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Ethiopia zerihun-2nd intrn wheat yr symposium, 2014

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  • 1. Control Strategies of Wheat Stripe Rust in Ethiopia IZMIR, TURKEY APRIL 28-MAY 01, 2014 By; Zerihun T. Coordinator, National Wheat Research 2ND INTERNATIONAL WHEAT STRIPE RUST SYMPOSIUM
  • 2.  Wheat in Ethiopia:  Major staple & strategic food security crop  BW (introduction) & DW (indigenous) are dominant species  Largest producer in SSA  Area: close to 2 million hectares  Production – 4.5 million MT (2013/14 forecast CSA)  HHs - 5 million small scale farmers  National average yield 2.4 t/ha from a 0.8 t/ha in 1980s (CSA, 2014) Background
  • 3. Wheat Production Trend in Ethiopia (1960 – 2013) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Production(,000MT) Production Year Source: USDA (http://www.indexmundi.com/agriculture/?country=et&commodity=wheat&graph=production) Turning point due to; Rust epidemics and/or environmental fluctuation
  • 4. Released wheat varieties in Ethiopia (1950 - 2012) How many of the varieties are under production???
  • 5. Factors affecting wheat productivity in Ethiopia  Biotic stress  Wheat rusts (Yellow, stem and leaf) and septoria  Weeds (grass) Abiotc stress  Water logging  Low soil fertility  Drought-low moisture in lowlands Technical constraints  Shortage of appropriate varieties for d/f AEZs  Socio-economic factors  Inputs Yellow Stem Leaf
  • 6. Year Epidemic Variety Year of release Epidemic Estimated loss (%) 1974 Laketch Stem rust 1988 Dashen 1984 Yellow rust 58 1994 Enkoy 1974 Stem rust 67-100 2010 Kubsa Galama 1995 Yellow rust Up to 100 2013 Digelu 2005 Stem rust Up to 100 Major Rust Epidemics and Estimated Yield Losses in Ethiopia Dead Wheat 2010 YR Epidemic, Meraro, Dead Wheat 2013 SR Epidemic, Bale What will be next???
  • 7.  Continuous release of cultivars with similar parentages  Absence of resistance in cultivars preferred by farmers and the rapid break down of resistance gene in the existing cultivars  Wheat monoculture  Extensive use of one or two wheat varieties  Year round wheat production-green bridging  Spores from neighboring countries  Limited use of chemicals The recurrent outbreak of wheat rusts could be
  • 8. Fast resistant variety deployment Awareness creation Strong survey and surveillance activities (Early waning) Strong collaboration with CGAIR centers & other national program Fungicide intervention Fast seed multiplication strategy Strategies implemented to control Stripe Rust in Ethiopia
  • 9. Wheat Breeding Approaches Evaluation & selection of segregating lines inEvaluation & selection of segregating lines in East Africa region levelEast Africa region level Major breeding objectives:  High and stable grain yield  Resistance to biotic & abiotic stresses  Quality (Bread, Pasta & Macaroni)
  • 10. 2005 - 2013 International Nurseries Screened in Ethiopia Year Entries Tested Entries Selected % Selected 2005 5,017 1,049 20.91 2006 9,559 1,102 11.53 2007 15,993 1,200 7.50 2008 17,385 1,565 9.00 2009 12,379 1,362 11.00 2010 16,432 822 5.00 2011 12,237 734 6.00 2012 13,738 655 4.77 2013 14,119 700 4.96 Total 116,859 9,189 7.86 Collaborators and germplasm source - CIMMYT, ICARDA, USDA, Egypt, India, Germany, Sudan, Yemen, Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Russia
  • 11. Rapid and extended replacement of old and disease susceptible varieties Wheat seed multiplication strategies;  Pre and Post -release seed increase  Two crop cycles per year Planting with low seed rate Dissemination Method:  Fast multiplication of seeds of new varieties  Demonstration & pre-scaling up  Informal seed multiplication & dissemination  Training of farmers, DAs, and SMS  Farmers’ field days for popularization
  • 12. 2010 Vs 2013 YR Situation 2010 2013 Environment Favorable Favorable Time & place of occurrence Early August, Asasa Early August, Asasa Awareness Low High Varieties Mostly susceptible Mostly resistant Chemical availability Unavailable Available Losses High loss No loss Productivity Decrease Increase
  • 13. Future Direction  Breeding for durable resistance  Develop variety deployment strategy (AEZ based)  Avoid wider use of mega variety  Strengthen national crossing program  Continue strong screening of introductions  Release verities with known genes  Support rapid seed multiplication & distribution  Periodic monitoring of races and virulence  Enhance research capacity (Facilities & Man power)
  • 14.  National science, technology and innovation outstanding recognition certificate in 2012 for the problem solving research achievement on rust resistant wheat varieties Major Achievements  "Gene Stewardship Award" in 2014 BGRI workshop in Obregon, for the effort and success to combat rusts by Ethiopia wheat research team
  • 15. Projects  EAAPP  DRRW  USAID/ICAR DA  SARD-SCSARD-SC  CD-SeedCD-Seed Partners  CIMMYT  ICARDA Acknowledgement

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