IMPACTS OF WHEAT STRIPE RUST IN PAKISTAN: BREEDING AND CONTROL  STRATEGIES
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IMPACTS OF WHEAT STRIPE RUST IN PAKISTAN: BREEDING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES

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IMPACTS OF WHEAT STRIPE RUST IN PAKISTAN: BREEDING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES Presentation Transcript

  • 1. presentation3
  • 2. IMPACTS OF WHEAT STRIPE RUST IN PAKISTAN: BREEDING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES
    • Paper Presented at:
    • INTERNATIONAL WHEAT STRIPE RUST SYMPOSIUM
    • Organized by
    • ICARDA ,FAO& SOFT in collaboration with CIMMYT & BGRI,
    • Venue – ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria (18-21 April, 2011)
  • 3. AREA PRODUCTION & YIELD PER HECTARE OF WHEAT IN PAKISTAN DURING 2004-05 TO 2009-10 - Federal Committee on Agriculture, MinFA, GOP Year Area (million ha) Production (million mt) Yield per hector (kg/ha) 2004-05 8.36 21.61 2586 2005-06 8.45 21.28 2519 2006-07 8.58 23.29 2716 2007-08 8.55 22.95 2451 2008-09 9.05 24.03 2657 2009-10 9.13 23.31 2553 2010-11 8.89 24.10 2723
  • 4.  
  • 5. BRIEF SCENARIO ABOUT WHEAT IN PAKISTAN
    • Area wise position in the world = 8 th
    • Position in production = 6 th
    • Share in value addition = 13.1%
    • Share in G.D.P. = 2.8%
    • Share in total cropped area = 40 %
  • 6. BRIEF GLOBAL SCENARIO ABOUT WHEAT
    • Total Production (2009-10) = 656 million m.t.
    • Demand = 642 million m.t
    • Contribution from
    • Developing = 68 per cent
    • world.
    • Required increase annually = 1.6 per cent
  • 7. WHEAT: ECONOMIC IMPACT (PAKISTAN)
    • Largest crop of Pakistan & Food security
    • Wheat production in the country increased by 598% between 1948 to 2010
    • 129% increase in area (1948-2010)
    • A worth of Rs.566 billion wheat is produced in the country (1 US $ = Rs.85.25).
    • 1 % loss in wheat production would be equivalent to rupees 5.6 billion.
  • 8. AVERAGE YIELD (TON/HA) IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
  • 9.
    • Smuts - Loose smut, Flag smut
    • Bunts - Karnal Bunt
    • Blights - Helminthosporium, Septoria
    • Fusarium, Alternaria
    • Mildews - Powdery mildew,
    • Downy mildew
    • BYDV: Barley yellow dwarf virus
    • RUSTS: Leaf rust /Brown rust
    • Stripe rust/ Yellow rust
    • Stem rust /Black rust
    MAJOR DISEASES OF WHEAT
  • 10. RUST DISEASES
      • Remain potential threats for sustainable wheat production
      • Cause substantial losses in space & time all over the world
    Stripe/Yellow Rust 1 Leaf/Brown Rust 2 Stem/Black Rust 3
  • 11. Yellow – yellow rust areas Brown – brown rust areas Yellow dots – often yellow rust Dark Brown dots – stem rust
  • 12. Brown rust Yellow rust Stem rust RUST DISEASES
  • 13. PREDOMINANT RUST RESISTANT GENES IN WHEAT VARIETIES OF PAKISTAN Stem Rust: 5, 6, 7b, 8a, 9b, 9g, 11, 12, 17, 30 and 31 Leaf Rust: 1, 3, 10, 13, 23, 26, 27+31 and 9 Yellow Rust 6, 7, 9, 27
  • 14. YELLOW/STRIPE RUST RACES IN PAKISTAN Period Races 1969-73 Race group 64E0,66E0,67E0,66E(16) 1974-75 Race Group 6E16,66E16, 67E0 and 7E16 The pathogen carried virulence for Yr1, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8 1977-79 Race Group 38E16, 6E16, 6(38)E16, 2(6)E16, 2E16, 7E16 1983-93 New Race Group reported 7E(15)150 This race group is virulent on Yr1, Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr mex and Yr A 1994 134E150 Which can attack the cultivar with gene Yr9 2002 New race 166E143A+ virulent on Yr27
  • 15. YELLOW RUST EPIDEMICS CAUSED SUBSTANTIAL LOSSES FROM 1985-86 TO 2005-06 DUE TO LARGE SCALE CULTIVATION OF VEERY LINES Country Year Variety Reported by Afghnistan 1995 Pak –81, Pir Sabak Saari et al., 1995 Egypt 1995 Mamluk, 1996 Ethiopia 1986,88,90 Dashen (Veeri 5) Badebo and Bayk, 1992 Iran 1992-95 Falat (Seri 82) Torrabi et al., 1995 Lebanon 1994 Seri 82, Sonalika Mamluk, 1995 Pakistan (Baluchistan) 1990-92 1997-98 Local White -do- Ahmad et al., 1991 S.D. Khanzda, 1998 Pakistan (KPK & Northern Punjab) 1994-95 Pak-81, Pir Sabak-85 Saari et al., 1995 Syria 1988 Mexipak Mamluk et al., Naimi,1992 Turkey 1991 Gerek-79 Brown and Saari, 1992 Yemen 1988, 1989, 1993 Muchtar (Veeri) Aziz (Seri 82) Mamluk, 1996 Pakistan 2005 Inqilab-91 S. D. Khanzada, 2005
  • 16. RUST EPIDEMICS YEAR RUST TYPE DISTRIBUTION LOSSES 1978 Brown rust All Pakistan 10% of total production 1995 Yellow rust Khayber Pakhtoon Khwa & Upper Punjab 20% in the hit area
  • 17. WL711 BLUW SILVER M.PAK65 SEVERE RUST ATTACK ON MOST POPULAR VARIETIES OF THE PAKISTAN, THESE BECAME SUSCEPTIBLE WITH THE EVOLUTION OF NEW RUST RACES AFTER THEIR WIDE SPREAD CULTIVATION
  • 18.
    • PAK-81 was severely infected with
    • Leaf rust at Faisalabad.
    • It was also badly hit by yellow rust during 1994-95 especially in Northern areas of the country
    WRI., Faisalabad photo 6.4.03
  • 19. Yellow Rust at Faisalabad 22.3.03
  • 20. Yellow Rust on Inqlab-91 at WRI., Faisalabad 22.3.03
  • 21. SEHER-2006 has become susceptible to leaf rust on most of the areas of the country (17.03.11) disease screening nursery FAISALABAD
  • 22. Leaf rust on most cultivated wheat variety Seher-2006 at Sialkot during current wheat season on October 2010 planted crop 25.2.2011
  • 23. Leaf rust on morrocco, a rust susceptible variety at Faisalabad used as spreader
  • 24. Sahar 2006
  • 25. TD-1
  • 26. Mairaj
  • 27. Wheat Varieties Released Year Number Upto 1980 28 1981-1990 14 1991-2000 15 2000-2011 17 54
  • 28. Prominent Wheat Varieties 1 CHENAB2000 2000 2 AS.2002 2002 3 BAHAWALPUR 2000 2000 4 PUNJNAD 2001 2001 5 SH.2002 2002 6 UFAQ-2002 2002 7 BHAKKAR-2002 2002 8 GA-2002 2002 9 MANTHAR-03 2003 10 SEHER-06 2006 11 FAREED-06 2006 12 SHAFAQ-06 2006 13 FSD-08 2008 14 LASANI.08 2008 15 MERAJ-08 2008 16 CHAKWAL-50 2008 17 BARS-09 2009 18 AARI-11 2011
  • 29. CURRENT WHEAT VARIETIES Lasani-08 Resistant to stem rust ug-99 and local race, High yielder, good quality AARI-11 High yielder, resistant to all wheat diseases including ug-99 and local race BARS-09 Drought tolerant, Suitable for rainfed areas, High yielder, disease resistant Seher-06 High yield potential, Stress tolerant, Wider adaptability , Faisalabad-08 High yielder, drought tolerant, resistant to leaf & yellow rusts, smut resistant
  • 30. MOROCCO 16.3.2011 LASANI 2008 resistance during current season 16.3.11
  • 31. Lasani-2008
  • 32. Future Hopes 1 6C-016 2011 2 AAS-11 2011 3 V-05066 2011 4 V-05082 2011
  • 33. FUTURE HOPES
    • V-032862, V-05066, V-05082, V-07076,
    • V-07096, 06C002
    V-05066 High yielder, heat tolerant resistant to other wheat diseases V-05082 High yielder, resistant to Karnal bunt, leaf and yellow rust
  • 34. AARI 2011 resistant to all rusts through out the country 17.3.11 disease screening nursery Faisalabad
  • 35. A new YR, LR & SR Resistant line with cross V87094/2*ERA IN RUST BACK GROUND
  • 36. 1 10 12 15 GP11 GP22 1.11.0930.3.10 Future strategies to improve yield by increasing number of grains per spike and rust resistance by pyramiding durable rust resistance genes
  • 37. Notification by the Federal Government CROP VARIETY DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE SYSTEM Variety Release System Breeder Micro Trials Zonal Trials FSC&RD (DUS) PARC-VEC (VCU ) Evaluation and Registration FSRC Provincial Technical Expert Sub-Committee Provincial and National Seed Council Commercial Seed Production ABBREVIATIONS DUS: Distinctness Uniformity Stability VEC: Variety Evaluation Committee VCU: Value for Cultivation and Use FSRC: Federal Seed Research Committee FSC&RD: Federal Seed Certification & Registration Department Approval & Release FSC&RD Public and Private seed companies FARMERS
  • 38.
    • Provincial Departments of Agriculture (Extension) through Farmer Training programs and field Demonstrations.
    • Farm Advisory Services of Public/Private Seed companies.
    • National Seminars and Farmers mega Gatherings.
    • Agriculture Magazines and Pamphlets).
    • Print and Electronic Media
    SEED EXTENSION
  • 39. SEED MARKETING/ PRICING
    • Public sector seed agencies and private Seed companies, market seed through their own sale points and seed dealers (about 13500 No) through-out the country
    • Seed pricing is operated under free market economy system
    • Grain/ seed price ratio is 1:1.50 (approx)
  • 40. SEED DISTRIBUTION NETWORK PUBLIC SEED SECTOR PRIVATE SEED SECTOR INFORMAL SEED SECTOR PSC SSC FSI BDA NATIONAL PRIVATE SEED COMPANIES 720 Nos. MULTINATIONAL SEED COMPANIES 5 Nos.
    • FARMER TO FARMER
    • EXCHANGE
    • FARMER KEEPS OWN
    • SEED
    • FARMER BUYS SEED
    • FROM LOCAL MARKET
    SEED DEALERS OWN SALE POINTS SEED DEALERS OWN SALE POINTS OWN SALE POINTS SEED DEALERS
    • Abbreviation used
    • PSC: Punjab Seed Corporation
    • SSC: Sindh Seed Corporation
    • FSI: Frontier Seed Industry.
    • BDA: Baluchistan Department of Agriculture.
  • 41.
    • Domestic Climatic Changes.
    • Narrowing of wheat Season
    • (sowing and harvesting)
    • High price of cotton and rice in Pakistan.
    • Non-availability of certified seed of rust resistant
    • varieties and their fast tract distribution
    GROWING OF WHEAT ITSELF A FUTURE CHALLENGE IN PAKISTAN
  • 42. MAJOR VARIETY WISE WHEAT SEED AVAILABILITY IN PAKISTAN (2009-10) S. No. Variety Qty Tested Seed Availability Qty Rejected Remarks (Share %)     (m.t.) (m.t) (m.t)   1 Bhakkar-2002 12686.80 10750.80 1936.00 - 2 Faisalabad-08 19637.31 18259.31 1258.00 4.78% 3 Fareed-2006 12003.24 11238.24 765.00 - 4 Inqilab-91 20406.87 18335.87 2071.00 4.80% 5 Lasani-08 10114.48 9158.48 958.00 2.81% 6 Meraj-08 9046.90 7944.00 1102.90 7 Sehar-2006 237119.65 215141.25 21978.40 56.34% 8 Shafaq-2006 12896.95 12300.95 596.00 - 9 TD-01 16816.28 14896.10 1920.10 - 10 TJ-83 8911.28 8312.94 598.34 2.54% Total 359639.76 326337.94 33183.74 - Other varieties (45 No.) 22343.73 21540.28 582.45 - Grand Total (55 Nos). 381983.49 347878.22 33766.19 -
  • 43. Punjab Crop Reporting Service Variety Wise Wheat Area Replacement S.NO. VARIETY 2005-2006 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-2010 2010-2011 AREA %AGE Area %age Area %age Area %age AREA %AGE AREA %AGE 1 PAK-81 176 1.1 175 1.1 131 0.8 107 0.6 8 0.05 - - 2 INQLAB-91 10431 65.1 8838 55.6 7956 50.3 7109 42.1 5371 31.44 3795 23 6 DESI 96 0.6 111 0.7 60 0.4 148 0.9 83 0.49 - - 7 PASBAN 96 0.6 32 0.2 27 0.2 12 0.1 17 0.10 - - 8 CHAKWAL-97 16 0.1 16 0.1 23 0.1 29 0.2 57 0.33 - - 09 WATTAN 2275 14.2 2273 14.3 2088 13.2 2163 12.8 1751 10.25 1320 8 10 PB-96 224 1.4 175 1.1 118 0.8 83 0.5 44 0.26 - - 11 PERVAZ 64 0.4 32 0.2 36 0.2 46 0.3 39 0.23 - - 12 PB-85 64 0.4 48 0.3 45 0.3 30 0.2 19 0.11 - - 13 BHAKKAR-2002 2083 13.0 3099 19.5 3835 24.2 4646 27.5 3402 19.91 1980 12 14 MH-97 32 0.2 47 0.3 14 0.1 6 0.0 2 0.01 - - 15 UQAB-2000 288 1.8 382 2.4 292 1.9 210 1.2 213 1.25 - - 16 IQBAL-2000 64 0.4 48 0.3 39 0.2 22 0.1 10 0.06 - - 17 Abdul Sattar - - 461 2.9 881 5.6 1138 6.7 1224 7.16 825 5 18 Sehr - - - - 36 0.2 783 4.6 4083 23.90 6931 42 19 Shafaq - - - - 33 0.2 165 1.0 501 2.93 660 4 30 OTHER 109 0.7 159 1.0 203 1.3 196 1.1 260 1.52 990 6 TOTAL: 16021 100 15896 100 15820 100 16893 100 17084 100 16502 100
  • 44. CONTROL STRATEGIES
    • Practically chemical control is not feasible to spray over 8 million hectare wheat area in Pakistan,
      • as availability of huge amount of chemical is almost impossible
      • Spray machinery and man power is also debatable
      • Cost of sprays (at least two) and their in time application is also almost impossible
      • Hence genetic control is the only possible solution of wheat rusts.
        • It is the main activity to incorporate resistant genes in high yielding wheat lines through out world wheat breeding programs
        • Rust monitoring program is efficiently working in the country and susceptible varieties are withdrawn and replaced with new resistant wheat cultivars.
        • FAO has also a coordinated program to identify rust races in Pakistan in the Districts of Bahawalpur, Rahim Yar Khan in Punjab and Sakrand and Mirpur Khas in Sindh with the collaboration of Society of Facilitators and trainers (SOFT) Pakistan
  • 45. CONTROL STRATEGIES
        • Wheat breeding programs in the country are
        • continuously evolving new resistant cultivars and
        • replacing susceptible ones.
        • As pak81 was replaced by Inqilab91
        • Inqilab91 was replaced by seher2006
        • Now Seher 2006 would be replaced by Lasani 2008 and Faisalabad2008
        • Two new resistant lines V5066 & V5082 are in the final stage of approval
        • Keeping resistant CVs is maintaining the sustainability in wheat production in the country
  • 46. RECOMMENDATION/ SUGGESTIONS
    • Free, easy excess to international germplasm for wheat breeding.
    • Capacity building of Wheat Breeders, Plant Pathologists and Extension Experts.
    • Variety testing network in different regions so in an emergency plan for seed of rust resistant varieties could be made available.
    • Regional network for identification of wheat rust races.
    • Regional wheat traveling seminars (surveillance) may be organized regularly
    • Wheat breeding having ability to combat biotic and a-biotic stresses
    • Strengthening of informal seed production and multiplication system through participatory selections and testing of varieties .
  • 47. Wheat Food f or all Thanks