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Technology and Policy Support forEnsuring Water and Food Security inDry Areas: India’s ExperienceInternational Conference ...
Overview of the national agricultural sector India has 2.3 % of world’s land 4.2 % of world’s freshwater resources 16 ...
Major Agro-ecosystems, Crops &production systems3.Rice-basedInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryA...
Water Resources4 Irrigation uses 83% of water, diversionof water to agriculture expected toreduce (72% by 2025) Increase...
Key drivers for agricultural growth Agricultural Research and Technology Development Enabling Policies and Programmes E...
Constraints Increasing population pressure (1210 million) Monsoon dependent agriculture, low and/or erraticrainfall Pre...
7Agricultural Development ScenarioI. Before Mid 1960’s Low input and low productivity technology– subsistence agriculture....
8Water & Agriculture Policies/Programs Technological reforms (Research & Development) Institutional reforms Reforms rel...
9Contours of Water & Agricultural Policy Land reforms 1950s Public Investments on Irrigation Dev., 1961 onwards Setting...
Programmes/Schemes in the WaterSectorMajor and Medium IrrigationProjectsIrrigation potential created increased from9.72 M ...
Major Programs in AgricultureNational Food Security Mission (NFSM)Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna (RKVY)Accelerated pulse ...
Watershed Management Programmes:• Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP)• Desert Development Programme (DDP)• Integrated Was...
Features of the case studyInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt13
Rainfed/dryland Farming :Challenges India has rainfed area of 83 Mha (60% of Net sown area),spanning several ago-ecologie...
Major rainfed production systems of IndiaInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cair...
16 Even with the cumulative policy neglect and low investments ($ 240-300 /ha against$ 4000-5000 /ha in canal irrigation)...
 Rainfall surplus of 114 BCM available for harvesting from 27.5M ha cropped rainfed area . A part of this adequate to pr...
18Watershed Management - A Policy InstrumentWatershed Management - A Policy Instrument Initially Soil & Water conservatio...
Decentralization of powers to the States.Dedicated multi-disciplinary professional institutions at national,state, distr...
CONTINUOUS CONTOURTRENCHEarthen Bund After PlantationEARTHEN STRUCTURES PERCOLATION TANKRecharged openwellHiware Bazaar MW...
Cup and Saucershaped micro-catchmentTrench at theupstreamHalf moon shapedmicro-catchmentInternationalConferenceonPoliciesf...
22InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt22
 Success witnessed where water availability, surface and/or sub-surface/groundwater, was increased and used for productiv...
Multiple Uses of Harvested Rainwater in Rainfed RegionCap. 1200 m3Command area 0.7 haVegetables , Fruits &pulseAgril. WP R...
Kadwanchi Watershed, JalnaFarm diversification by amarginal farmerLoose rock check damRKVY Pond with lining byfarmer’s own...
00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.9Before Project 0.26 0.67 0.5 0.37After Project 0.33 0.82 0.64 0.65Cultivated LandUtilization I...
Overall Impact of WatershedDevelopment ProgrammesAn area of about 57 M ha developed since inception upto 2010-11Net sown...
 Best performance in areas that targeted low & medium incomegroups, and in medium rainfall (700-1100 mm). Greater benefi...
Optimizing CropsHorticultureLive-StockFarming Systems• IWMP. NWDPRA. Micro Irrigation. AGWR, AIBP. CAMPA• Hort. & BambooMi...
Lessons LearnedThe under-invested rainfed areas have higher marginal productivity ofwater, investments, fertilizers, ener...
Emerging issuesBridging demand-supply gap through more focused approach on demandside management interventionsSmall hold...
Main recommendations to policy-makers forscaling-up, and for reducing constraints Mixed Rainfed Livelihood: Focus on rain...
Thanks for listeningQuestions, comments and suggestions are welcomeInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurit...
 A four fold increase in land productivity A three fold increase in water productivity A six fold increase in labour pr...
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India: Technology and Policy for Water and Food Security

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  1. 1. Technology and Policy Support forEnsuring Water and Food Security inDry Areas: India’s ExperienceInternational Conference on Policies for Water and Food Security in Dry Areas24th to 26th of June, Cairo, EgyptAlok Kumar SikkaIndiaInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt1
  2. 2. Overview of the national agricultural sector India has 2.3 % of world’s land 4.2 % of world’s freshwater resources 16 % of world’s population 17 % of world’s cattle population Agriculture supports livelihoodfor 52% of workforce Contributes 14% to GDP Key role in national foodsecurity, supports increasedpopulation from 361 to 1180million between 1951 & 2010 Net sown area increased from119 (1950-51) to 140 (1970-71)M ha, and still about 141 M ha. Untapped potential in rainfedareas (60% of NSA) Challenged to produce 345 Mt by2030 from 141 M ha or less. 80% small & marginal holdersposses 36% landChanges in Man- Arable Land ratio over the yearsInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt2
  3. 3. Major Agro-ecosystems, Crops &production systems3.Rice-basedInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  4. 4. Water Resources4 Irrigation uses 83% of water, diversionof water to agriculture expected toreduce (72% by 2025) Increased water use efficiency andwater productivity as response togrowing challengesSource Quantity (BCM)Annual rainfall (1190mm) : 4000 Estimated Utilizable water : 1122Net Irrig. Area : 60 Mha (40%)Groundwater Contribution : 60%Rainfed Area : 83 Mha (60%)GAPPlan-wise irrigation potential created and utilized in India(Cumulative)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  5. 5. Key drivers for agricultural growth Agricultural Research and Technology Development Enabling Policies and Programmes Enabling Institutions Water and rural Infrastructures Investment in agriculture Incentivization5InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  6. 6. Constraints Increasing population pressure (1210 million) Monsoon dependent agriculture, low and/or erraticrainfall Pre-dominance of small and marginal farmers Declining land- base for agriculture Severe land degradation Declining per capita water availability Falling water tables and water quality Resource poor farmers with low risk bearing capacity Shortage of farm labor Increasing cost of inputs Declining profitability in agriculture Uncertainties associated with prices/ realization6InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  7. 7. 7Agricultural Development ScenarioI. Before Mid 1960’s Low input and low productivity technology– subsistence agriculture.II. Mid 1960’s to 1990 High input and high productivity technology – production enhancement tomeet food grain demand of growing population (GRT- 1967).III. 1990 onwards(Post Economic Reforms)Over-exploitation of resources – deceleration in productivity growth rate;unsustainability of agriculture.IV. Mid 2000’s Initiated different Missions and focus on certified seed production improvedgrowthTrend growth in GDP-Agriculturebased on 10 years period: From1951-1961 to 2001-2011 (%)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  8. 8. 8Water & Agriculture Policies/Programs Technological reforms (Research & Development) Institutional reforms Reforms related to marketing and prices Inputs and subsidies Extension and education reforms Green Revolution supported by HYVs of rice andwheat with emphasis on irrigation development andfertilizer in the late sixties gave the majorbreakthrough.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  9. 9. 9Contours of Water & Agricultural Policy Land reforms 1950s Public Investments on Irrigation Dev., 1961 onwards Setting up of Agricultural Prices Commission and FCI, 1965 Green Revolution, 1966-70s Setting up of RRBs,1975 Integrated Rural Development Program, 1976 National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, 1982 Economic Reforms, 1991 Initiating large scale watershed development programs, 1990s Implementation of WTO agreement, 1995 Targeting of PDS, 1997 Rationalization of MSP Policy, 2000 National Agricultural Policy, 2000 Encouragement to food processing industry, 2004 Enhancing the flow of institutional agricultural credit, 2004 National Policy for farmers, 2007 National Water Policy 1987, 2002, 2008 and 2012 Setting up different Missions for speedy agriculture growth 2007 Bringing Green revolution to eastern India, 2010 Encouraging crop diversificationInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  10. 10. Programmes/Schemes in the WaterSectorMajor and Medium IrrigationProjectsIrrigation potential created increased from9.72 M ha (1950-51) to 46 M ha (2011-12);utilized only 35 M ha (2011-12)Accelerated Irrigation BenefitsProgramme (AIBP)108.21 M ha irrigational potential created(about 77% of UIP)Command Area Development andWater Management Programme(CADWM):About 22 M ha covered since inception uptoMarch, 2011National Project for Repair,Renovation and Restoration(RRR) of Water BodiesRestoration completed in 1054 water bodiesin 15 StatesArtificial Recharge to GroundWater through Dug wellsImplemented in 1180 over exploited, criticaland semi-critical blocks in 7 States.National Water Mission Major goal to improve water use efficiency atleast by 20%National Mission on MicroIrrigation (NMMI)Promoting enhanced WUE 10InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  11. 11. Major Programs in AgricultureNational Food Security Mission (NFSM)Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna (RKVY)Accelerated pulse Production Programme (A3P)Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA)Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil palm and Maize (ISOPOM)National Horticulture Mission (NHM)Oil palm development Programme (OPDP)Initiative for Nutritional security through Intensive Millet Promotion(INSIMP)Brining Green revolution in Eastern India (BGREI)Foodgrain production of 257.44 million tones during 2011-12.Foodgrain production of 257.44 million tones during 2011-12.The production of rice, wheat and pulses increased by 11, 15, and 3 millionThe production of rice, wheat and pulses increased by 11, 15, and 3 milliontones against the targeted 10, 8, and 2 million tonnes respectively duringtones against the targeted 10, 8, and 2 million tonnes respectively during2011-12 as a result of NFSM alone.2011-12 as a result of NFSM alone.11Conti……InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  12. 12. Watershed Management Programmes:• Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP)• Desert Development Programme (DDP)• Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP)• Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP)• National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA)• Hill Area Development Programme (HADP)• Western Ghat Development Programme (WGDP)Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)National Rainfed Area Authority (NRAA)12InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  13. 13. Features of the case studyInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt13
  14. 14. Rainfed/dryland Farming :Challenges India has rainfed area of 83 Mha (60% of Net sown area),spanning several ago-ecologies. Characterised by low/erratic rainfall and water scarcity Low rainfed yields of about 1 t/ha Supports 40% of population, 60% livestock and contributesonly 40% to the food grains production. Rainfed areas grow about 87% each of coarse cereals andpulses, 80% oil seeds, 65% cotton and 50% cereals. Distress prone, vulnerable, under invested, more poverty. Climate change projected to have implications. Green revolution by-passed rainfed areas. Vast potential to contribute to food security and livelihood .14InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  15. 15. Major rainfed production systems of IndiaInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt15
  16. 16. 16 Even with the cumulative policy neglect and low investments ($ 240-300 /ha against$ 4000-5000 /ha in canal irrigation), rain-fed agriculture contributes significantly to thenational economy Rainfed crops have shown more impressive growth rates in recent years ascompared to irrigated crops like rice and wheat Growth rate in yield of coarse cereals, pulses and oilseeds taken together was muchhigher (2.18%) than that of rice (1.40%) and wheat (0.46%). Based on compoundgrowth rate (1998-99 to 2008-09)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,EgyptGrowth rate in area, production and yield of major crops in India,1998-99 to 2008-09
  17. 17.  Rainfall surplus of 114 BCM available for harvesting from 27.5M ha cropped rainfed area . A part of this adequate to provide one supplemental irrigationof 10 cm to 20.65 M ha and 25.08 M ha during drought andnormal years respectively. Harvested rainwater used in SI had highest marginal productivityand increase in rainfed production up to 50% was achievable. Demonstrate challenging opportunity for prioritising researchand development efforts in increasing rain water use efficiencyand rain water productivity.Higher Marginal Return in Productivity ofRainfed AreasSource: Sharma et al. (2010)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt17
  18. 18. 18Watershed Management - A Policy InstrumentWatershed Management - A Policy Instrument Initially Soil & Water conservation, now focuses on social,institutional and livelihood aspects besides bio-physicalaspects. Watershed programmes implemented under an array ofnational schemes/programmes. Watershed programmes have undergone revision andreorganisation. With the introduction of Common Guidelines -2008, newwatershed projects have been taken up. Accordingly, DPAP, DDP and IWDP of the Department ofLand Resources have been merged into a single modifiedprogramme called Integrated Watershed ManagementProgramme (IWMP)InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
  19. 19. Decentralization of powers to the States.Dedicated multi-disciplinary professional institutions at national,state, district, Project level.Flexible project duration with 3 distinct phases.Livelihoods focused through integrated farming systems, micro-enterprises, marketing etc.Clustering of small watersheds (1000-5000 ha ) to optimizetransaction cost & have more visible impact.Scientific planning using new tools and technology inputs includingRS, GIS,GPS and modeling.Capacity building planning.Multi tier Ridge to valley planning and implementation includingtreatment of forest areas forming integral part of watershed.Key Features of Common Guidelines-2008Key Features of Common Guidelines-2008InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt19
  20. 20. CONTINUOUS CONTOURTRENCHEarthen Bund After PlantationEARTHEN STRUCTURES PERCOLATION TANKRecharged openwellHiware Bazaar MWS Ahmednagar, MHInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt20
  21. 21. Cup and Saucershaped micro-catchmentTrench at theupstreamHalf moon shapedmicro-catchmentInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt21
  22. 22. 22InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt22
  23. 23.  Success witnessed where water availability, surface and/or sub-surface/groundwater, was increased and used for productive andlivelihood enhancement. Over-exploitation of groundwater and resulting well failure hasbecome risky even pushing farmers into debt trap, and also leadingto in-equity. Groundwater management through water positive on-farmpractices, water budget based cropping, generating hydrologicinformation at village level involving community, demystifyinghydrology to make user friendly. Enabling policies, water rights and institutional mechanism forwater use. Key Issue: Integration of water management principles with WSMWater Management in WSM ProgrammesInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt23
  24. 24. Multiple Uses of Harvested Rainwater in Rainfed RegionCap. 1200 m3Command area 0.7 haVegetables , Fruits &pulseAgril. WP Rs. 31/m3InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt24
  25. 25. Kadwanchi Watershed, JalnaFarm diversification by amarginal farmerLoose rock check damRKVY Pond with lining byfarmer’s own resourcesRain Water harvesting damLuxurious growth of foddergrass in community landBrought out difference in enhanced water availability,fodder and drinking water during 2012 -13 droughtInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt25
  26. 26. 00.10.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.9Before Project 0.26 0.67 0.5 0.37After Project 0.33 0.82 0.64 0.65Cultivated LandUtilization IndexCropDiverificationIndexCropProductivityIndexLand LevellingIndexImpact of Watershed DevelopmentWatershed Water storagecapacity created(ha-cm)WellsinfluencedIncrease inwell rechargerate (%)Irrigated areaincrease (%)Antisar 1584 73 23 90Bada Khera 256 20 6 65Salaiyur 266 46 10-15 84InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt26
  27. 27. Overall Impact of WatershedDevelopment ProgrammesAn area of about 57 M ha developed since inception upto 2010-11Net sown area increased from 140.00 Mha in 1980-81 to 141.36million ha. in 2008-09, despite increase in area of about 6.65 millionhectare under non-agricultural uses during the same period. Inspireof that net sown area more or less remained same which could bedue to WSMWasteland has been reduced from 63.97 M ha to 55.27 M ha.Comprehensive assessment of watershed programmes in Indiaconcludes: Enhancement in rural income by 58% Increased agricultural productivity by 35% Additional environmental & social benefitsInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt27
  28. 28.  Best performance in areas that targeted low & medium incomegroups, and in medium rainfall (700-1100 mm). Greater benefits where people’s participation was higher. Water is the major “entry point”. GO-NGO jointly implemented programs performed better. Lack of efficient water use management interventions. Lack of linking resource conservation with productivity andlivelihoods. Lack of sustenance of local institutions, capacity building. Vast scope to improve, as 35 % MWS performing aboveaverage.Water Harvesting and WSM ProgramsWater Harvesting and WSM ProgramsA Vehicle for Rainfed Area ManagementA Vehicle for Rainfed Area ManagementInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt28
  29. 29. Optimizing CropsHorticultureLive-StockFarming Systems• IWMP. NWDPRA. Micro Irrigation. AGWR, AIBP. CAMPA• Hort. & BambooMission• NREGA(40% material)•SGSY(Self employment)•Vth & VIthscheduleForest &AgricultureSharedWatersheds•RKVY, BRGF•State finance Commission•MPLAD•Others•Planning at the grass-rootInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt29
  30. 30. Lessons LearnedThe under-invested rainfed areas have higher marginal productivity ofwater, investments, fertilizers, energy and should be prioritized in theinvestment portfolioWell executed participatory watershed management programme cancontribute to drought proofing, food security and livelihoodimprovementWater budget based crop planning for improving crop waterproductivityPotential for combining natural resources conservation goals withproductivity, carrying capacity and and livelihood augmentationIncentives and reward mechanism for conservation of water andenergyPriorities for water management in rainfed areas and water markets,water cooperatives and water franchiseeInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt30
  31. 31. Emerging issuesBridging demand-supply gap through more focused approach on demandside management interventionsSmall holder affordability and profitability calls for R & D intodevelopment of farmer centric and location specific solutions.Rationalization of input subsidies in irrigation, fertilizers and electricity toreduce natural resource degradationStakeholder aquifer management through participatory monitoring andplanningManaging soil healthClimate change adaptation for water and food security, and riskmanagementHow to coordinate and converge ? A Major challengeReforms in major and medium irrigation to bridge the gap betweenpotential createdChallenging task of coordinating water management issues as beinghandle by multiple department/MinistriesInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt31
  32. 32. Main recommendations to policy-makers forscaling-up, and for reducing constraints Mixed Rainfed Livelihood: Focus on rainfed livelihoods through a mixof agriculture, livestock, horticulture, fishery, agroforestry and IGAsmeasures. NRM and Production System Integration: A single window inclusiveand holistic Flagship program for rainfed areas, combining naturalresource conservation and use with production and livelihoodinterventions. Convergence: Unified mechanism for convergence of schemes,resources and institutions (by design not default) in degraded/rainfedareas, large scale pilots for demonstration Climate resilience: Re-orientation of on-going Schemes for enhancedadaptive capacity to climate change. For ex., WSM as a strategyframework, safety nets eg. insurance, credit.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt32
  33. 33. Thanks for listeningQuestions, comments and suggestions are welcomeInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt34
  34. 34.  A four fold increase in land productivity A three fold increase in water productivity A six fold increase in labour productivity About Half through labour-capital substitutionAlong with:- Energy saving and low emissionMain Target in 2050InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt33
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