Ensuring Food security in dry land areasof Ethiopia:polices, actors, and achievementsInternational Conference on Policies for Water and FoodSecurity in Dry Areas24th to 26th of June, Cairo, EgyptDawit AlemuEthiopia
Overview of the Ethiopian agricultural sector• Being the dominant sector, agriculture in Ethiopia contributes about50% to overall GDP, generates 90% of export earnings and suppliesabout 70% of the country’s raw material to the secondary activities• The production system is dominantly rain-fed with three majorfarming systems: (i) Cereal based mixed farming system, (ii) Cashcrops based mixed farming system, and (iii) Pastoral and agro-pastoral farming systems• Thirteen million smallholder farming households account for 90percent of total production ,• Dry land areas cover about 68% of the total land with an estimatedpopulation of about 35% of the country’s population, i.e. not lessthan 30 million people• On average, five to seven million people are chronically foodinsecure every yearInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt2
Overview of the Ethiopian agricultural sector• Taking into consider the extent of food insecurity in thecountry, the priority policy focus has been to Agriculture• Specifically, Agriculture has been at the core of the GoE’spoverty reduction strategic documents:• The Sustainable Development and Poverty ReductionProgram (SDPRP) approved in 2002,• The 2004 Food Security Strategy (FSS),• The 2006 Plan for Accelerated and SustainedDevelopment to End Poverty (PASDEP), and• The 2010 Growth and Transformation Plan – GTPInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt3
Overview of the Ethiopian agricultural sector• The national water policy and strategy provides theframework of addressing water supply and sanitation,irrigation and hydropower development in the country• The food security strategy sets the scope and areas ofintervention in helping chronically food insecure householdsto reach a level of food security necessary for an active andhealthy life• These policies are implemented in a decentralized governanceand the key organizational structure includes federal , regional,zonal, and district levelsInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt4
Food security measures indry land area of EthiopiaInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt5
Overviewof dry land areas in Ethiopia• There are 18 major agro-ecological zones (AEZs), of which8 are dry AEZs that are arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions;• Dry land areas cover about 68%of the total land in the country;• About 35% of the country’spopulation, i.e. not less than 30million people;• These areas support 28 percentof cattle, 66 percent of goats, 26percent of sheep, and almost allcamel populationInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt6
Overviewof dry land areas …• The main features of these dry land areas are rainfall isscarce, unreliable and concentrated during a short rainyseason with the remaining period tending to be relativelyor absolutely dry which adversely affects crop growthand development.• Almost all food insecure households are found in the dryland areas of the country• The areas that were affected during the mega droughtperiods in the country are all dry land areasInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt7
Overviewof dry land areas …Mega disasterperiodHumanlives lostAffected areasNo of affectedpeople1972-1974/75 100,000 Wello, North Shoa, Tigray, Afar,Kangra provinces3,000,0001983/84 300,000 Wollo, Gondar, Tigray, Shoa,Harerghe, Sidamo7,750,0001987 367 Ogaden, Tigray, Wello, Shewa,Gamo Gofa, Sidamo, Gondar,and Bale7,000,0001999/00 0 North Wello, East Harargezones, South Oromiya4,900,0002003/04 0 Tigray, Oromiya, Amhara,Somali, Afar regions13,200,0002005/06 0 Afder, Liben, Gode zones,Somali region, Borena zone,Oromiya region2,600,000InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt8Mega drought periods by affected areas
Key foodsecuritymeasures in dry landareasInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt9• The key interventions to ensure food secuirty in dry land areas canbe categorized in five:1) Strengthening Agricultural Research for Dry land Areas2) Agricultural extension (crop, livestock and natural resources)3) Natural resource, water management and irrigation4) Commercialization and Agricultural marketing for both inputsand outputs5) Food security specific interventions in dry land areas
StrengtheningAgriculturalResearch forDryland Areas• There are six federal agricultural research centers and 16regional agricultural/pastoral research centers in the dry landareas of the country.• The key research priority areas are• drought tolerance,• heat tolerance• disease and pest management• soil and water management including irrigation agronomy• farm mechanization,• socioeconomics and research-extension.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt10
StrengtheningAgricultural Research …InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt11
Agriculturalextensionin dry land areas• The main contents of the extension programs in the dryland areas are related to:• Water and natural resource rehabilitation andconservation, and• Livestock management in pastoral areas• The extension program for dry land areas differentiatesthe interventions for:• Drought-prone and moisture stress areas and• Pastoral areasInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt12
Naturalresource, water management andirrigationInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt14• the country is one of the Sub-Saharan African countries most seriouslyaffected by land degradation• highly associated with soil, vegetation, biodiversity, water, climatedegradation, and land conversion• About 85% of the country’s land surface is considered prone tomoderate, to very severe for land degradation• Accordingly,• 30,000 ha are lost annually due to water erosion, with over 2 million haalready severely damaged;• 1.5 billion tons of topsoil is lost each year from soil erosion;• Annual soil nutrient losses are equivalent to 30 kg/ha of Nitrogen and 15-20kg/ha of Phosphorus;• 4,000 ha of irrigated land has been lost due to severe salinization; and• 62,000 ha of forest and woodland are cleared annually.
Naturalresource,watermanagementandirrigation…InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt15• In response to these challenges, the country has developed aStrategic Investment Framework for Sustainable LandManagement – SIFSLM• Planned to be implemented in three phases, over a fifteenyear period• phase 1: 2009 – 2013,• Phase 2: 2014 – 2018, and• Phase 3: 2019 – 2023• The main interventions are related to community-basedwatershed management and participatory development ofwater resources for irrigation and/or fisheries
Naturalresource,watermanagementandirrigation…InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt16Region Total Vegetable Cereals Spices Pulses FruitsNo ofbeneficiariesOromiya 568,475 288,951 54,097 180,470 30,938 14,019 1,193,023Amhara 528,182 287,124 129,250 28,382 7,201 76,225 1,642,880Tigray 181,769 91,837 27,493 5,238 33,418 23,782 462,608SNNPR 125,244 50,626 13,784 35,824 20,175 4,836 728,2101,403,670 718,538 224,624 249,915 91,732 118,862 4,026,721Target areas 2010/11 2011/12National water supply coverage 52.12 58.25Rural water supply coverage 48.85 55.21Urban water supply coverage 74.64 78.71Reducing non-functional water supply schemes 25.5 24Cultivated Area under small-scale irrigation in ha, 2011/12Access to Potable water supply in percentage19,289 watersheds reclaimed and rehabilitated through Integratedwatershed interventions
Commercializationand AgriculturalmarketingInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt17• This is highly linked with national extension system along with thedevelopment of national agricultural marketing system• The key areas of investment in the agricultural marketing that arelinked with improved commercialization of farmers are• Improved access to road especially through the huge expansion ofrural roads,• Improved access to telecommunication services,• Improved warehousing,• Development of market centres like ECX for major commodities, andrural market centres for livestock, grains and coffee all over thecountry, and• Improved rural electrification
CommercializationandAgricultural marketing …InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt18• In terms of improving access to road, the federal and regionaltotal road length has increased from 53,143 in 2010/11 to56,190 in 2011/12• In terms of access to telecommunication services, thecoverage of wireless telephone service increased to 90percent in 2011/12. This is highly associated with access tomarket information that a key input for market efficiency• Access to electricity is considered an important factor for andthe national electric service coverage has reached at 48.5 percent in 2011/12. The GTP target is to increase the nationalelectricity service coverage to 75 percent by 2015.
FoodsecurityspecificinterventionsInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt19• Food security specific programs are put in place in areas were thereis severe food security problem• The main programs are:• Agricultural Growth Programme (AGP);• Sustainable Land Management Programme (SLMP);• Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP);• Households Asset Building Programme (HAB);• Disaster Risk Management and Food Security Program (DRMFS).• Settlement program• This is also a move recently to add a national program on livestockand pastoral livelihood to ensure a more focused intervention
Foodsecurityspecific interventions…InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt20• This programs have been instrumental to ensuring food security in droughtprone areas and improving resilience through long term investments in naturalresource reclamation• These programs have considerably contributed in major food insecure areas interms of:• reducing household food insecurity;• raising consumption levels;• encouraging households to engage in production and investment throughenhanced access to credit,• increasing use of modern farming techniques, and• entry into nonfarm own business activities;• leading to sustained asset accumulation, and• No loss of human lives
Lessons Learned• The key lessons are related with:• The need to promote integrated approach at• National level• Community level, and• Household level• Addressing the priority problem – Land and natural resourcedegradation, which is the main cause of water and foodinsecurity in the countryInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt21
Lessons Learned …• The need to promote integrated approach at all levelsInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt22Agricultural ResearchAgricultural ExtensionNatural resource, watermanagement and irrigationCommercialization andagricultural MarketingFood security specificprogramsRuralInfrastructureNon-agriculturalruraldevelopmentactivitiesImprovedgovernanceforruraldevelopmentAgro-ecologybasedruraldevelopmentIntegrated Rural Development
Lessons Learned• The need to promote integrated interventions at communitylevel in dry land areasInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt23
Lessons Learned• The need to promote integrated interventions at householdlevel in dry land areasInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt24
Emerging issues and challenges• The key challenges for improved performance are related to• The continuous challenges of the effects of climate change(drought, flood, disease and pest etc),• The challenges in establishing effective technology multiplicationand delivery mechanism in dry land areas due to the associatedhigh risks• The limited agricultural technology uptake in dry land areas,• The nature of long period requirement for benefits and the hugeinitial cost of reclamation of natural resources, and• Lack of adequate human power with expertise.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt25
Mainrecommendationsto policy-makers• Further strengthening integrated approach at all levels (national,regional, community and household levels)• Strengthening agricultural research in dry land areas (esp water –crop-livestock integration)• Improve the agricultural technology delivery mechanisms• Strengthening the natural resource reclamation and conservationalong with the watershed principle• Strengthen the human and institutional capacity to address thechallenges of dry land areasInternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt26
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