Data management system developed by Aarhus University, Denmark in collaboration with BGRI / FAOSits on top of a centralized Crop Problem Dbase – currently holds survey and pathotype data but will be expanded to include trap nursery and molecular diagnostic data. Flexible dbase capable of holding all 3 rust diseases – expansion in progress to incorporate yellow rust data.Toolbox permits: user management (different access / permission levels); on-line data entry; data quality control and publishingOutputs: Series of data-base driven graphical tools. Currently: survey mapping, pathotype frequencies and distributions over time. Additional tools planned for the future. All outputs as iframes so seemelessly embedded in external websites eg Rust SPORE at FAO.Standard data export / exchange permitting direct connection to external applications eg RustMapper at CIMMYT.
Transcript of "BGRI Global Rust Monitoring: Challenges and Opportunities for Stripe Rust"
BGRI Global Rust Monitoring: Challenges and Opportunities for Stripe Rust<br />Dave Hodson, AGP Division, FAO<br />International Stripe Rust Symposium, ICARDA, Aleppo, 18-20th April 2011<br />
Context: Wheat is Important!<br />2<br />% Daily Calories from Wheat<br />Source: H-J, Braun, CIMMYT<br /><ul><li> World’s most widely grown crop
600+ Million tons / yr</li></li></ul><li><ul><li> Clear need for effective monitoring & surveillance</li></ul>Ug99 – A call to action<br /><ul><li>1998: Anomalous results from a nursery in Uganda
1999: Confirmation of loss of important Sr genes (Sr31, Sr38 +++) “Ug99” [TTKSK]
2005: “Sounding the Alarm on Global Stem Rust”. Formation of the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative
?’s – Susceptibility? Where next? How soon?....</li></li></ul><li>Response to Ug99: Progress to date<br />Global awareness on vulnerability of wheat crop (rusts in general)<br />Monitoring system in place – current status + monitoring pathogen populations<br />Information systems / tools in place<br />International networks emerging, increased national capacity for surveillance and monitoring<br />Resistant varieties in seed chain<br />
International Rust Monitoring: Stem Rust Model<br />Country Reports<br />RustSPORE<br />Web portal<br />RustMapper<br />To Country<br />Spatial Database<br />Full GIS<br />Secondary Data<br />Climate, crops etc<br />Winds<br /><ul><li>Relies on national </li></ul> surveillance<br /><ul><li>Added value
Stripe Rust Summary- 2010<br />14<br />Bulgaria: “First outbreaks in 20 years”<br />Uzbekistan: worse than 2009 – all varieties susceptible. extensive chemical control (x3 sprays)<br />Iran: Effective control<br />Turkey: Severe in south-east. USDA estimating<br />1M ton losses<br />Syria: Estimates of 300,00 ha affected.<br />USDA: Possible 1.25M ton losses<br />India: Unfavourable environmental <br />conditions (same in Pakistan). No losses<br />Iraq: Estimated 10-15% yield<br />losses in north<br />Ethiopia: Over 400,000 ha affected. Losses??<br />
Stripe Rust 2011: Hitting the headlines<br />India, 30th March 2011<br />Turkey, 10th April 2011<br />China, 31st March 2011<br />
16<br />Current Threat: Stripe Rust<br />The most damaging wheat disease on the global scale<br />2 New highly aggressive strains + rapid global spread (Hovmøller et al., 2008)<br />Breakdown of a key resistance gene (Yr27) in CWANA <br />(prior warnings: Singh & Huerta-Espino, 2001; McDonald et al., 2004)<br />Mega cultivars withYr27 are currently planted on more than 15 million hectares (North Africa to South Asia) <br />
Yr27 Virulence?<br />2002<br />2001<br />1998<br /><ul><li> By 2009 to 2010: Yr27 virulence widespread
Movements vs independent events? </li></ul>1995<br />GRRC, ICARDA rust facility + others all playing a vital role<br />
Challenges<br />Disease widespread and dispersed<br />An uncertain target (Yr27 vir, Aggressive pathotypes...)?<br />Movements?<br />pathogen present (throughout?)<br />conducive environment main driver of outbreaks?<br />High inoculumlevels: very high risk of accidental human-borne movements<br />Role of changing climate?<br />Sampling<br />over-capacity in terms of collection<br />under capacity in terms of analysis<br />Rapid detection + reporting + good contingency plan required for targeted chemical control on initial outbreaks<br />
Opportunities<br />Foundation / lessons learned from stem rust<br />data management + information systems<br />surveillance networks<br />global overview<br />Cultivar change – promotion of durable resistant cultivars (other rusts + traits as well)<br />
Issues to be addressed<br />Rapid detection + reporting: <br />sms networks, in-country systems, information flows<br />Environmental suitability<br />improved early warning of disease, models<br />Pathotyping capacity<br />international + in-country<br />Efficient promotion and deployment of durable resistance<br />Resourcing<br />
Many pieces of the puzzle are there (in this room!)<br />CG Centers (CIMMYT, ICARDA)<br />Global Rust Reference Centre, Aarhus<br />Advanced Rust Research Labs<br />National Programs<br />International Agencies<br />Donors<br />International Surveillance Networks<br />Information Systems + Data Management Tools<br />
Acknowledgements<br />All contributing national partners<br />PBI, University of Sydney<br />ICARDA<br />CIMMYT<br />AAFC, Canada<br />CDL, Minnesota, USA<br />University of the Free State, South Africa<br />Aarhus University, Denmark<br />
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