5 5 10 Yr5 or Yr10 or Yr15 0 0 0 0 Total 162 100 52 100
  • 13. Genetic basis of resistance in IWWIP germplasm Line Origin Resistance type 2009 Ankara 2010 Ankara USA APR only Major genes + APR Pullman Vernon PYN/BAU MX-TCI Unkn.   10MSMR 0-40MS 30 2 494J6.11//TRAP#1/BOW MX-TCI Yr18   20MS 20MSS 20 20 GRISET-9 TCI Yr18   20S no plt 40 30 TORIK-16 MX-TCI   Un+Un 0 0 2 2 CRR/ATTILA MX-TCI   Un+Un TR 0 5 2 8023.16.1.1/KAUZ MX-TCI   Un+Un TR 0 20 2 338-K1-1//ANB/BUC/3/GS50A TCI   Un+Un 0 0 50 10 ZANDER-44 TCI   Un+Un 0 0 5 2 ATAY/89ZHONG2 TCI   Un+Un 0 0 20 0 ID800994.W/MO88 MX-TCI   Un+Yr18 10MSS no plt 40 10 PONY/OPATA//PSN/BOW MX-TCI   Un+Yr18 0 10MS 30 20 AGRI/BJY//VEE/3/PRINIA MX-TCI   Un+Yr18 0 0 5 0 BONITO-36 MX-TCI   Un+Yr18 TR 0 40 20 AGRI/NAC//ATTILA MX-TCI   Un+Yr18 0 0 5 10 ID800994.W/FALKE MX-TCI   Un+Yr18 5MR no plt 30 5 DORADE-5 TCI   Un+Yr18 0 0 2 5 KRASNODAR/FRTL TCI   Un+Yr18 0 20MSS 2 5 RSK/CA8055//CHAM6 TCI   Un+Yr18 0 0-5MS --- 10 338-K1-1//ANB/BUC/3/ TCI   Un+Yr18 0 1MR 20 2 PYN/BAU//YUNA TCI   Un+Yr18 20MS 1MR 30 10 VORONA//MILAN/SHA7/3/MV17 TCI   Un+Yr18 60MSS No plt 20 5 VORONA/OPATA//PYN/BAU TCI   Un+Yr18 10MRMS 5MS 40 10 F4141-W-1-1/PASTOR//PYN/BAU TCI   Un+Yr18 10MRMS 1MRMS 30 2 SABALAN/GRK//PYN/BAU TCI   Un+Yr18 0 0 5 2 BILINMIYEN96.55 TCI   Yr17+Yr18 0 0 5 0
  • 14. IWWIP YR Breeding approach
    • The resistance breeding strategy is based on utilization of primarily adult plant resistance coupled with some major genes effective in the region in the background of diverse broadly adapted germplasm from the region and outside.
    • Around 1000 crosses are made annually incorporating different sources of resistance including modern spring wheat germplasm. Majority of simple crosses are back- or topcrosses to resistant adapted parents to reinforce resistance and productivity.
    • The segregating populations are grown under contrasting environments (irrigated and rainfed) to select for both broad and specific adaptation. They are also exposed to stripe rust, leaf rust and stem rust pressure at hot spots in Turkey and Syria. Some priority crosses are fast-tracked through double haploid system at ICARDA.
    • The resulting F7-F9 lines are subjected to robust multilocational testing for yield, diseases and other agronomic traits at key locations in the region.
    • The resistance of the best germplasm is characterized through greenhouse seedling and adult plant stage tests as well as field tests and utilization of molecular markers. Selected lines (around 100 per year) along with the germplasm submitted by global cooperators are multiplied and distributed through several international nurseries.
  • 15. 12 th IWWYT-IRR : 2008-09 - 21 locations YR LR SR     OVERALL   UZB02 UZB02 KEN01 ENTRY CROSS YLD %LC RNK 1 1 1(19.10) 1 BEZOSTAYA 4394 81 20 50 20   2 KINACI 5327 98 14 25 0   3 KATIA 5372 99 11 80 0 50MS 4 KONYA 5010 93 19 80 20 60S 5 LOCAL CHECK 5411 100 9 100 0   6 Mv17//Attila/Bcn 5225 97 18 0 20 40M 7 VORONA/HD2402//ALBATROSS ODESSKIY 5598 103 4 10 15 50S 8 MOTAH/BOUHOUTH6 5237 97 17 60 0 30MS 9 ATTILA/3/AGRI/NAC//MLT 5557 103 5 0 0 40S 10 ATTILA/3/AGRI/NAC//MLT 5364 99 12 0 0 60S 11 ZANDER-10//BOW/NKT 5462 101 7 0 60 40S 12 TX69A509.2//BBY/FOX/3/GRK//NO64/PEX/4/CER/5/CHIL/2*STAR 5805 107 2 70 0 30S 13 TX69A509.2//BBY/FOX/3/GRK//NO64/PEX/4/CER/5/CHIL/2*STAR 5902 109 1 60 10 30MS 14 PYN/BAU//F6038W12-1 5497 102 6 0 60 40S 15 AGRI/BJY//VEE/3/BUL6687.12 5337 99 13 0 50 5R 16 UNUMLI BUGDAY/3/AGRI/BJY//VEE/4/AGRI/BJY//VEE 5282 98 15 10 10 15MS 17 338-K1-1//ANB/BUC/3/KIRGIZ 5385 100 10 10 50 50S 18 TAST/SPRW//ZAR/5/YUANDONG 3/4/PPB8-68/CHRC/3/PYN//TAM101/AMIGO 5447 101 8 0 30 40S 19 TAST/SPRW//ZAR/5/YUANDONG 3/4/PPB8-68/CHRC/3/PYN//TAM101/AMIGO 5731 106 3 0 50 40S 20 CO724377/NAC//SERI/3/ERYTHROSPERMUM5678/87 5271 97 16 30 30 40MSS
  • 16. 11 th IWWYT-SA: 2008-09 - 15 locations (four < 3 t/ha) YR     OVERALL   OVERALL < 3,0 T/HA UZB02 ENTRY CROSS YLD %LC RNK YLD %LC RNK 1 1 GEREK79 3394 79 20 2018 92 20 20 2 ALTAY 4245 98 11 2219 101 8 90 3 KARAHAN 4143 96 15 2219 101 9 2.5 4 BAYRAKTAR 3837 89 18 2372 108 2 40 5 LOCAL CHECK 4314 100 10 2201 100 12 100 6 NWT/3/TAST/SPRW//TAW12399.75/4/OK82282//BOW/NKT/5/PEHLIVAN 3904 91 17 2218 101 10 70 7 RSK/NAC//90ZHONG657/3/TAM106/TX78V3630/4/F474S10.1 4163 97 14 2084 95 19 5 8 KSK46/BUC//DARI-16 4191 97 13 2135 97 16 30 9 TRK13//BOW/NKT/3/CHIL/2*STAR 4680 108 2 2348 107 3 2.5 10 SHARK-6/3/CROC1/AE.SQUARROSA (224)//2*OPATA 4321 100 9 2290 104 5 70 11 TX69A509.2//BBY/FOX/3/GRK//NO64/PEX/4/CER/5/KAUZ//ALTAR 84/AOS 4866 113 1 2464 112 1 0 12 SOM-6//CA8055/GRK 3770 87 19 2117 96 17 70 13 SUBEN-1/SOM-7 4198 97 12 2199 100 13 40 14 ZHETISU//PYN/BAU/3/338-K1-1//ANB/BUC 4457 103 7 2170 99 14 0 15 UNUMLI BUGDAY/3/AGRI/BJY//VEE/4/AGRI/BJY//VEE 4108 95 16 2215 101 11 0 16 GRK/CTY//MESA/3/RL6043/4*NAC/4/MNCH 4558 106 5 2310 105 4 90 17 BOW/NKT//KATIA1/3/AGRI/BJY//VEE 4413 102 8 2222 101 7 0 18 AGRI/NAC//MLT/3/KAUZ*2/CHEN//BCN/4/AGRI/NAC//MLT 4509 105 6 2277 103 6 0 19 1D13.1/MLT//ATTILA/3*BCN/3/1D13.1/MLT 4568 106 4 2160 98 15 0 20 TIRCHMIR1//71ST2959/CROW/4/NWT/3/TAST/SPRW//TAW12399.75 4603 107 3 2087 95 18 5
  • 17. Yield Gains (%) – IWWYT-IR HYV - Compared to Kinaci 97 HYV compared to Local Checks
  • 18. Yield Gains (%) - IWWYT-SA HYV - Compared to Gerek 79 HYV - Compared to Local Checks
  • 19. Country Released Variety Name Institution Cross Bread Wheat Afghanistan 1994 Pamir 94 ARIA-MAIL YMH/TOB//MCD/3/LIRA Afghanistan 1996 Gul 96 ARIA-MAIL ID800994.W/VEE Afghanistan 2002 Solh 02 ARIA-MAIL OK 82282//BOW/NKT Afghanistan n.a. Sultan 95 ARIA-MAIL AGRI/NAC Armenia 2006 Armcim Armenian Res. Inst. of Farming 1D13.1/MLT Azerbaijan 2010 Tale-38 Azeri Res. Inst. of Farming SPN/NAC//ATTILA Georgia 2002 Mtshetskaya 1 Mtskheta Breeding Station TAST/SPRW//ZAR Georgia Lomtagora-09 Lomtagora Seed Farm SHARK/F4105W2.1 Georgia Lomtagora-123 Lomtagora Seed Farm FRTL/NEMURA Iran 1996 Zarrin Myandoab Agric. Res. Station NAI60/HEINE VII//BUC/3/F59.71/GHK Iran 2002 Tous Mashad Agric. Res. Station SPN/MCD//CAMA/3/NZT Iran 2010 Zare SPII 130L1.11//F35.70/MO73/4/YMH/TOB//MCD/3/LIRA Kazakhstan 2007 Egemen Kazakh Res. Inst. of Farming BHR/AGA//SNI/3/TRK13 Kyrghyzstan 2004 Azibrosh MIS Cooperative Farm OK82282//BOW/NKT Kyrghyzstan 2004 Zubkov MIS Cooperative Farm 1D13/MLT//KAUZ Kyrghyzstan 2005 Almira Kyrgyz Res. Inst. of Farming F.474S10.1 Kyrghyzstan 2005 Djamin Kyrgyz Res. Inst. of Farming NS55-58/VEE Tajikistan 2007 Alex Tajik Res. Inst. of Farming PYN/BAU Tajikistan 2007 Norman Tajik Res. Inst. of Farming OR F1.158/FDL//BLO/3/SHI4414/CROW Tajikistan 2008 Ormon Tajik Res. Inst. of Farming NWT/3/TAST/SPRW//TAW12399.75 Turkey 1990 KARASU 90 East Anatolia Agric. Res. Inst., Erzurum LOVRIN 11/BOLAL 2973//MIRONOVSKAYA 264 Turkey 1995 SULTAN 95 Anatolian Agric. Res. Inst., Eskisehir AGRI/NACOZARI F 76 Turkey 1997 Kinaci 97 Bahri Dagdas International Agric. Res. Center, Konya YMH/TOB//MCD/3/LIRA Turkey 1998 YILDIZ 98 Anatolian Agric. Res. Inst., Eskisehir 55.1744/PULLMAN SELECTION 101//MAYA 74/3/MUSALA/PRIMO//MAYA 74/ALONDRA Turkey 1999 GOKSU 99 Bahri Dagdas International Agric. Res. Center, Konya AGRI/NACOZARI F 76 Turkey 1999 GÜN 91 Central Field Crop Res. Inst., Ankara FUNDALEA 35.70/MOCHIS 73 Turkey 2000 CETINEL 2000 Anatolian Agric. Res. Inst., Eskisehir MALCOLM/4/VPM 1/MOISSON 951//HILL 81/3/STEPHENS Turkey 2001 ALPU 2001 Anatolian Agric. Res. Inst., Eskisehir ID800994.W/VEERY Turkey 2001 IZGI Anatolian Agric. Res. Inst., Eskisehir CA8055/KUTLUK 94 Turkey 2001 SONMEZ Anatolian Agric. Res. Inst., Eskisehir BEZ//BEZ/TVR/3/KREMENA/LOV29/4/KATIA1=Nalim 4 = ES98KE14 Turkey 2001 ALPASLAN East Anatolia Agric. Res. Inst., Erzurum TX69A509-2//BLUEBOY II/FOX Turkey 2001 NENEHATUN East Anatolia Agric. Res. Inst., Erzurum NORD DEPREZ/PULLMAN SELECTION 101//BLUEBOY Turkey 2002 SOYER Anatolian Agric. Res. Inst., Eskisehir ATAY 85/GALVEZ S 87 Turkey 2002 BAGCI 02 Bahri Dagdas International Agric. Res. Center, Konya HN7/OROFEN//BEIJING 8/3/SERI M 82/4/74CB462/TRAPPER//VONA Turkey 2002 SAKIN Black Sea Agric. Res. Inst., Samsun PITIC 62/FUNO*2//VALDIVIA/3/CO723595 Turkey 2002 DAPHAN East Anatolia Agric. Res. Inst., Erzurum JUPATECO F 73/4/COLLAFEN/3/II14.53/ODIN//CI13431/WA00477 Turkey 2002 YILDIRIM East Anatolia Agric. Res. Inst., Erzurum ID800994.W/VEERY Turkey 2003 CANIK2003 Black Sea Agric. Res. Inst., Samsun ANZA/VRZ Turkey 2004 EKİZ Bahri Dagdas International Agric. Res. Center, Konya F885 K1.1/SXL Turkey 2004 OZCAN Black Sea Agric. Res. Inst., Samsun K8/MM2 Turkey 2006 MÜFİTBEY Anatolian Agric. Res. Inst., Eskisehir NGDA146/4/YMH/TOB//MCD/3/LIRA/5/F130L1.12 Turkey 2007 HANLI Sakarya Agric. Res. Inst., Adapazari OK82282//BOW/NKT/3/F4105 Turkey 2007 BESKOPRU Sakarya Agric. Res. Inst., Adapazari 362K2.111/6/NKT/5/TOB/CNO67//TOB/8156/3/CAL//BB/CNO67/4/TRM Turkmenistan 2004 Bitarap Turkmen Res. Inst. of Farming SN64//SKE/2*ANE/3/SX/4/BEZ/5/SERI Uzbekistan 2002 Dostlik Gallyaoral Res. Inst. of Grain YMH/TOB//MCD/3/LIRA
  • 20. Area under IWWIP originated varieties
  • 21. Acknowledgement
    • Turkish research institutes: Ankara, Edirne, Eskisehir, Izmir, Konya, Adapazari, Diyarbakir, Erzurum, Adana & Samsun
    • ICARDA and CIMMYT staff
    • Numerous global cooperators

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