Climatic Changes and Yellow Rust Outbreak in Syria
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Climatic Changes and Yellow Rust Outbreak in Syria

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Trad Dandal& M. Walid Tawil

Trad Dandal& M. Walid Tawil
General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research,
Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform,
Syria

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Climatic Changes and Yellow Rust Outbreak in Syria Climatic Changes and Yellow Rust Outbreak in Syria Presentation Transcript

  • Syrian Arab Republic Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research
    • Country Paper
    • General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research
    • Climatic Changes and Yellow Rust Outbreak in Syria
    • Prepared by
    • Trad Dandal & M. Walid Tawil
    • Aleppo, ICARDA
    • 18-21/4/2011
  • Climatic Changes in Syria
    • Low rainfall
    • Erratic distribution of rainfall within the season
    • High temperature in winter
    • Heat waves during crop maturity
    • Dust storms and desertification
  • Consequences
    • Outbreak of some diseases and insects
    • Low productivity
    • Low groundwater levels
  • The relative value of annual rainfall rate in Syria during the period 1965-2007 The relative value of annual rainfall rate in Syria was decreased by 9% during 5 previous decades 2005-2007 1995-2005 1985-1995 1975-1985 1965-1975 86% 95% 88% 94% 100%
  • Stresses affected wheat crop during 2009/2010
    • Warm winter
    • High relative humidity
    • Increase of temperature up to 35C ̊ in March 2010 in some areas
    • Infection of all bread wheat varieties with yellow rust
    • Frost during the period of the beginning of grain filling in some areas
    • Cessation of rain since the beginning of March until the end of the season
    • Increase of temperature above 37C ̊ during the late phases of grain filling
  • Stresses consequences
    • Quick vegetative growth at the beginning of the season
    • Poor tillering
    • Outbreak of yellow rust
    • Early maturity about one month
    • Low 1000-grain weight
    • Low productivity of bread wheat in particular
  • Climatic Factors / Aleppo – Serbaya Station
    • Climatic changes in Serbaya station of Aleppo province during five previous years were :
    • Increasing the monthly rate of temperature (C) during December, January and February months.
    • Increasing the monthly rate of rainfall (mm) during December, January and February months
    Monthly rate Jun. May Apr. Mar. Feb. Jan. Dec. Temp. C ⁰ 13.3 27.5 23.4 13.9 11.0 9.1 4.3 3.9 2006-2007 15.3 31.1 24.5 21.5 14.3 6.9 3.0 6.2 2007-2008 13.9 28.2 21.4 16.1 10.9 8.8 5.7 6.3 2008-2009 15.6 26.8 22.3 15.4 13.3 11.7 9.3 10.4 2009-2010 Total May Apr. Mar. Feb. Jan. Dec. Rainfall/mm 164 30.2 23 30 29 44 8 2006-2007 144 8.5 0 23 0 41 72 2007-2008 232 4 25 36 86 38 43 2008-2009 206 0 16 7 58 54 71 2009-2010
    • Climatic changes in Aleppo province during previous five years were :
    • Decreasing the sunshine hours per day during December, January and February months.
    • No changes was observed in relative humidity (%) during December, January and February months
    Climatic Factors / Aleppo – Serbaya Station Jun. May Apr. Mar. Feb. Jan. Dec. Sunshine hr/day 13.2 9.1 8.4 5.1 5.3 5.2 7.4 2006-2007 12.8 11.2 8.4 7.3 6.1 6.0 4.9 2007-2008 11.8 12.8 9.1 5.3 3.7 4.4 5.0 2008-2009 11.8 10.6 8.3 5.9 3.4 3.3 2.7 2009-2010 Monthly rate Jun. May Apr. Mar. Feb. Jan. Dec. Relative humidity% 75.5 52.9 64.1 73.9 81.8 88 77.9 55.8 2006-2007 68.9 30.1 40.9 52.8 81.2 73 56.4 81.2 2007-2008 70.7 40.2 52.2 62.6 72.3 79.5 68.4 705 2008-2009 75.5 59.9 82.6 60.6 77.5 80.9 75.9 82.2 2009-2010
  • The effect of warm winter on spikes number (m2) and tillering number (plant) of some durum wheat varieties in the farmers fields at Yahmool Research Station/Aleppo (1st settlement) during 2009 and 2010 growing seasons
    • Spikes and tillering numbers of tested durum wheat varieties were varied among seasons according to climatic changes (Warm winter):
    • Spikes and tillering numbers for each tested durum wheat varieties were decreased by third during 2010 growing season in comparison with 2009 growing season
    Tillering number / plant Spikes number / m 2 Variety 2010 2009 2010 2009 2 3 263 370 Cham5 2 3 270 423 Cham1 2 3.5 310 467 Douma1 2.0 3.2 281 420 Average
  • Productivity of some bread and durum wheat varieties during 2007-2010 growing seasons (kg/ha)
    • Productivity of tested bread and durum wheat varieties were varied according to variety and season, the highest productivity was obtained during 2008/2009 growing season in comparison with others.
    • The percentages of productivity decrease (PPD) for bread wheat cvs. (Joulan2, Chaim4, and Cham10) n irrigated zone were high during 2010 season in comparison with other previous seasons, while they were moderate for some durum wheat cvs. (Cham1 and Bohouth9).
    • PPD for bread wheat cvs. (Joulan2, Cham4 and Chame 10 ) and durum wheat cvs. (Bohoutth11 and Douma1) in 1 st settlement were moderate during 2010 season in 1st settlement in comparison with other previous seasons,
  • Weight of 1000 grains (g) for some bread and durum wheat varieties during 2007-2010 growing seasons 1000 grain weight (g) of tested bread and durum wheat varieties were varied according to variety and season, the highest 1000 grain weight was obtained during 2008/2009 growing season in comparison with others. The percentages of decreasing1000 grain weight for tested bread wheat cvs. (Cham10, Cham8 and Bohouth8) in irrigated zone and in 1 st settlement (Joulan2, Cham4 and Cham10) were moderate during 2010 season in comparison with other previous seasons, while they were low for durum wheat cvs.(Cham7, Cham1, Bohouth9, Bohouth7, Bohouth11 and Douma1).
  • Productivity of some released and promising bread and durum wheat varieties in the experimental fields during 2009-2010 growing season (kg/ha)
    • Bread (irrigated):
    • Bread (Rainfed/1st settlement):
    • Bread (Rainfed 2nd settlement) :
    • Durum (irrigated):
    • Durum (Rainfed/1st settlement):
    • Durum (Rainfed/2nd settlement):
    The priority was for The …., Followed by Douma 40765 (promising) Douma 48335 (promising) Sham10 Sham8 Bohooth 8 4636 5006 3144 2995 3030 Douma48114(promising) Douma40444 (promising) ACSAD1133(promising) Bohooth6 Sham10 Sham4 Joulan2 3695 3667 3823 3155 2876 3317 2972 ACSAD1115(promising) ACSAD1069 (promising) ACSAD1133 (promising) Douma 2 Douma4 1730 1714 1604 1629 1678 Sham1 Bohooth9 Cham7 5348 5426 5941 Douma45367 (promising) Cham9 Douma1 Bohooth7 Bohooth11 3693 3688 3080 3417 3326 Douma41282 (promising) Douma1 Sham9 Sham5 Sham3 Hourani 1623 1639 1519 1589 1304 940
  • Control strategies
    • Use of resistant or moderate resistant (tolerant) bread wheat varieties for controlling yellow rust.
    • Decrease of area ratios under bread wheat, and Increase the durum cultivated area.
    • Application of IDM where the susceptible bread wheat varieties will be grown to control yellow rust.
  • Thank you