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Egypt: Case Study
 

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    Egypt: Case Study Egypt: Case Study Presentation Transcript

    • Egypt Case StudyEgypt Case StudyInternational Conference on Policies for Water andInternational Conference on Policies for Water andFood Security in Dry AreasFood Security in Dry Areas24th24th to 26th of June, Cairo, Egyptto 26th of June, Cairo, EgyptProf. Hany RamadanProf. Hany RamadanDirector of Soils, Water and Environment ResearchDirector of Soils, Water and Environment ResearchInstituteInstituteAgricultural Research CenterAgricultural Research Center
    •  Egypt has a total area of aboutEgypt has a total area of about1002000 km1002000 km22of which 55 367of which 55 367kmkm22, i.e. 5.5% are populated., i.e. 5.5% are populated. The Egyptian terrain consists of aThe Egyptian terrain consists of avast desert plateau interrupted byvast desert plateau interrupted bythe Nile Valley and Delta whichthe Nile Valley and Delta whichoccupy about 4% of the totaloccupy about 4% of the totalcountry area.country area. Most of the cultivated land isMost of the cultivated land islocated close to the banks of thelocated close to the banks of theNile River, its main branches andNile River, its main branches andcanals, and in the Nile Delta.canals, and in the Nile Delta.
    • Major CropsMajor Crops Several crop groups are cultivated in Egypt, i.e. cereals, fibreSeveral crop groups are cultivated in Egypt, i.e. cereals, fibrecrops, sugar crops, grain legume, oil seed crops, forage,crops, sugar crops, grain legume, oil seed crops, forage,horticulture crops, medical crops, aromatic and ornamentalhorticulture crops, medical crops, aromatic and ornamentalcrops. The major field crops are cotton, rice and maize in thecrops. The major field crops are cotton, rice and maize in thesummer season and wheat, Egyptian clover, and faba bean insummer season and wheat, Egyptian clover, and faba bean inthe winter season.the winter season. Over the years, crop production systems have became moreOver the years, crop production systems have became morespecialized to meet the increasing needs of the industrializedspecialized to meet the increasing needs of the industrializedfood systems.food systems. These systems are in need to incorporate technologicalThese systems are in need to incorporate technologicaladvances that include new knowledge on management andadvances that include new knowledge on management andgenetics to be sustainable in the long term.genetics to be sustainable in the long term.
    • Old Cultivated Lands: 5750000 feddan (2.4% of Egypt Area)New Cultivated Lands: 3680000 feddan (1.5 % of Egypt Area)The Old and New Cultivated areas in Egypt
    • Cropped area, 2002 to 2017, new and old land
    • 01000200030004000500060002006 2007 2008 2006 2007 2008New Land Old LandArea:HectareT. Cultivated AreaCropped AreaCultivated and cropped area in old and new land (2006-2008).
    • Crop Area EstimationCrop Area Estimation‫الشرقية‬ ‫محافظة‬‫الشرقية‬ ‫محافظة‬‫الحسينية‬ ‫مركز‬‫الحسينية‬ ‫مركز‬HesaniaHesaniaDistrictDistrictWheatWheatandandalfalfaalfalfa
    • CottonCottonCrop Area Estimation‫البحيرة‬ ‫محافظة‬‫البحيرة‬ ‫محافظة‬‫حمص‬ ‫أبو‬ ‫مركز‬‫حمص‬ ‫أبو‬ ‫مركز‬Abo HomosAbo HomosDistrictDistrict
    • Land Use MapLand Use MapOf the StudiedOf the StudiedAreasAreas
    • Soil Map ofSoil Map ofthe Studiedthe StudiedAreasAreas
    • Map of agro-Map of agro-ecologicalecologicalzones in thezones in theNile DeltaNile Deltaand Valleyand Valley
    • Agro-ecologicalAgro-ecologicalzonezoneArea in FeddanArea in FeddanETo RangeETo Range Dominant SoilsDominant Soils Cultivated CropsCultivated CropsZone 1Zone 1 8,275,3878,275,387 2.65 – 3.622.65 – 3.62Typic TorrertsTypic TorrertsTypic TorrifluventsTypic TorrifluventsRice, Maize, Wheat, Clover, SugarRice, Maize, Wheat, Clover, SugarBeat, FruitsBeat, FruitsVegetablesVegetablesZone 2Zone 2 42,348,75042,348,750 3.63 – 4.433.63 – 4.43Typic TorrertsTypic TorrertsTypic TorrifluventsTypic TorrifluventsTypic QuortzisanmentsTypic QuortzisanmentsMaize, Cotton, Wheat, Clover,Maize, Cotton, Wheat, Clover,Faba bean, Fruits, Vegetables.Faba bean, Fruits, Vegetables.Zone 3Zone 3 25,243,00625,243,006 4.44 – 5.124.44 – 5.12Typic TorrertsTypic TorrertsTypic Torrifluvents,Typic Torrifluvents,Typic Quortzisanments &Typic Quortzisanments &Rocky LandRocky LandMaize, Cotton, Wheat, Clover,Maize, Cotton, Wheat, Clover,Faba bean, Fruits, Vegetables.Faba bean, Fruits, Vegetables.Zone 4Zone 4 22,864,25622,864,256 5.13 – 5.645.13 – 5.64Typic TorrertsTypic TorrertsTypic Torrifluvents,Typic Torrifluvents,Typic Calciorthids & RockyTypic Calciorthids & RockyLandLandMaize, Cotton, Wheat, Clover,Maize, Cotton, Wheat, Clover,Faba bean, Fruits, Vegetables.Faba bean, Fruits, Vegetables.Zone 5Zone 5 35,294,64335,294,643 5.65 – 6.085.65 – 6.08Typic TorrertsTypic TorrertsTypic Torrifluvents,Typic Torrifluvents,Typic Calciorthids & RockyTypic Calciorthids & RockyLandLandMaize, Cotton, Wheat, Clover,Maize, Cotton, Wheat, Clover,Faba bean, Fruits, Sugar caneFaba bean, Fruits, Sugar caneVegetablesVegetablesZone 6Zone 6 72,215,08972,215,089 6.09 – 6.666.09 – 6.66Typic Torrerts ,Typic Torrerts ,Typic Quortzisanments &Typic Quortzisanments &Typic TorriorthentsTypic TorriorthentsMaize, Cotton, Wheat, Clover,Maize, Cotton, Wheat, Clover,Faba bean, Fruits, Sugar caneFaba bean, Fruits, Sugar caneVegetablesVegetablesZone 7Zone 7 33,604,58333,604,583 6.67 – 7.576.67 – 7.57Typic Torrerts , TypicTypic Torrerts , TypicQuortzisanments & TypicQuortzisanments & TypicTorriorthentsTorriorthentsMaize, Cotton, Wheat, Clover,Maize, Cotton, Wheat, Clover,Faba bean, Fruits, Sugar caneFaba bean, Fruits, Sugar caneVegetablesVegetablesDescription of agro-ecological zone of Nile Delta and ValleyEgypt is divided into seven agro-ecological zones – i.e. uniform zones on the basis ofcombinations of soil, landform, land cover and climatic characteristics
    • 13InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,EgyptWater Resources and Extraction in Egypt (billion m3/year)(2010)SourceSource AvailableAvailableamountsamountsUsedUsedamountsamountsRenewable waterRenewable waterSurface waterSurface water 55.555.5 55.555.5Ground waterGround water 8.58.5 8.58.5Percentage used in agriculturePercentage used in agriculture 80%80% 51.2%51.2%Non conventional waterNon conventional waterSea Water DesalinationSea Water Desalination 0.250.25 0.250.25Agricultural drainage waterAgricultural drainage water 7.47.4 7.47.4Drainage waterDrainage water 1.01.0 1.01.0PrecipitationPrecipitation 2.02.0 1.51.5TotalTotal 74.6574.65 74.1574.15
    • Egypt StatisticsEgypt Statistics Population, total (2010)Population, total (2010) 81,121,077.081,121,077.0 Rural population (2010)Rural population (2010) 46,401,256.046,401,256.0 Labor force, total (2009)Labor force, total (2009) 26,536,262.926,536,262.9 Labor force, female (% of total labor force) (2009)Labor force, female (% of total labor force) (2009)23.023.0 Poverty headcount ratio at rural poverty line (% ofPoverty headcount ratio at rural poverty line (% ofrural population) (2008)rural population) (2008) 30.030.0 Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty line (% ofPoverty headcount ratio at national poverty line (% ofpopulation) (2008)population) (2008) 22.022.0 Income share held by lowest 20% (2005)Income share held by lowest 20% (2005) 9.09.014InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
    • Key drivers and constraints in the field of waterKey drivers and constraints in the field of waterpoliciespolicies The constrains are Egypt’s expected population growthThe constrains are Egypt’s expected population growthand related water demand for public water supply,and related water demand for public water supply,economic activities, and agriculture.economic activities, and agriculture. To relieve the population pressure in the Nile Delta andTo relieve the population pressure in the Nile Delta andValley, the government has embarked on an ambitiousValley, the government has embarked on an ambitiousprogram to increase the inhabited area in Egypt.program to increase the inhabited area in Egypt. Industrial growth, the need to feed the growingIndustrial growth, the need to feed the growingpopulation and hence a growing demand for water bypopulation and hence a growing demand for water byagriculture, and horizontal expansion in the desert areas,agriculture, and horizontal expansion in the desert areas,etc. cause a growing demand for water.etc. cause a growing demand for water. At the same time, the available fresh water resources areAt the same time, the available fresh water resources areexpected to remain more or less.expected to remain more or less. 15InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
    • Key drivers and constraints in the field of foodKey drivers and constraints in the field of foodsecuritysecurity The domestic supply of food in Egypt is undergoing a crisisThe domestic supply of food in Egypt is undergoing a crisisof dangerous proportions.of dangerous proportions. This crisis, caused by a combination of international andThis crisis, caused by a combination of international anddomestic factors, threatens Egypts economy and domesticdomestic factors, threatens Egypts economy and domesticpolitics.politics. Global factors (Biofuels as an oil replacement, climateGlobal factors (Biofuels as an oil replacement, climatechange, rising transportation costs, changes to the globalchange, rising transportation costs, changes to the globalagricultural commodities market) affect Egypt passively,agricultural commodities market) affect Egypt passively,though increased price and food insecurity.though increased price and food insecurity. Domestic factors (population increase, urban encroachmentDomestic factors (population increase, urban encroachmenton agricultural land, changing domestic dietary habits,on agricultural land, changing domestic dietary habits,limitation of agricultural subsidies).limitation of agricultural subsidies).16InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
    • Key drivers and constraints in the field ofKey drivers and constraints in the field ofenvironmentenvironment The increase in population, industrial andThe increase in population, industrial andagricultural activities has resulted in a rapidagricultural activities has resulted in a rapiddeterioration of the quality of the water resources,deterioration of the quality of the water resources,in the Nile Delta.in the Nile Delta. This low water quality threatens public health,This low water quality threatens public health,reduces its use for economic activities andreduces its use for economic activities anddamages the natural ecology of the water systems.damages the natural ecology of the water systems. Massive expenditures are needed to reduce theMassive expenditures are needed to reduce thepollution loads and to provide the population withpollution loads and to provide the population withadequate drinking water .adequate drinking water . Climate change and desertification.Climate change and desertification. Salt intrusion causes soil degradation.Salt intrusion causes soil degradation.17InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
    • Urban Encroachments on The Delta and Nile ValleyUrban Encroachments on The Delta and Nile ValleyGreat Cairo using SPOT ImageGreat Cairo using SPOT Image20012001Studied Area = 311105 FedStudied Area = 311105 FedUrban Area in 2001 = 43711 FedUrban Area in 2001 = 43711 FedAnnual Rate of Change = 1054.5 FedAnnual Rate of Change = 1054.5 Fedper yearper yearUrban Area 1991- 2001 = 10545Urban Area 1991- 2001 = 10545FedFed
    • Class in 1991Class in 1991 Class in 2011Class in 2011 NameName Area (KmArea (Km22((LandLand SeaSea Eroded AreaEroded Area 4.3316734.331673SeaSea LandLand Accreted AreaAccreted Area 1.1129991.112999LandLand LandLand Unchanged LandUnchanged Land 279.7439279.7439SeaSea SeaSea Unchanged SeaUnchanged Sea 22.8114722.811471991 2011 From 1991 - 2011
    • Salinity ClassSalinity ClassArea (fedArea (fed.(.( %%ofofareaarea1960196019601960 20112011Change from 1960 toChange from 1960 to20112011Normal SalineNormal Saline 10646.610646.6 32024.632024.6 21378.021378.0 29.1529.15Moderately SalineModerately Saline 15988.815988.8 7799.27799.2 --8189.68189.6 --11.1711.17Highly SalineHighly Saline 5096.35096.3 11416.711416.7 6320.46320.4 8.628.62Very Highly SalineVery Highly Saline 41601.541601.5 18489.618489.6 --23111.923111.9 --31.5231.52TotalTotal 73333.073333.0 69730.169730.1 --3603.13603.1   
    • ClassClass Area (fedArea (fed.(.( %%of area in 1960of area in 1960Improved AreaImproved Area 40084.9840084.98 54.6654.66Degraded AreaDegraded Area 4676.674676.67 6.386.38Not changed AreaNot changed Area 28571.6828571.68 38.9638.96TotalTotal 73333.073333.0 100100
    • Key drivers and constraints in theKey drivers and constraints in thefield of employmentfield of employment The agriculture sector growth is fundamental toThe agriculture sector growth is fundamental tolabor employment and wage growth.labor employment and wage growth. 50 percent of the employment created by high50 percent of the employment created by highsector balanced growth as a result of increasedsector balanced growth as a result of increasedagriculture incomes.agriculture incomes. A further 17 percent of the employment growthA further 17 percent of the employment growthis directly due to agriculture, while 44 percent ofis directly due to agriculture, while 44 percent ofemployment growth is due to non-agricultureemployment growth is due to non-agriculturesector .sector .23InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
    • Water policies implemented for the sake ofWater policies implemented for the sake ofwater allocation and managementwater allocation and management The Ministry of Water Resources and IrrigationThe Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation(MWRI) has developed a National Water Resources(MWRI) has developed a National Water ResourcesPlan (NWRP) with three major steps:Plan (NWRP) with three major steps: (1) development of additional water resources and(1) development of additional water resources andcooperation with the Nile Basin Riparian countries;cooperation with the Nile Basin Riparian countries; (2) making better use of the existing water resources(2) making better use of the existing water resourcesand increasing water use efficiency;and increasing water use efficiency; (3) protection of water quality and the environment.(3) protection of water quality and the environment. 24InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
    • CASE STUDYCASE STUDYCommunity-based optimization of the management of scarceCommunity-based optimization of the management of scarcewater resources in agriculture in west Asia and North Africawater resources in agriculture in west Asia and North Africa::Phase I and IIPhase I and IIPhase I (2004-2008)Phase I (2004-2008)Phase II (2010-2013)Phase II (2010-2013)
    • The Initial ChallengeThe Initial Challenge The main long-term development goals of the projectThe main long-term development goals of the projectare to achieve sustainable and profitable agriculturalare to achieve sustainable and profitable agriculturalproduction based upon the efficient and sustainableproduction based upon the efficient and sustainablemanagement of the scarce water resources.management of the scarce water resources. To achieve these goals the project developed and tested,To achieve these goals the project developed and tested,with community participation, water managementwith community participation, water managementoptions that increase water productivity and optimizeoptions that increase water productivity and optimizewater use, and which are economically viable, sociallywater use, and which are economically viable, sociallyacceptable, and environmentally sound.acceptable, and environmentally sound. The main problem addressed in this case study was toThe main problem addressed in this case study was toincrease water and land productivity in three sites, i.e.increase water and land productivity in three sites, i.e.old land, new land and salt affected land.old land, new land and salt affected land.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt26
    • Characteristics of the old landCharacteristics of the old land The selected site, El-Makata,The selected site, El-Makata,is located in east Menofiais located in east MenofiaGovernorate in the MiddleGovernorate in the MiddleDelta.Delta. The selected site, has anThe selected site, has anintensive cropping patternintensive cropping pattern(two or three crops a year).(two or three crops a year). Surface irrigation systems areSurface irrigation systems areprevalent.prevalent. There are severe drainageThere are severe drainageproblems associated with aproblems associated with ahigh water table, and landhigh water table, and landfragmentation.fragmentation. The soil of the old lands isThe soil of the old lands isclayey, EC value is 0.43clayey, EC value is 0.43dS/m and pH value arounddS/m and pH value around8.0.8.0.27InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt
    • Characteristics of the salt affected areasCharacteristics of the salt affected areas El-Serw site has the general characteristicsEl-Serw site has the general characteristicsof marginal lands: drainage systemof marginal lands: drainage systemproblems, high water table, increased soilproblems, high water table, increased soilsalinity, seawater intrusion, pollution duesalinity, seawater intrusion, pollution dueto extensive use of chemicals and lowto extensive use of chemicals and lowwater quality.water quality. All farmers use surface irrigation systems.All farmers use surface irrigation systems.The area under study is about 8000 ha,The area under study is about 8000 ha,which represents about 15% of the totalwhich represents about 15% of the totalcultivated area.cultivated area. It is irrigated with fresh water, drainageIt is irrigated with fresh water, drainagewater, and a mix of the two.water, and a mix of the two. Such soils are generally of high salinitySuch soils are generally of high salinityand/or have a high exchangeable sodiumand/or have a high exchangeable sodiumpercentage.percentage. It is characterized by a high clay contentIt is characterized by a high clay contentand high pH values – ranging between 8.0and high pH values – ranging between 8.0and 8.4.and 8.4.
    • Characteristics of the new landsCharacteristics of the new landsThe selected site, El-HusainThe selected site, El-Husainvillage, is located in Behiravillage, is located in BehiraGovernorate in North Delta andGovernorate in North Delta andit serves an area of about 100 fed.it serves an area of about 100 fed.The soils of the site are mostlyThe soils of the site are mostlysandy with low fertility andsandy with low fertility andrelatively low water holdingrelatively low water holdingcapacity.capacity.Crops are grown under modernCrops are grown under modernirrigation systems.irrigation systems.The site has the generalThe site has the generalcharacteristics of the new lands:characteristics of the new lands:no fixed cropping pattern,no fixed cropping pattern,shortage of irrigation water,shortage of irrigation water,especially in summer andespecially in summer andavailability of improved irrigationavailability of improved irrigationsystems (drip and sprinklersystems (drip and sprinklerirrigation).irrigation).
    •  This study focused on the importance of water productivity andThis study focused on the importance of water productivity andland productivity on attaining food security.land productivity on attaining food security. This was addressed by cultivating crops on wide furrows in oldThis was addressed by cultivating crops on wide furrows in oldand salt affected soil and use deficit irrigation in the three sites.and salt affected soil and use deficit irrigation in the three sites. The challenge was to convince farmers to implement theseThe challenge was to convince farmers to implement theseinterventions.interventions. The recommended irrigation techniques are simple practices thatThe recommended irrigation techniques are simple practices thatcan be easily implemented by the farmers and leaded tocan be easily implemented by the farmers and leaded tosignificant increases in the yield, crop water productivity, andsignificant increases in the yield, crop water productivity, andwater saving.water saving. Deficit irrigation saved a relatively high proportion of theDeficit irrigation saved a relatively high proportion of theapplied water and did not result in any significant losses in yieldapplied water and did not result in any significant losses in yieldfor the major crops.for the major crops.30InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,EgyptActions ImplementedActions Implemented
    • InterventionsInterventions Crops and site.Crops and site.Wide furrows, raised bed&Wide furrows, raised bed&planting in hills.planting in hills.Wheat (Wheat (oldold land).land).Maize (Maize (oldold lands) and cotton (lands) and cotton (oldold &&marginalmarginal lands)lands)W.F, broadcasting then raised-W.F, broadcasting then raised-bed with full or 0.8 N.reqbed with full or 0.8 N.reqWheat (Wheat (oldold andand marginalmarginal lands)lands)Full irrigationFull irrigation Wheat (Wheat (oldold ,, marginalmarginal andand newnew lands), faba bean (lands), faba bean (newnewlands) and berseem (lands) and berseem (marginalmarginal lands).lands).Maize (Maize (oldold lands) and cotton (old &lands) and cotton (old &marginalmarginal lands).lands).0.7 of full irrigation0.7 of full irrigationWith full or 0.8 N.reqWith full or 0.8 N.req0.7 full irrigation0.7 full irrigationWheat (Wheat (oldold andand marginalmarginal lands), berseem (lands), berseem (marginalmarginal lands).lands).Maize (Maize (oldold lands) and cotton (lands) and cotton (oldold &&marginalmarginal lands).lands).0.8 or0.8 or0.85 of full irrigation0.85 of full irrigationWheat and faba bean(Wheat and faba bean(newnew lands).lands).Ground nut (Ground nut (newnew lands)lands)Dry planting.Dry planting. Berseem (Berseem (oldold lands)lands)4 & 8 day7cm water depth,4 & 8 day7cm water depth,saturation and raised-bedsaturation and raised-bedRice (Rice (marginalmarginal lands)lands)
    • Results & ImpactsResults & Impacts Our interventions were conducted in the farmersOur interventions were conducted in the farmersfields, where field days and harvest days, farmersfields, where field days and harvest days, farmersschools and farmers training helped in spreading it.schools and farmers training helped in spreading it. The results was measured by the amount ofThe results was measured by the amount ofharvested yield and by calculation of water and landharvested yield and by calculation of water and landproductivity.productivity. Farmers in the surrounded areas benefited from ourFarmers in the surrounded areas benefited from ourinterventions when they applied it in their fields.interventions when they applied it in their fields. Our interventions helped in saving water, increasedOur interventions helped in saving water, increasedthe yield of cultivating crops and increased farmersthe yield of cultivating crops and increased farmersnet revenue.net revenue.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWatderandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt32
    • 00.511.522.5kgm3,R.W.RyKgm3 R.Y R.W R.WPKgm3 1.344 1.975 1.951 0.822 1.035 1.006R.Y 1 1.14 1.12 1 1.035 1.005R.W 1 0.79 0.77 1 0.822 0.822R.WP 1 1.47 1.45 1 1.259 1.224FarmerRSB,o.8nrRSBnr FarmerRSB,o.8n rRSB, nrEl-SerwMonofiaWheatRaised beds (Wide Furrows) effectsRaised beds (Wide Furrows) effects::Saved 24% water, 20% nitrogen and increase yield by 11%.
    • TraditionalRaised-seed bed
    • 00.511.522.5kgm3andRel.,Y;W;WPKgm3 R.Yield R.Water R.WPKgm3 0.66 0.833 1.536 1.99R.Yield 1 1.11 1 1.0065R.Water 1 0.765 1 0.7775R.WP 1 1.3 1 1.294Farmer W.Fh Farmer W.FhCornCottonRaised bed saved water and increased water productivity by 20-25%.Maize and Cotton Crops (Old and Marginal LandsMaize and Cotton Crops (Old and Marginal Lands):):
    • El-SerwEl-Serw
    • In salt-affected soils, when thecrop was irrigated with 70%of its water requirement, thereduction in wheat yield was8% of that produced under fullirrigation.The trials on wheat in the newlands showed that with theapplication of 80% of the cropwater requirement, the yieldlosses were only 2%, but thecrop water productivity wassignificantly increased by38% higher than that obtainedfrom the usual practices of thefarmers.
    •  RiceRice trials under different irrigationtrials under different irrigationintervals were conducted in the marginalintervals were conducted in the marginallands.lands. Irrigation atIrrigation at 4 days4 days intervals with a waterintervals with a waterdepth of 7 cmdepth of 7 cm resulted in aresulted in a 9% water saving9% water savingand anand an increase in rice yield of nearly 7%,increase in rice yield of nearly 7%,compared to that obtained by the farmer’scompared to that obtained by the farmer’spractices;practices; Irrigation interval 8 daysIrrigation interval 8 days with the samewith the samewater depth increased the amount of waterwater depth increased the amount of watersavedsaved by nearlyby nearly 22%22%, showing a yield, showing a yieldsimilar to that under the farmers’ irrigationsimilar to that under the farmers’ irrigationpractices withpractices with 2% yield loss2% yield loss;; Saturating the soilSaturating the soil with irrigation waterwith irrigation waterappeared to be the practice which lead to theappeared to be the practice which lead to thehighest water saving (around 44%);highest water saving (around 44%); but thebut theyield was reducedyield was reduced by nearlyby nearly 16%16% asascompared with that obtained under thecompared with that obtained under thefarmers’ irrigation practices.farmers’ irrigation practices.
    • Modeling activitiesModeling activities Two models (CROPWAT and Yield-Stress) in phase I were calibratedTwo models (CROPWAT and Yield-Stress) in phase I were calibratedusing old data and validated using the field data.using old data and validated using the field data. The results showed that the CROPWAT model can be used for irrigationThe results showed that the CROPWAT model can be used for irrigationscheduling and predicting wheat yield reductions at new lands and oldscheduling and predicting wheat yield reductions at new lands and oldlands conditions.lands conditions. Yield-Stress model was used reschedule irrigation by studying examiningYield-Stress model was used reschedule irrigation by studying examiningthe depletion of soil water.the depletion of soil water.0501001502002501 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91101111121131141151161Days after plantingReadilyavailablewater(mm)0501001501 17 33 49 65 81 97 113 129 145 161Days after plantingReadilyavailablewater(mm)Irrigation water was a lot in the last 2 irrigations. The model was used to simulate the effectof reducing the amount of applied irrigation water by reducing the amount of the last 2irrigations, which saved 22% of the applied irrigation water, with 0.13% yield reduction.
    •  Although, during the phase I, the project achieved severalAlthough, during the phase I, the project achieved severalshort and medium term objectives, more skilled human andshort and medium term objectives, more skilled human andfinancial resources were needed to fine tuning the newfinancial resources were needed to fine tuning the newdeveloped technologies.developed technologies. Moreover, a second phase was needed to upscale the findingsMoreover, a second phase was needed to upscale the findingsat institutional level and out-scaling the results to other similarat institutional level and out-scaling the results to other similarlocations and countries.locations and countries. The objectives of phase II were:The objectives of phase II were: to determine the optimal bed width and furrow length.to determine the optimal bed width and furrow length. To evaluate the effect of furrow spacing (raised bed width)To evaluate the effect of furrow spacing (raised bed width)and furrow length on water/nutrients dynamics and waterand furrow length on water/nutrients dynamics and waterproductivityproductivity.. Using modeling to maximize water productivity of certainUsing modeling to maximize water productivity of certainwatershed by improving water budget.watershed by improving water budget.
    • Figure (1): Soil salinity content onharvest day for wheat planted on 50m strip length, 1.3 m wide furrow.Figure (2): Soil salinity contenton harvest day for sugar beetplanted on 50 m strip length, 1.3m wide furrow.Figure (3): Soil salinitycontent on harvest day formaize planted on 50 m striplength, 1.3 m wide furrow.The figures showed salinity accumulation at harvest day for the 3 crops. It reflectthe model sensitivity in simulating the accumulation.
    • Wide furrow machineIrrigation of wide furrowsSugar beet planted on wide furrowWheat planted on wide furrow
    • Figure (4): Soil salinity on harvest day ofwheat grown under 125% ETcFigure (5): Soil salinity on harvest day of wheatgrown under 100% ETcThese graphs showed how sensitive is the model in simulating soil salinityunder different irrigation treatments in new land.
    • NarrowfurrowsWidefurrowsfaltThese graphs showed how sensitive is the model in simulating soil salinity underdifferent furrow width treatments in salt affected soil.
    • Lessons LearnedLessons Learned The main lessons learned are community participation to adapt suchThe main lessons learned are community participation to adapt suchinterventions.interventions. Farmers school and farmers training ( farmers to farmers exchange views andFarmers school and farmers training ( farmers to farmers exchange views andacceptance).acceptance). The opportunity associated are rationalize use of irrigation water through anThe opportunity associated are rationalize use of irrigation water through aneffective water management.effective water management. Integrated soil and water practices considered the corner stone for anyIntegrated soil and water practices considered the corner stone for anysustainable developmentsustainable development The challenges faced in implementing these policies are shortage of waterThe challenges faced in implementing these policies are shortage of waterresources, fragmentation of land, lake of awareness from water users, absence ofresources, fragmentation of land, lake of awareness from water users, absence ofirrigation advisory system.irrigation advisory system. Upgrading strategies and capacity building are other actions may beUpgrading strategies and capacity building are other actions may beimplemented.implemented.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt45
    • EmergingEmerging IssuesIssues Increasing investment in the field of soilIncreasing investment in the field of soiland water, upgrading irrigation andand water, upgrading irrigation anddrainage system at the national level,drainage system at the national level,enhance irrigation improvement activityenhance irrigation improvement activityand establish effective irrigation systemand establish effective irrigation systemare suggestions to tackle these emergingare suggestions to tackle these emergingchallenges.challenges.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt46
    • Main recommendations to policy-makersMain recommendations to policy-makersfor scaling-up, and for reducing constraintsfor scaling-up, and for reducing constraintsI.I. Policy makers awareness of such constrainsPolicy makers awareness of such constrainsfrom the beginning of the action (fromfrom the beginning of the action (fromidentification phase , searching for solutionsidentification phase , searching for solutionsand implementing pilot program).and implementing pilot program).II.II. Focus on integrated soil and waterFocus on integrated soil and watermanagement tools to save the environmentmanagement tools to save the environmentand sustain agricultural production.and sustain agricultural production.III.III. Concentrate on water saving and soilConcentrate on water saving and soilconservation program.conservation program.InternationalConferenceonPoliciesforWaterandFoodSecurityinDryAreas–24-26June,Cairo,Egypt47
    • Thanks for listeningThanks for listeningQuestions, comments and suggestions are welcomeQuestions, comments and suggestions are welcome