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THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now
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THEME – 5 Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now

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  • 1. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto Climate change and an increasing protein deficit: Why Europe needs to exploit genetic resources of protein crops now Fred Stoddard Department of Agricultural Sciences frederick <dot> stoddard <ät> helsinki <dot> fi Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 1
  • 2. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto Applied mathematics and omics technologies for discovering biodiversity and genetic resources for climate change mitigation and adaptation to sustain agriculture in drylands Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 2
  • 3. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • In EU terms, protein crop = faba bean, pea, lupins • and sometimes dehydrated alfalfa • Europe has a 70% deficit in plant protein • Growing grain legumes helps mitigate climate change in many ways • Grain legume breeding lags behind cereal & oilseed breeding for several reasons • So FIGS for GR of GLs against CC could attract funding 3Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 My main points
  • 4. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Mostly as soya cake Europe imports 70% of its plant protein needs 4Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 European livestock produ imported protein – and cr EEU soya import quantity and price 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 10 20 30 40 50 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Price (USD/t) Net import (million t) Soya cake imports Soya bean imports Soya bean price Soya cake price
  • 5. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto Poultry and pig meat consumption is the major driver of plant protein imports FAOstat 2013. Growth in poultry and pig meat consumption is the major driver behind increased plant protein imports 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Million t Beef Pig meat Poultry meat Grain legume production Net soya import (bean equivalent) Fertiliser-N consumption Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 5 FAOstat 2013.
  • 6. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Pasture grasses with >400 kg/ha of N fertilizer • Forage maize with >300 kg/ha of N fertilizer • If N fertilizer is synthetic, manufactured at cost of (usually) burning natural gas • Whether synthetic or manure, NO3 - leaches into groundwater, and denitrification releases N2O • Clovers and other forage legumes could be used 6Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Meanwhile, ruminants are fed on heavily fertilized grasses
  • 7. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto Separation (disconnection) of crops and livestock Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 7 • And in Norway, cropping and livestock farming have to be on opposite sides of a valley!
  • 8. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Too much meat consumption • Too much pollution • Too much cereal monoculture • Disconnection between feed producers and feed consumers  Sustainability is questionable 8Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 So European agriculture contributes to global change
  • 9. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • High fuel prices • High soya bean prices • Concern about food and feed security •  Europe wants to grow its own protein • but it has forgotten how • Europe is (I think) more aware of global change than the USA is 9Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 A new scenario has emerged
  • 10. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • and has declined from 4.6% of EU-27 arable land in 1961 to 1.8% now The proportion of EU cropland used for protein crops is low EUROSTAT 2013 Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 10
  • 11. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto Cereals have a competitive advantage, especially in NW Europe USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service 2013, and EUROSTAT 2013 Agronomic challenges • Cereal crops (e.g. wheat) have a comparative advantage • Protein crop yields are variable 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Yield (t/ha) USA wheat USA soya bean France wheat France soya bean European wheat has a 3-fold yield advantage US and French soya bean and US wheat yields are similar Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 11
  • 12. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • (“thanks” to Mrs Thatcher and followers) • Removed public funding from crops associated with public goods • Little private breeding of minor crops • Yield increases and stress tolerances of minor crops like grain legumes lag behind those of cereals • Europe is good at growing starch • Farmers not interested in “demanding crops” • Common Agricultural Policy CAP flip-flopped many times on support for protein crops 12Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Privatization of plant breeding and other impediments
  • 13. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Common bean Faba bean and other legumes Chickpea, lentil & vetches Pea Lupins Soya bean Area (million ha) 1974: price support for soya bean 1978: price support for pea, faba bean, lupins 1992: MacSharry reform 2005 - 2006: introduction of Single Payment Scheme 1989: area payment for chickpea, lentil, vetches 13Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 The CAP (Complicated Agricultural Policy) and legume areas
  • 14. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto Legumes in cropping systems what makes them “a good thing” Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 14
  • 15. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Depends on host genotype • Depends on symbiont genotype • Efficiency of infection and N fixation • Right species, right isolate, competitive ability with existing soil population • Depends on adaptation to growing conditions • Salinity, pH, temperature, moisture deficit or excess 15Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Biological Nitrogen Fixation BNF
  • 16. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Well known: 16 ATP per N2 fixed • 3-16% of net photosynthate used by nodules • Does this reduce yield? • NO in faba bean and soya bean: photosynthesis increases • YES in pea: photosynthesis cannot increase enough • Little data on other species 16 Costs of N fixation Stoddard @ Rabat 2014
  • 17. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • 40-70% is harvested in grain • Green manure a different option • Remainder in roots, straw and rhizodeposition • Per tonne of faba bean grain, ‒ Calculations done for Legume Futures project • 81 kg of N in total plant matter • 62 kg of N is fixed • 40 kg of N is harvested • 41 kg of N is left in the field ‒ But this “free fertilizer” is not the most important effect 17 Figures on N fixation Stoddard @ Rabat 2014
  • 18. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Increased cereal yield over continuous cereal, Australia, Spain, Ethiopia, Finland… • Increased % protein in wheat and barley • Broken cereal disease and pest cycles • Improvements in soil porosity: • Deeper root growth by following crop • Water-infiltration / water holding capacity • Nutrient availability (particularly P) • Changes in soil biology 18 Improvements in following crop exceed those due to just N Stoddard @ Rabat 2014
  • 19. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Variovorax, Flavobacterium, others • Live near nodule surface • Fix CO2, increase soil organic carbon content • Compete with other (plant-pathogenic) soil bacteria • “Hydrogen production by nitrogenase as a potential crop rotation benefit” 19 Hydrogen bacteria Stoddard @ Rabat 2014
  • 20. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Plant growth-promoting (rhizo-)bacteria: PGPB or PGPR • Pseudomonas, Azosporillum, H bacteria • Endophytic, epiphytic or rhizospheric • Produce ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase, cleaves ACC, reduces ethylene production, so root growth continues • Colonize niches so not available for pathogens • Others produce auxins that enhance root growth 20 And other beneficial bacteria Stoddard @ Rabat 2014
  • 21. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 21Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Legume roots solubilize phosphorus H+ Carboxylates Fe2+ Mg2+ Ca3(PO4)2 H2PO4 -
  • 22. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto And finally, beans are also good for • Bumblebees • Honeybees • Mycorrhizal fungi • Grey faba bean pollen is in the pollen basket 22Stoddard @ Rabat 2014
  • 23. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto So, why don’t Europeans grow legumes? Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 23
  • 24. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • EIP-AGRI: European Innovation Partnership for Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability • Launched by the European Commission “to promote rapid modernization by stepping up innovation efforts” • Focus Group on protein crops set up in 2013, met Oct 2013 & Jan 2014 • 20 members from 11 countries, including me • Breeders, feed scientists, feed manufacturers, advisors, farmers 24Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Analysis of gaps
  • 25. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Given current prices of protein, starch and oil, how competitive are the crops? 25Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Part of the task: an economic exercise
  • 26. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto Crop Current yield (t/ha) Desired yield (t/ha) % increase Oil produced (Tg) Starch produced (Tg) Soya 2.7 3.4 30% 3.9 0.0 Rape 3.1 3.1 0% 13.8 0.0 Sunflower 2.2 2.9 31% 20.3 0.0 Lupin 1.0 4.2 334% 1.9 0.0 Pea 2.7 4.8 76% 0.0 15.5 Faba bean 2.7 4.5 69% 0.0 11.1 Alfalfa 22.9 24.8 8% 0.0 0.0 26Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Yield increases needed to match value of wheat
  • 27. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Gaps are large but, for faba bean and alfalfa at least, achievable: desired yields already obtained by good farmers in many countries • Giving incentive to food applications raises the potential value of the grain legume crop (meat and dairy substitutes) • Concerted action on yield and stress resistances can accelerate reduction of the yield gap • And will benefit other regions if we go about it right • So while all crops need adaptation to CC, legumes need it more, and can help moderate it 27Stoddard @ Rabat 2014
  • 28. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • SFS-7b-2015: “Management and sustainable use of genetic resources”: 5-7 M € • Needs at least partial focus on Europe and climate change • Emphasis on sustainability and efficiency • We have many successes in our FIGS network • Third countries welcome • Faba bean fits the remit, so does alfalfa • Drought, waterlogging, heat stress 28Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Opportunity next year?
  • 29. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto Why faba bean? 29Stoddard @ Rabat 2014
  • 30. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Only faba bean and pea can be grown in all 4 major climatic zones of Europe (Mediterranean, Oceanic, Continental and Boreal) • and is also well adapted to the dry areas • Faba bean > pea: • biomass • protein content • nitrogen fixation • And we have the demonstrated successes in FIGS on faba bean 30Stoddard @ Rabat 2014
  • 31. 31 Oceanic zone: autumn sowing, very long season; spring sowing, medium season Mediterranean zone: autumn sowing, medium season Boreal zone: spring sowing, very short season Continental zone: spring sowing, medium season Metzger et al 2007 Stoddard @ Rabat 2014
  • 32. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Proposals should implement comprehensive actions to improve the status and use of (in particular European) ex-situ and in-situ genetic collections. • More specifically, they should support acquisition, conservation, characterization/evaluation and especially the use of specific genetic resources in breeding, farming and forestry activities. • Proposals should undertake broader dissemination and awareness raising activities. They should closely liaise with relevant initiatives seeking to harmonize, rationalize and improve management of existing collections and databases[1]. • Proposals are encouraged to include participants established in third countries[2]. This action allows for the provision of financial support to third parties in line with conditions set out in Part K of the General Annexes. • Proposals should address crop, forest and/or livestock genetic resources. 32Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Key paragraph of the call
  • 33. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • improved in-situ/on-farm management and evaluation of genetic resources by the farming sector • productivity and economic gains in specialized farming systems • promotion of traditional and/or under-utilized crops • increased availability of diverse, high quality products, e.g. with enhanced health benefits • economic benefits for farmers, other types of SMEs and regional economies through the expansion or creation of new products and markets • broader adaption of crops to limiting or changing agro-climatic conditions, e.g. by the use of adaptive traits from landraces • enhanced quality and scope of European ex-situ and in-situ collections • enhanced methodologies for management, conservation, characterization and evaluation of genetic resources • increased transfer of genetic material into breeding programmes • increased awareness of the value of genetic resources, engagement of end-users and contribution to implementation of international commitments in the area • more extensive use of genetic resources in agriculture • overall contribution to food security by supporting innovations in breeding and farming 33Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Desired impacts include FIGS Faba FIGS FIGS Faba Faba FIGS
  • 34. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • to fix major problems of a key crop, • to adapt it to current and future (CC) stresses • and increase yield and yield stability, • we can mitigate climate change, • reduce the protein deficit, • improve feed and food security, • make better use of genetic resources, • provide farmers with a desirable crop, • and consumers with desirable food options. • A win – win – win situation! 34Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Our message: By using FIGS to mine genetic resources
  • 35. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Germplasm managers (ICARDA and …) • Mathematicians and statisticians (Concordia, Helsinki, Oulu and …) • Genomicists, geneticists and breeders (Helsinki and …) • Plant scientists 35Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 People we need
  • 36. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • Continue the maths & stats & GIS to get more out of the GR system • Test the outputs by focusing on some traits of some crops • e.g., need to do roots of the faba wet set & dry set • waterlogging, heat, acid soil tolerance • what other crops/traits? Not too many because of cost, but enough to be attractive; need at least one biotic stress 36Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Tasks
  • 37. www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto • The EU needs FIGS for GR of GLs to mitigate and adapt to CC • Shall we seek EU money to optimize FIGS? 37Stoddard @ Rabat 2014 Conclusion

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