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High value in convergence at the interface between water and food security –unifying towards a common agendaEvidence reveals three principal gaps. These each provide opportunity forconvergence:Gap 1: There is a general weakness in scaling-up from many successful case studiesGap 2: Most of the (dis)incentives to water inefficiency lie outside of the waterdomain. The necessary multi-disciplinarity has not yet been mobilisedGap 3: There is an absence of explicit food security strategies, for now and thefuture, to guide water interventions. In light of different (blend of) pathwaysavailable to countries
Gap 1: There is a general weakness in scaling-up from manysuccessful case studies
Many examples of successful case studies …System feasibility, design, technology, management and operations• Irrigation modernization and rehabilitation, Groundwater , Drainage water re-use, Wastewater re-useWater in crop production systems• On-farm water use and productivity, Rainwater harvesting,, ConservationagricultureWater and environmental issues• Forestry/watershed management, Pollution from agriculture, Water and FoodSafetyFisheries and aquacultureWater and livestock
Despite positive experiences, scaling up of impact remains elusiveNumerous ‘technical’ lessons learned …. Butproliferation of atomised pilotsalso, proliferation of technology optionsthat collectively are not contributing impact at scaleOverall: there are new technology opportunities but the coreconstraint on impact is not technological. Scaling-up, impact anddelivery require other factors beyond technologies.
Scaling up ‘spaces’ – shifting from pilots to impact at scaleFiscal/financialNatural resource/environmentalPolicyInstitutional/organizational capacityothers including political, cultural, partnership, learningDifferent factors have relevance at different levels of uptake …Scaling-up from 100 ha to 1,000 within a scheme invokes one set offactorsScaling-up from 1,000 ha to 10,000 across schemes invokes adifferent set, etc
Overallperformance ratingPerformance characteristics % of PCR ProjectsGlobal (MENA)A >70% of water infrastructure targetsOn time, or with extension of up to 2-3 yearsWithin x2 budgetAttributable support to higher-level goals40 (30)B 30-70% of water infrastructure targetsOn time, or with extension of up to 5-7 yearsWithin x 4 budgetSome project restructuring at MTRSome connection to higher-level goals40 (30)C 0- <30% of water infrastructure targetsOn time, or with extension of up to 5-7 yearsWithin x 4 budgetCan include major project restructuringNo connection to higher level goals20 (40)Initial attempts at scaling-up (by doing more of the same) have not worked
Gap 2: Most of the (dis)incentives to water inefficiency lie outside of thewater domain. The necessary multi-disciplinarity has not yet beenmobilisedThere are bottlenecks, drivers, incentives and disincentives that predominantlylie outside of the ‘engineering’ and water management sub-sectors.Different (political economy) narrative that meansdifferent lessons,different gaps anddifferent response options
Different demands on water - inter-related policies andstructural rigidities on food security (eg import substitution,safety nets, self-sufficiency) mean large number of farmers areusing water inefficientlySubsidies (credit, energy, etc) and price controls –transferring water to less competitive, high water consumptivecropsWater User Associations – small number of successfulexperiences, but overall experience ‘far less positive’.
Demand management – shorter-term financial interests (eg deferringinvestment decisions) have been overriding opportunities forefficiency and equityWater allocations – current allocations t0 agriculture deemedunsustainable in light of resource depletion and env. integrityPPP/Private sector engagement – real, practical opportunities (underdifferent models) if oriented to farmer needsPublic management and decentralised governance – Differenttimelines between reform and political terms ‘Whole-ofGovernment’ approaches needed, not inisolation
“Potential solutions to the region’s water problems are well known but have oftennot been implemented because of constraints in the broader political economy”(OECD)“Non-water policies in particular create incentives for inefficient water use”.“Water is not an isolated sector but an integral part of a wider economic system.”“Any agenda for reform of water policy must respond to the realities of the politicaleconomy.” …“Actions outside the sector will be important”“(Successful) Water reforms … often done so as part of broader economic andstructural changes” (World Bank)“Due to distortions in water scarce countries, all of which encourage excess wateruse for irrigation, water scarcity currently plays only a small role in determiningtrade patterns.” (African Development Bank)
Balady bread – Egypt Wheat losses and waste = 43% of 9.8 MT.Water use equivalent of 3.7 BCM
Water reformers have recognised the importance oftransboundary water management.But, they need to go further, and look at regional and intra- andinter-continental ‘political economies’.‘Universality’ is part of post-2015 shift from ODA-based MDGs
Gap 3: There is an absence of explicit food securitystrategies, for now and the future, to guide waterinterventions in light of different (blend of) pathwaysavailable to countriesIn simple terms, if you don’t know where a country intendsto get its food from – now and in the future - it is verydifficult to achieve outcomes through water.Political trade-offs among outcomes
Economic and social outcomes(Vision, Medium-Term Framework etc)Annual growth inagricultural GDPIncreased exportearnings;Value addition andrural developmentNational Food selfsufficiencyJob creation,Incomes growthSignificantreduction ofpoverty; Householdfood securityEconomicSocialValues and benefits of agricultural water managementBusiness Lines 1. Large-scalemarket-orientedirrigation on aPPP basis orpurely privatebasis2.Modernizationand expansionof existinglarge-scaleirrigation3. Individualmicro- andsmall-scaleirrigation forhigh valuecrops4. Small-scalecommunity-managedirrigation5. Enhancedwatermanagementin rainfedagriculture(Agriculture Policy) physical infrastructure and beneficiary targets
Food imports Production Food AidDirectsourcingExport of high-valuecommodities.Foreignexchangeearnings.Irrigation, fish,tree-crops,livestockSelf-consumptionof grown food.Value chainsinto localmarketsWater implications in exportingcountriesEach pathways has different water implications for farmers
2. Opening up to political economy challenges‘Whole of Government’Farmer behaviour (uptake, vested interests)3. Response to more explicit agricultural outcomesFood security strategiesWater strategies that will deliver outcomesBenchmarking1. Scaling of water’s potential contribution• Business Lines and scaling-up spaces• Water Policy coherenceWaterFoodsecurity
1. The need to better understand the potential of water incontributing to food security in a cost effective way (evidencebased)2. The need to address the root causes of low impact ‘at-scale’and poor performances through political economy analyses3. The need for better alignment of water and food securitystrategies, in the framework of larger national goals, and theneed for improved national food security strategies.4. The proposal to start measuring progress and performanceagainst some international benchmarks. (eg Mexico, Australia,Indonesia?)