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THEME – 3 TESTING, SCREENING AND IMPROVING SALT TOLERANCE OF DURUM WHEAT GENETIC RESOURCES
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THEME – 3 TESTING, SCREENING AND IMPROVING SALT TOLERANCE OF DURUM WHEAT GENETIC RESOURCES

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  • 1. TESTING, SCREENING AND IMPROVING SALT TOLERANCE OF DURUM WHEAT GENETIC RESOURCES CHAABANE RAMZI, SAIDI ABDELKADER, ROUISSI MUSTAPHA, INAGAKI MASANORI, BARI ABDALLAH
  • 2. • Fresh water is a scarce resource. • World Meteorological Organization, 2.5% is fresh water • Changes in climatic variables, can increase the salinity problems • Improving salt tolerance of plants has been proposed as part of the solution to some of these problems. INTRODUCTION
  • 3. Salt tolerant cultivars = overcoming a variety of difficulties: Valuable genetic resources screening method Large number of genetic resources Breeding technologies
  • 4. Plant material (2012-2013) • 4 Australian (CSIRO) lines: NAX1 027- NAX1 207 - NAX2 04 - NAX2 42 • A line (CBD27) • 18 Tunisian cultivars: Azizi, Baidha, Ben Bechir, Beskri, Bidi, Chile, Inrat 69 Karim, Khiar, Maali, Maghrbi, Mahmoudi, Nasr, Om Rabi, Razzek, Richi, Salim, SwabaEljia.
  • 5. • Semi-controlled conditions: Carriage + Shelter • Three replicate of two treatments: - Saline: 150 mM NaCl; - Fresh water : control. • Growth, Development, Reproductive, Physiological and Final Harvest Parameters • STI : Observation at salinity divided the average controls
  • 6. RESULTS
  • 7. • Parameters significantly (p < 0.05) affected – Spike-bearing tillers per plant – Plant height at 60, 90, 120 and 150 DAS – Heading date – Shoot dry weight – Root weight – Chlorophyll content (SPAD Unit) 90 and 150 DAS • Parameters less affected – Flowering date Growth, Development, Reproductive and Physiological Parameters
  • 8. • Parameters significantly (p < 0.05) affected – Number of spike per plant – Number of spikelets per spike – Number of grains per spike – 1000 kernel weight – Grain yield per plant • Parameters less affected – Spike length Harvest Parameters
  • 9. Tillage Fig.1: Mean tiller number per plant in salinity treatment (T1) and control (T0) Genotypes STI KHIAR 0,46 A KERIM 0,51 Ab BIDI 0,53 Ab NASR 0,54 Ab INRAT69 0,58 Ab RAZZEK 0,59 Ab BENBECHIR 0,65 Ab NAX1-027 0,67 Ab OMRABIAA 0,67 Ab MAGHRBI 0,69 Ab CBD27 0,71 Ab NAX1-207 0,71 Ab SELIM 0,72 Ab MAALI 0,74 Ab CHILI 0,75 Ab MAHMOUDI 0,78 Ab NAX2-04 0,8 Ab NAX2-42 0,8 Ab BESKRI 0,84 Abc BAIDHA 0,87 Abc AZIZI 1 Bc RICHI 1 Bc SWEBAELJIA 1,22 C 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 M A HM O U D I O M R ABIA AKE R IM SE LIM M A G H R BIKH IA R N AS R BE N BEC H IR R AZZEKC BD 27IN R AT69 BID IM A ALI C H ILI SW EBA ELJIA R IC H I BA ID H ABE SKR IAZIZI N AX 1-207 N AX 1-027N AX 2-42N AX 2-04 talles/plante T0 T1 Tiller/plant
  • 10. Shoot dry weight 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 M AH M O U DIO M R ABIAA KER IM SELIM M AG H R BI KH IAR N ASRBEN BECH IR R AZZEK C BD27 IN R AT69 BID I M AALI C HILI SW EBAELJIA R IC HI BAID H A BESKR I AZIZIN AX1-207 N AX1-027 N AX2-42 N AX2-04 (g) T0 T1 Genotypes STI OMRABIAA 0,35 A INRAT69 0,42 A MAALI 0,42 A KHIAR 0,45 ab NAX1-207 0,45 ab NAX2-04 0,46 ab RAZZEK 0,47 ab NAX1-027 0,48 ab SELIM 0,49 ab CHILI 0,52 ab BAIDHA 0,52 ab BESKRI 0,53 ab RICHI 0,54 ab BIDI 0,54 ab CBD27 0,56 ab MAGHRBI 0,58 ab SWEBAELJ 0,59 ab AZIZI 0,61 ab BENBECHIR 0,65 ab NASR 0,66 ab KERIM 0,68 ab MAHMOUDI 0,70 ab NAX2-42 0,89 B Fig.2: Mean shoot dry weight (g/plant) in salinity treatment (T1) and control (T0)
  • 11. 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 M AHM O UD I O M RABIAA KER IM SELIMM AG HRBI KHIAR NASR BEN BEC HIRRAZZEK CBD27INRAT69 BID I M AALI CH ILI SW EBAELJIA RICH IBAIDH A BESKRI AZIZINAX1-207NAX1-027NAX2-42NAX2-04 (g) T0 T1 Génotypes ITS OMRABIAA 0,22 A INRAT69 0,25 A RAZZEK 0,30 A MAALI 0,31 A NAX1-207 0,32 A NAX2-04 0,33 A SELIM 0,38 A NAX2-42 0,39 A BIDI 0,40 A KERIM 0,45 AB BAIDHA 0,45 AB KHIAR 0,45 AB NAX1-027 0,47 AB MAGHRBI 0,47 AB BENBECHIR 0,49 AB SWEBAELJIA 0,49 AB CHILI 0,49 AB BESKRI 0,50 AB CBD27 0,56 AB RICHI 0,57 AB AZIZI 0,57 AB NASR 0,58 AB MAHMOUDI 0,75 B Grain yield Fig.3: Mean grain yield (g/plant) in salinity treatment (T1) and control (T0)
  • 12. 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 MAHMOUDI OMRABIAA KERIM SELIM MAGHRBI KHIAR NASR BENBECHIR RAZZEK CBD27 INRAT69 BIDI MAALI CHILI SWEBAELJIA RICHI BAIDHA BESKRI AZIZI NAX1-207 NAX1-027 NAX2-42 NAX2-04 T0 T1 Root dry weight (g) Génotypes ITS KHIAR 0,06 A CHILI 0,08 A BIDI 0,08 A CBD27 0,09 A AZIZI 0,11 A OMRABIAA 0,12 A BAIDHA 0,13 A BENBECHI 0,13 A INRAT69 0,15 A MAHMOUDI 0,16 A RAZZEK 0,19 A SELIM 0,20 A BESKRI 0,25 A MAGHRBI 0,27 A KERIM 0,33 A MAALI 0,35 A SWEBAELJ 0,37 A NAX2-42 0,40 A RICHI 0,44 A NASR 0,47 A NAX2-04 1,07 A NAX1-207 1,26 A NAX1-027 4,90 B A B SALINITY CONTROL Fig.4: Root dry weight (g/plant) Nax Lines
  • 13. Salt screening parameters Parameter (1) STI (2) Correlations (3) Tiller number *** *** 0.33* Shoot dry weight *** ** 0.57* Plant Height 90 DAS *** * 0.31* SPAD 90 DAS *** * 0.26* Grains per spike *** ** 0.42* 1000 kernel weight *** * 0.61* final yield *** *** - Table1: Significantly affected parameters (1), STI distinguishing Significantly between vraities (2) and significant correlations between STI of the parameter and STI of final yield *** Very highly significant, ** Highly Significant, * Significant
  • 14. Salt tolerant cultivars = overcoming a variety of difficulties: Valuable genetic resources screening method Large number of genetic resources Breeding technologies
  • 15. INRAT-ICARDA (2013-2014) CONFIRM THE SCREENING METHOD TESTING THE FIGS STRATEGY FOR MINIMISING THE NUMBER OF GENTIC RESOURCES TO BE SCREENED
  • 16. Fig. 5: FIGS strategy
  • 17. Putative tolerant to salt stress Putative sensible to salt stress Non specified Fig.6: Geographical distribution of the FIGS sets based on a prior information (Climate data) Plant Material 35 durum wheat landraces putative salt tolerant, 5 putative sensible and 10 unspecified according the pricipe of FIGS
  • 18. order_ori icarda_ig site_code origin subset dhe Set_type 1 89017 ETH64:131 ETH 0 135 random_set 2 96203 MAR87-1:31 MAR 0 119 random_set 3 43330 OMN87:142 OMN 0 132 random_set 4 95853 SYR87-1:55 SYR 0 149 random_set 5 94651 TUN77::9 TUN 0 132 random_set 6 93977 DZA75::43 DZA 1 135 salinity_set 7 93963 DZA75::43 DZA 1 137 salinity_set 8 93978 DZA75::43 DZA 1 138 salinity_set 9 93151 DZA75::95 DZA 1 139 salinity_set 10 87457 EGY::12 EGY 1 140 salinity_set 11 83479 EGY-S55 EGY 1 140 salinity_set 12 83477 EGY-S55 EGY 1 141 salinity_set 13 87438 EGY-S56 EGY 1 142 salinity_set 14 83366 EGY-S57 EGY 1 146 salinity_set 15 85847 ESP-S1603 ESP 1 140 salinity_set 16 85846 ESP-S1603 ESP 1 146 salinity_set 17 85020 ESP-S1946 ESP 1 147 salinity_set 18 85028 ESP-S1947 ESP 1 142 salinity_set 19 85714 GRC56::11 GRC 1 134 salinity_set 20 85715 GRC56::12 GRC 1 136 salinity_set 21 84830 IND47/48::45 IND 1 148 salinity_set 22 84882 IND47/48::6 IND 1 140 salinity_set 23 86075 IND-S413 IND 1 134 salinity_set 24 85632 IRN-S235 IRN 1 145 salinity_set Table 4 :Plant material
  • 19. 25 85457 IRN-S406 IRN 1 149 salinity_set 26 83091 IRQ-S176 IRQ 1 155 salinity_set 27 96252 JOR83-2::46 JOR 1 117 salinity_set 28 96367 MAR85:112 MAR 1 NA salinity_set 29 95843 SYR87-1:49 SYR 1 132 salinity_set 30 95839 SYR87-1:49 SYR 1 149 salinity_set 31 96150 SYR88-2:2 SYR 1 132 salinity_set 32 84454 TUR48::255 TUR 1 141 salinity_set 33 84776 TUR48::588 TUR 1 145 salinity_set 34 82878 TUR48D:1 TUR 1 139 salinity_set 35 82738 TUR48D:242 TUR 1 141 salinity_set 36 82181 UZB::10 UZB 1 148 salinity_set 37 82233 UZB-S149 UZB 1 148 salinity_set 38 82553 ESP27::46 ESP 1 193 salinity_set 39 82635 IRN40::12 IRN 1 189 salinity_set 40 95836 SYR87-1:49 SYR 1 194 salinity_set 41 var01 Mahmoudi Unknown 42 var02 Nasr Unknown 43 var03 Selim Unknown 44 var04 Kerim Unknown 45 var05 NAX1_027 Unknown 46 var06 NAX1_207 Unknown 47 var07 NAX2_041 Unknown 48 var08 NAX2_042 Unknown 49 var09 Khiar Unknown 50 var10 Maali Unknown Nax lines
  • 20. Fig.7: Salinity experimental cite (2013-2014)
  • 21. Fig.7: Salinity experimental cite (2013-2014)
  • 22. Fig. 8 Pots (12.5 cm diameter/1m hight ) Better evaluation of root development
  • 23. T0 T1 Fig.9: A putative tolerant landrace (N°44) in salt treatment (T1) and control (T0) Jun 2014
  • 24. Salt tolerant cultivars = overcoming a variety of difficulties: Valuable genetic resources screening method Large number of genetic resources Breeding technologies
  • 25. Parvatz Ahmed, MNV Prasad. Abiotic stress responses in plants metabolism productivity and sustainability.
  • 26. Nax1 (gwm312) marker in Tunisian durum wheat varieties (2% Agarose gel) 1 OM RABIAA 236 2 KARIM 236 3 SALIM 236 4 MAGHRBI 236 5 KHIAR 199 6 NASR 199/236 7 BEN BECHIR 236 8 RAZZEK 236 9 INRAT 69 236 10 MAALI 236 11 CHILI 199 12 SWABAA ELJIA 199 13 RICHI 199 14 BAIDHA 236 15 BESKRI 199 16 AZIZI 199 17 NAX1 50207 199 18 NAX1 502027 199 19 NAX2 5042 236 20 NAX2 5004 236 21 MAHMOUDI 199 22 JNEH KHOTTIFA 236 23 KASSERINE 199 24 BIDI 199 25 KASSERINE 199
  • 27. F1 CrossF1 Seeds F1 Seeds
  • 28. BC1F1 2013-2014
  • 29. Conclusions • The semi controlled genetic ressources screening conditions is an easy efficient and useful method for simulating field conditions. • The screening traits identified in the present study should be confirmed on a larger number of genetic ressources, in different years, conditions and regions. • The FIGS approach is a useful and efficient tool for reducing the large number of genetic ressources to be evaluated. Reduce cost and efforts. • Combining mutidisciplinary approaches and methods is a useful way for genetic ressources testing, screening and improving agronomically useful traits to resolve and overcome climatic changes problems.
  • 30. ACKNOWLEGEMENTS ICARDA: Dr. Abdallah Bari, Dr. Masanory Inagaki Ministery of Agriculture of Tunisia Ministry of higher education and Scientific research of Tunisia
  • 31. • Les pots à drainage libre sont déposés sur un chariot permettant d’abriter les pots en conditions de pluies.
  • 32. Fig.7: Salinity experimental cite (2013-2014)
  • 33. Fig.7: Salinity experimental cite (2013-2014)

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