Development of Stripe Rust Resistant Spring Bread Wheat Germplasm for CWANA: Achievements and Challenges The Internation...
Target Environments <ul><li>Spring Bread Wheat improvement targets  all wheat growing areas   in CWANA  with focus on: </l...
Prevalence of Rusts Diseases in CWANA Lr   Yr, Lr Yr,  Lr ,  Sr, Yr Yr Yr
Breeding Methodology <ul><li>Targeted Crossing Program that emphasizes   broadening the genetic base of resistance : </li>...
Integrated Pest  Management (IPM) <ul><li>Multilocation testing ,  in collaboration with NARS , to expose the germplasm to...
ICARDA Breeding Methodology:   Shuttle Breeding <ul><li>Shuttle breeding  with major stress/disease hot-spots to incorpora...
ICARDA: East Africa SBW Shuttle Breeding P P  = Planting  H  = Harvesting H P P P P Site Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun J...
Linkage of Slow Rusting Genes <ul><li>STEM  RUST: </li></ul><ul><li>Sr2 Complex : </li></ul><ul><li>Transferred from  “Yar...
Linkage of Slow Rusting Genes <ul><li>Leaf Rust:   Lr34 </li></ul><ul><li>Transferred to CIMMYT wheats from  “Frontana”  a...
Use of Spreader Rows
Use of Spreader Rows
Selection  for  Yellow  Rust  Resistance Susceptible Susceptible Resistant
Selection for Yellow Rust Resistance in Segregating Populations
Stem Rust (Ug99) and Yellow Rust  Reaction of some ICARDA Elite Rust Resistant lines – T. Hadya, Syria 2009/2010 pbc **  =...
Yield of Ug99 Resistant Cultivars Relative to National Check under Rainfed ( 289 mm ) Environment at Tel-Hadya, Aleppo - S...
 
 
 
  1st Yellow Rust Conference, Tehran, Iran June 8-13, 2001 2 nd  Yellow Rust Conference, Islamabad, Pakistan, March 22-26,...
Genetic Vulnerability to Wheat Rusts:  Leads to Epidemics <ul><li>CAUSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation of one or few clos...
Hallmark “Megacultivars” <ul><li>VEERY  = ( KVZ/BUHO//KAL/BB ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>34 varieties released in CWANA ; base...
Genetic Vulnerability to Wheat Rusts: <ul><li>REMEDY: </li></ul><ul><li>“ If  uniformity  is the core of genetic vulnerabi...
<ul><li>Assemble information on cultivated wheat varieties/country with detailed pedigree  </li></ul><ul><li>Information o...
<ul><li>Improvement of internal cooperation between Breeders and pathologists </li></ul><ul><li>Regional zones  for divers...
Problem-solving Regional Networks Project <ul><li>Multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional approach for efficient utiliz...
Cereal Rusts Network
Problem-solving Regional Networks Project <ul><li>NETWORKS: </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat Rusts: Sources of primary inoculums of...
SUMMARY <ul><li>SBW improvement for CWANA is greatly linked with NARS in the region through problem solving  networks  and...
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Development of Stripe Rust Resistant Spring Bread Wheat Germplasm for CWANA: Achievements and Challenges

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Osman S. Abdalla, ICARDA

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  • Use of differential sowing/harvesting dates between main breeding site at T. Hadya and other disease (e.g. Ug99) hot-spots allows for more than one generation per year and enhances adaptation and broaden disease resistance
  • Development of Stripe Rust Resistant Spring Bread Wheat Germplasm for CWANA: Achievements and Challenges

    1. 1. Development of Stripe Rust Resistant Spring Bread Wheat Germplasm for CWANA: Achievements and Challenges The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) P.O. Box 5466 Aleppo Syria Presented by: Osman S. Abdalla
    2. 2. Target Environments <ul><li>Spring Bread Wheat improvement targets all wheat growing areas in CWANA with focus on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiarid Mediterranean rainfed environments: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ( 11 million hectares ): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate Continental with relatively low winter temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate Sub-Continental with relatively cool winter temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favorable & irrigated environments including low latitudes of CWANA: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( 13 million hectares ) ): </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate Continental with relatively low winter temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate Sub-Continental with relatively cool winter temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CWANA Low Latitudes with relatively warm winter temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Prevalence of Rusts Diseases in CWANA Lr Yr, Lr Yr, Lr , Sr, Yr Yr Yr
    4. 4. Breeding Methodology <ul><li>Targeted Crossing Program that emphasizes broadening the genetic base of resistance : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization of Parental Cultivars of Known Wide Spectrum Rust Resistance; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental lines selected at YR & SR endemic areas including E. Africa (Uganda, Kenya & Ethiopia); Andean Region (Ecuador), + Mexico, Central America and West Asia (Turkey & Iran) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For LR, Parental lines selected at NVRSR (Egypt –Sids +Nuberia), North Africa (Morocco – S.Alala-Tazi + Tesaout), West Asia (Lebanon and Iran) and Mexico. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) <ul><li>Multilocation testing , in collaboration with NARS , to expose the germplasm to the prevailing biotic and abiotic stresses in the region: </li></ul><ul><li>Key Location Disease Nursery ( KLDN ) </li></ul><ul><li>( Aids the enhancement of genetic diversity ) </li></ul>Plant health system established using host plant resistance, biological control mechanism and Ma’Rib, Yemen Beeding Methodology Debre Zeit –Eth (SR) Damhar-Yemen (YR/SR) Njoro - Kenya Mararo –Eth (YR)
    6. 6. ICARDA Breeding Methodology: Shuttle Breeding <ul><li>Shuttle breeding with major stress/disease hot-spots to incorporate the desired tolerance /resistance in derived populations e.g. East Africa Ug99 resistance Shuttle. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Shuttle Breeding Sites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terbol - Lebanon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debre Zeit / Kulumsa - Ethiopia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Njoro - Kenya </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. ICARDA: East Africa SBW Shuttle Breeding P P = Planting H = Harvesting H P P P P Site Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Tel Hadya-Syria (Main Season) H Terbol - Lebanon (Off-season) H Debre Zeit - Ethiopia (Off-season) Kulumsa -Ethiopia (Main Season) H Njoro - Kenya (Main Season) H
    8. 8. Linkage of Slow Rusting Genes <ul><li>STEM RUST: </li></ul><ul><li>Sr2 Complex : </li></ul><ul><li>Transferred from “Yaroslav Emmer” to (cv Hope) </li></ul><ul><li>Sr2 linked to morphological marker: </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudo-black chaff </li></ul><ul><li>Sr2 also linked [pleiotropic] with: </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf Rust: Lr 27 </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow Rust: Yr 30 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Linkage of Slow Rusting Genes <ul><li>Leaf Rust: Lr34 </li></ul><ul><li>Transferred to CIMMYT wheats from “Frontana” and “TZPP” </li></ul><ul><li>Lr34 Linked to Morphological Marker: Leaf Tip Necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Lr34 also linked [pleiotropic] with: </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow Rust: Yr18 (cv Anza) </li></ul><ul><li>Barley yellow dwarf: Bdv1 </li></ul>
    10. 10. Use of Spreader Rows
    11. 11. Use of Spreader Rows
    12. 12. Selection for Yellow Rust Resistance Susceptible Susceptible Resistant
    13. 13. Selection for Yellow Rust Resistance in Segregating Populations
    14. 14. Stem Rust (Ug99) and Yellow Rust Reaction of some ICARDA Elite Rust Resistant lines – T. Hadya, Syria 2009/2010 pbc ** = Pseudo-Black Chaff Source BIG INC-10   SR Njoro-Kenya Nov-2009 SR DZ - Eth Summer 2009 Seedling Reaction T-Hadya-2010 PLT No. NAME 2nd Date 2nd Date Sr (Ug99) IRAN Nov 2009 YR -SYR -2010 816 KBG-01 (CHECK) TR (pbc **) 5R 3+ 10 MR 908 HASHAB-2 5RMR tR 3 10 MR 913 SANOBAR-3 TR tR 3 20 M 919 REYNA-8 5R 5RMR 4 5 MR 856 USHER-18 10RMR 10R 3+ 15 MR 1001 NABUQ-6 10MRMS 10RMS 3 5 MR 871 MOUNA-1 5R tR 3+ 15 MR 963 SELMA-1 5SMS 10RMR 3 10 MR 964 FOURTEEN-1 10RMR 5MR 3 5 MR 874 FAISAL-1 TR 5R 4 10 MR 887 BATTELL-3 50MRMS 10RMS 3+ 10 MR 889 SANDALL-5 5R tR 3 5 MR 890 DAIRA-12 5R 5R 3 5 MR 891 NOUHA-1 5R 5RMR 3 10 MR 901 NADIA-20 TRMR tR 3+ 20 M 829 DIGELU (CHECK) 5R (pbc **) 5MR ;2 20 S 825 PAVON 76 (CHECK) 5R,5MR 10RMR 3+ 70 S
    15. 15. Yield of Ug99 Resistant Cultivars Relative to National Check under Rainfed ( 289 mm ) Environment at Tel-Hadya, Aleppo - Syria: CWANA 2nd Stem Rust Resistance Favorable/Irrigated SBWYT 2009/2010) Entry NAME/PEDIGREE Yield (kg/ha) Yield % N. Check YR -SYR -2010 123 SOONOT-10 3570 125 10 MR 113 SANOBAR-1 3536 124 10 MR 102 ICARDA-SRRL-5 3501 123 10 MR 121 CASA-1 3398 119 10 MR 115 REYNA-29 3312 116 5 MR 107 LALOUB-1 3277 115 5 MR 109 LALOUB-2 3266 115 5 MR 119 NABUQ-4 3176 112 5 MR 124 NATIONAL CHECK 2847 100     Yield Trial Mean (24 Entries) 3300     Range 3822 – 2847   Av SE = 133.017   CV% = 7.1  
    16. 19.   1st Yellow Rust Conference, Tehran, Iran June 8-13, 2001 2 nd Yellow Rust Conference, Islamabad, Pakistan, March 22-26, 2004 3 rd Yellow Rust Conference, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, June 9-10, 2006 4 th Yellow Rust Conference, Antalya, Turkey, October 10-12, 2009 Regional Yellow Rust Conferences 2001 - 2010
    17. 20. Genetic Vulnerability to Wheat Rusts: Leads to Epidemics <ul><li>CAUSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation of one or few closely related varieties with narrow genetic base over large areas </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge of both the genetic base of resistance in cultivars and the regional characteristics of the pathogen population </li></ul>
    18. 21. Hallmark “Megacultivars” <ul><li>VEERY = ( KVZ/BUHO//KAL/BB ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>34 varieties released in CWANA ; based on (( Yr9 )) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BOBWHITE = ( AU//KAL/BB/3/WOP ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 varieties released in CWANA ; based on (( Yr9 )) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KAUZ = ( JUP/BJY//URES ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 varieties released in CWANA ; based on (( Yr9 and Yr27 )) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ATTILA = ( ND/VG9144//KAL/BB/3LYACO/4/VEE-5 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 varieties released in CWANA ; based on (( Yr9 and Yr27 )) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 22. Genetic Vulnerability to Wheat Rusts: <ul><li>REMEDY: </li></ul><ul><li>“ If uniformity is the core of genetic vulnerability, then diversity is the best insurance against it” </li></ul><ul><li>Broaden the genetic base of resistance : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the genetic base of resistance in current cultivars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of characteristics regional pathogen population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued monitoring , identification and incorporation of resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional and International cooperation pre-requisite to success </li></ul>
    20. 23. <ul><li>Assemble information on cultivated wheat varieties/country with detailed pedigree </li></ul><ul><li>Information on areas and cropping patterns within each country (date of planting, harvest, varieties and area/country) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage use for race non-specific resistance by breeding programs </li></ul>Second Regional Yellow Rust Conference NARC-Islamabad, Pakistan 22-26 March 2004 Genetic Vulnerability in wheat: Recommendations
    21. 24. <ul><li>Improvement of internal cooperation between Breeders and pathologists </li></ul><ul><li>Regional zones for diversification of cultivars via: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed production Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education of farmers (FPR, FFS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy and contacts w/decision makers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liaise with regional IARC scientists to get feed back and to disseminate information </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminate info. on web sites, news letters, annual reports, meetings </li></ul>Second Regional Yellow Rust Conference NARC-Islamabad, Pakistan 22-26 March 2004 Genetic Vulnerability in wheat: Recommendations
    22. 25. Problem-solving Regional Networks Project <ul><li>Multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional approach for efficient utilization of expertise, human resources, and infrastructure in member countries and ICARDA to address specific problems (biotic & abiotic) limiting the production of cool season legumes and cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Each network is headed by a lead country based on its comparative advantage with respect to the expertise of its national scientists in that area </li></ul>
    23. 26. Cereal Rusts Network
    24. 27. Problem-solving Regional Networks Project <ul><li>NETWORKS: </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat Rusts: Sources of primary inoculums of rusts, their pathway and sources of resistance (LR –Egypt; YR – Ethiopia) </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Collect wheat rusted samples for pathogen identification </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor wheat rust severity in the Nile Valley and Red Sea countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor the effectiveness of known resistance genes. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify wheat rust pathotypes and virulence analysis in the Nile valley and Red Sea countries (Ethiopia, Egypt, Sudan and Yemen) </li></ul>
    25. 28. SUMMARY <ul><li>SBW improvement for CWANA is greatly linked with NARS in the region through problem solving networks and research partnership </li></ul><ul><li>To address production constraints the program aims at combining multiple disease resistance and adaptation to abiotic stresses . </li></ul>
    26. 29. Thank you

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