IMPACTS OF WHEAT STRIPE RUST IN PAKISTAN: BREEDING AND CONTROL STRATEGIESPresentation Transcript
IMPACTS OF WHEAT STRIPE RUST IN PAKISTAN: BREEDING AND CONTROL STRATEGIES
Paper Presented at:
INTERNATIONAL WHEAT STRIPE RUST SYMPOSIUM
ICARDA ,FAO& SOFT in collaboration with CIMMYT & BGRI,
Venue – ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria (18-21 April, 2011)
AREA PRODUCTION & YIELD PER HECTARE OF WHEAT IN PAKISTAN DURING 2004-05 TO 2009-10 - Federal Committee on Agriculture, MinFA, GOP Year Area (million ha) Production (million mt) Yield per hector (kg/ha) 2004-05 8.36 21.61 2586 2005-06 8.45 21.28 2519 2006-07 8.58 23.29 2716 2007-08 8.55 22.95 2451 2008-09 9.05 24.03 2657 2009-10 9.13 23.31 2553 2010-11 8.89 24.10 2723
YELLOW/STRIPE RUST RACES IN PAKISTAN Period Races 1969-73 Race group 64E0,66E0,67E0,66E(16) 1974-75 Race Group 6E16,66E16, 67E0 and 7E16 The pathogen carried virulence for Yr1, Yr6, Yr7, Yr8 1977-79 Race Group 38E16, 6E16, 6(38)E16, 2(6)E16, 2E16, 7E16 1983-93 New Race Group reported 7E(15)150 This race group is virulent on Yr1, Yr2, Yr6, Yr7, Yr mex and Yr A 1994 134E150 Which can attack the cultivar with gene Yr9 2002 New race 166E143A+ virulent on Yr27
YELLOW RUST EPIDEMICS CAUSED SUBSTANTIAL LOSSES FROM 1985-86 TO 2005-06 DUE TO LARGE SCALE CULTIVATION OF VEERY LINES Country Year Variety Reported by Afghnistan 1995 Pak –81, Pir Sabak Saari et al., 1995 Egypt 1995 Mamluk, 1996 Ethiopia 1986,88,90 Dashen (Veeri 5) Badebo and Bayk, 1992 Iran 1992-95 Falat (Seri 82) Torrabi et al., 1995 Lebanon 1994 Seri 82, Sonalika Mamluk, 1995 Pakistan (Baluchistan) 1990-92 1997-98 Local White -do- Ahmad et al., 1991 S.D. Khanzda, 1998 Pakistan (KPK & Northern Punjab) 1994-95 Pak-81, Pir Sabak-85 Saari et al., 1995 Syria 1988 Mexipak Mamluk et al., Naimi,1992 Turkey 1991 Gerek-79 Brown and Saari, 1992 Yemen 1988, 1989, 1993 Muchtar (Veeri) Aziz (Seri 82) Mamluk, 1996 Pakistan 2005 Inqilab-91 S. D. Khanzada, 2005
RUST EPIDEMICS YEAR RUST TYPE DISTRIBUTION LOSSES 1978 Brown rust All Pakistan 10% of total production 1995 Yellow rust Khayber Pakhtoon Khwa & Upper Punjab 20% in the hit area
WL711 BLUW SILVER M.PAK65 SEVERE RUST ATTACK ON MOST POPULAR VARIETIES OF THE PAKISTAN, THESE BECAME SUSCEPTIBLE WITH THE EVOLUTION OF NEW RUST RACES AFTER THEIR WIDE SPREAD CULTIVATION
PAK-81 was severely infected with
Leaf rust at Faisalabad.
It was also badly hit by yellow rust during 1994-95 especially in Northern areas of the country
WRI., Faisalabad photo 6.4.03
Yellow Rust at Faisalabad 22.3.03
Yellow Rust on Inqlab-91 at WRI., Faisalabad 22.3.03
SEHER-2006 has become susceptible to leaf rust on most of the areas of the country (17.03.11) disease screening nursery FAISALABAD
Leaf rust on most cultivated wheat variety Seher-2006 at Sialkot during current wheat season on October 2010 planted crop 25.2.2011
Leaf rust on morrocco, a rust susceptible variety at Faisalabad used as spreader
Wheat Varieties Released Year Number Upto 1980 28 1981-1990 14 1991-2000 15 2000-2011 17 54
CURRENT WHEAT VARIETIES Lasani-08 Resistant to stem rust ug-99 and local race, High yielder, good quality AARI-11 High yielder, resistant to all wheat diseases including ug-99 and local race BARS-09 Drought tolerant, Suitable for rainfed areas, High yielder, disease resistant Seher-06 High yield potential, Stress tolerant, Wider adaptability , Faisalabad-08 High yielder, drought tolerant, resistant to leaf & yellow rusts, smut resistant
MOROCCO 16.3.2011 LASANI 2008 resistance during current season 16.3.11
V-05066 High yielder, heat tolerant resistant to other wheat diseases V-05082 High yielder, resistant to Karnal bunt, leaf and yellow rust
AARI 2011 resistant to all rusts through out the country 17.3.11 disease screening nursery Faisalabad
A new YR, LR & SR Resistant line with cross V87094/2*ERA IN RUST BACK GROUND
1 10 12 15 GP11 GP22 1.11.0930.3.10 Future strategies to improve yield by increasing number of grains per spike and rust resistance by pyramiding durable rust resistance genes
Notification by the Federal Government CROP VARIETY DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE SYSTEM Variety Release System Breeder Micro Trials Zonal Trials FSC&RD (DUS) PARC-VEC (VCU ) Evaluation and Registration FSRC Provincial Technical Expert Sub-Committee Provincial and National Seed Council Commercial Seed Production ABBREVIATIONS DUS: Distinctness Uniformity Stability VEC: Variety Evaluation Committee VCU: Value for Cultivation and Use FSRC: Federal Seed Research Committee FSC&RD: Federal Seed Certification & Registration Department Approval & Release FSC&RD Public and Private seed companies FARMERS
Provincial Departments of Agriculture (Extension) through Farmer Training programs and field Demonstrations.
Farm Advisory Services of Public/Private Seed companies.
National Seminars and Farmers mega Gatherings.
Agriculture Magazines and Pamphlets).
Print and Electronic Media
SEED MARKETING/ PRICING
Public sector seed agencies and private Seed companies, market seed through their own sale points and seed dealers (about 13500 No) through-out the country
Seed pricing is operated under free market economy system
Grain/ seed price ratio is 1:1.50 (approx)
SEED DISTRIBUTION NETWORK PUBLIC SEED SECTOR PRIVATE SEED SECTOR INFORMAL SEED SECTOR PSC SSC FSI BDA NATIONAL PRIVATE SEED COMPANIES 720 Nos. MULTINATIONAL SEED COMPANIES 5 Nos.
FARMER TO FARMER
FARMER KEEPS OWN
FARMER BUYS SEED
FROM LOCAL MARKET
SEED DEALERS OWN SALE POINTS SEED DEALERS OWN SALE POINTS OWN SALE POINTS SEED DEALERS
PSC: Punjab Seed Corporation
SSC: Sindh Seed Corporation
FSI: Frontier Seed Industry.
BDA: Baluchistan Department of Agriculture.
Domestic Climatic Changes.
Narrowing of wheat Season
(sowing and harvesting)
High price of cotton and rice in Pakistan.
Non-availability of certified seed of rust resistant
varieties and their fast tract distribution
GROWING OF WHEAT ITSELF A FUTURE CHALLENGE IN PAKISTAN
Practically chemical control is not feasible to spray over 8 million hectare wheat area in Pakistan,
as availability of huge amount of chemical is almost impossible
Spray machinery and man power is also debatable
Cost of sprays (at least two) and their in time application is also almost impossible
Hence genetic control is the only possible solution of wheat rusts.
It is the main activity to incorporate resistant genes in high yielding wheat lines through out world wheat breeding programs
Rust monitoring program is efficiently working in the country and susceptible varieties are withdrawn and replaced with new resistant wheat cultivars.
FAO has also a coordinated program to identify rust races in Pakistan in the Districts of Bahawalpur, Rahim Yar Khan in Punjab and Sakrand and Mirpur Khas in Sindh with the collaboration of Society of Facilitators and trainers (SOFT) Pakistan
Wheat breeding programs in the country are
continuously evolving new resistant cultivars and
replacing susceptible ones.
As pak81 was replaced by Inqilab91
Inqilab91 was replaced by seher2006
Now Seher 2006 would be replaced by Lasani 2008 and Faisalabad2008
Two new resistant lines V5066 & V5082 are in the final stage of approval
Keeping resistant CVs is maintaining the sustainability in wheat production in the country
Free, easy excess to international germplasm for wheat breeding.
Capacity building of Wheat Breeders, Plant Pathologists and Extension Experts.
Variety testing network in different regions so in an emergency plan for seed of rust resistant varieties could be made available.
Regional network for identification of wheat rust races.
Regional wheat traveling seminars (surveillance) may be organized regularly
Wheat breeding having ability to combat biotic and a-biotic stresses
Strengthening of informal seed production and multiplication system through participatory selections and testing of varieties .