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Country Preparedness to Face Yellow Rust Epidemics: Situation in Developing Countries
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Country Preparedness to Face Yellow Rust Epidemics: Situation in Developing Countries

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Wafa El Khoury …

Wafa El Khoury
Wheat Rust Disease Global Programme
FAO, Rome, Italy


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  • Registration system flexibility in Turkey, Egypt, Iran Informal seed system 60% Kazakhstan, 50% in Syria and 80% in Yemen?
  • Registration system flexibility in Turkey, Egypt, Iran Informal seed system 50% in Syria and 80% in Yemen?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Country Preparedness to Face Yellow Rust Epidemics: Situation in Developing Countries Wafa El Khoury Wheat Rust Disease Global Programme FAO, Rome, Italy International Wheat Stripe Rust Symposium ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria, 18-20 April 2011
    • 2. Yellow rust management
      • Yellow rust could quickly reach epidemic levels and go out of control with favorable environmental conditions and presence of susceptible varieties
      • Countries need to put in place a series of actions within a clear plan that would support its preparedness to face potential epidemics
    • 3. Yellow rust management
      • Resistant varieties
      • Fungicidal application
      • Cultural practices and reduction of early inoculum
    • 4. Resistant varieties Cultural practices Fungicidal application Adoption Field testing Application capacity Cost effectiveness Timing of application Agronomic practices Reduction of early inoculum Landscape management green bridges Varietal mixtures Changing planting date Efficacy of fungicides Accessibility to farmers Popularization Seed multiplication Varietal release / registration Breeding Availability Registration
    • 5. Stakeholders involved
    • 6. BGRI actions
      • Series of wheat rusts awareness-raising meetings
      • Meetings involving all stakeholders (research, plant protection, seeds, extension and farmers)
      • Meetings covered countries of Central Asia, North Africa and the Near East
      • Country reports prepared jointly by the multi-disciplinary national delegation
    • 7.  
    • 8. Situation in developing countries
      • Some countries have full-fledged wheat breeding programmes
      • In some, breeders are few, not working necessarily on wheat
      • Genetic material commonly received from CG-centres, tested and adopted
      • Other stress factors always considered in breeding
      • Race analysis capacities only in very few countries. Lack of infrastructure, human capacity and funding
      • Gene deployment strategy non existent
    • 9.  
    • 10. Situation in developing countries
      • Registration system often rigid and not efficient for rapid replacement of varieties
      • Seed multiplication system mostly informal (ranges from 40% - 80%)
      • Quality of seeds produced in informal system not controlled - capacity building needed
      • Decision on varieties to be multiplied in the formal system depends on the requests of the farmers
    • 11. Situation in developing countries
      • Wheat varieties cultivated over large areas are often 2- 4 decades old
      • Farmers often not aware of the benefits of new varieties
      • Popularization of varieties through demonstration plots and farmers’ fields mostly done through researchers and breeders
      • Extension agents not sufficiently involved
      • Farmers are rarely involved in varietal selection
    • 12. Reasons for slow variety replacement
      • Poor farmers are risk adverse
      • New varieties not always meeting local farmers’ needs or preferences
      • Limited information on their availability
      • Limited availability or accessibility of quality seeds
    • 13.  
    • 14. Situation in developing countries
      • Many do not have registered fungicides for wheat rusts
      • Small-scale wheat farmers often cannot afford cost of fungicides
      • Many farmers do not have sprayers and protective clothing
      • Farmers lack knowledge on use and sprayer calibration (training needed)
      • Information on disease onset not shared early enough for effective control
    • 15. Situation in developing countries
      • Forged, illegal or smuggled fungicides, black markets common with emergency situations
      • No efficacy tests of newly registered fungicides
      • No impact assessment done to evaluate cost effectiveness of application (on yield, cost, disease)
      • Limited research on timing and number of application based on disease appearance, severity and variety susceptibility
    • 16.  
    • 17. Situation in developing countries
      • General disease surveys commonly linked to availability of public funds
      • Often, no specific wheat rusts surveillance done unless linked to project funds
      • Information sharing when done, often not immediate, through annual reports and meetings shared often with own institution
      • Limited rust race analysis capacities: infrastructure, human and financial capacities
      • Efficient solutions country-specific based on the local system (protection, research and extension)
    • 18. Country preparedness actions includes
      • Availability of resistant varieties that are known to and accepted by farmers
      • Availability of sufficient quality seeds of these varieties for farmer use
      • Availability, accessibility and affordability of effective fungicides and capacity of farmers to use them
    • 19. Country preparedness actions includes
      • Reliable field surveillance and race analysis for proper decision making
      • Capacity of the breeding, seed and extension systems in the country to continuously provide farmers with a range of new resistant varieties
      • thus maintaining field resistance to the changing rust virulence
    • 20. Preparedness plans: Stakeholders
    • 21. Preparedness plans: Elements
    • 22.
      • Thank you