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  • 1. Bread wheat breeding for yellow rust resistance at ICARDA: Current status and prospects W. Tadesse, O. Abdalla, S. Rajaram, F. Ogbonnaya, A. Hagras, M. Keser, R. Sharma, K. Nazari, M. Sanchez-Garcia, Q. Sohail, A. Abdalat and M. Baum April 28-May 1, 2014 Izmir, Turkey
  • 2. Trends in Wheat Production Area and Yield in the World & CWANA, 1961- 2010 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 yield(t/ha) Area(Millha) CWANA Area (ha) World Area (ha) CWANA Yield (t/ha) World Yield (t/ha)
  • 3. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000 8000000 9000000 10000000 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Yield(t/ha) Area(ha)&production(tons Year Effect of drought on Wheat production in Morocco, 1961-2010 Production Area Yield
  • 4. Hessian Fly in(Mayetiola destructor) North Africa • Serious pest in North Africa; cause yield losses of 36 - 100%.
  • 5. Production loss of cultivar Achtar : 100,000 T Monetary loss : $ 30 m US dollars Estimated Yield loss Gereck : 40% Monetary loss : > $52 m US dollars Syria: Cham 8, Cham 6 : 30-80 % yield loss Ethiopia : Attila (Kubsa): 40-70% yield loss Yellow rust in CWANA
  • 6. ICARDA’s Wheat Breeding Objectives • High yield potential and broad adaptation • Resistance to major diseases and insects • Drought, heat, cold and salinity tolerance • Grain quality • Capacity building of NARS through training
  • 7. Strategies and approaches • Classification and targeting major MEs • Shuttle breeding • Marker assisted selection • Use of wide crosses (Synthetics) • Hot spots for disease screening • Multi-location testing
  • 8. Breeding Methods and Germplasm Flow F3- F4 Selected bulk F5 Pedigree selection PYTs F6 : selected bulk F2 Pedigree selection IN Crossing block 1. Simple (P1 x P2) 2. Back cross (F1 x P1 or P2 ) 3. Top cross ( F1 x P3) DH&MASQualityanalysis AYTs Terbol Lebanon Kulumsa Debre Zeit, Ethiopi a
  • 9. Key Locations Lebanon Terbol Morocco Marchuoch + Jemaat Shaim Egypt Sids Ethiopia Kulumsa + DZ Sudan Wadmedani Turkey Izmir Marchouch + Jemaat Shaim: Yellow rust, Septoria, drought tolerance, HF resistance Sids: Yield potential Imirz: Screening for rusts (Lab +field) Kulumsa /Dz: Stem rust, yellow rust, septoria, fusarium Wadmedani: Heat tolerance Terbol: CB, adaptation, yield potential, rusts, cold, drought (at Kheferdan)
  • 10. Distribution of International Nurseries and Yield Trials The following International nurseries and yield trials have been distributed from Terbol station, Lebanon to more than 40 countries in the CWANA region and beyond up on request from the NARS . 1. Spring bread wheat observation nursery for CWANA (14th CWANA SBWON) 2. Spring bread wheat observation nursery for heat tolerance (14th SBWON HT) 3. Spring bread wheat yield trial for irrigated environments (14th CWANA ISBWYT) 4. Spring bread wheat yield trial for dry-land environments (14thCWANA DSBWYT) 5. Elite spring bread wheat yield trial (14th ESBWYT) 6. Especial nursery for SSA through the AfDB project support
  • 11. Geographic distribution of ICARDA s’ spring bread wheat international nurseries, 2013
  • 12. Wheat accessions with high level of combined resistance to yellow rust and septoria, 2011-2012. FIGS approach • About 732 wheat landraces and wild relatives have been identified through FIGs approach and were screened for resistance to yellow rust and septoria for two years (2011-2012). • As indicated in the Fig, 9 genotypes of T. monococcum; 12 genotypes of T. timopheevii; 94 genotypes of T. turgidum and 15 genotypes of T. aestivum have been identified with high level of resistance to both yellow rust and septoria diseases. • These genotypes will be used in the pre- breeding program for gene pyramiding. Triticum aestivum , 15 Triticum timopheev ii , 12 Triticum turgidum, 94 Triticum monococc um, 9
  • 13. YR response of 24 elite FWW genotypes, Telhadya, 2011-2012 No Variety/Pedigree YR response Yield under rain-fed (kg/ha) Yield under irrigation (kg/ha) Combined yield (kg/ha) 1 JI5418/MARAS//SHARK/F4105W2.1 5R 4941 5372 5157 2 Solh (Check) 10MR 4872 6365 5619 3 4WON-IR-257/5/YMH/HYS//HYS/TUR3055/3/DGA /4/ VPM /MOS 5R 5098 7514 6306 4 ERYT783-96/SHARK-1 5R 4477 5908 5192 5 FRET2/TUKURU//FRET2 10MR 4902 5642 5272 7 SHI#4414/CROWS"//GK SAGVARI/CA8055 5R 4676 7910 6293 8 CAR422/ANA//YACO/3/KAUZ*2/TRAP//KAUZ/4/BUCUR/5/BUCUR 10MR 5381 6540 5961 9 ZANDER-6/5/YE2453/4/KS831024/3/AUR/LANC//NE7060 5R 5566 6219 5892 10 TRAP#1/YACO/3/KAUZ*2/TRAP//KAUZ/6/SN64//SKE/2*ANE/ 3/SX/4/BEZ/5/JUN/7/SHARK-1 10R 4700 6681 5691 11 PLK/LIRA/5/NAI60/3/14.53/ODIN//[CI13441]/4/GRK79/6/MNCH /7/CROC_1/AE.SQUARROSA (213)//PGO 10MR 4354 8116 6235 12 ZANDER//ATTILA/3*BCN 5R 5754 7974 6864 13 BOH4/7/WA476/3/391//NUM/5/W22/5/ANA/6/TAM200/KASYAN 5R 4640 7159 5900 14 RANA96/3/RSK/CA8055//CHAM6 10MR 4705 5115 4910 15 PANTHEON/BLUEGIL-2 5R 5235 8127 6681 16 BLUEGIL-2/CAMPION 5MR 3665 6884 5274 17 DAGDAS/APCB-40 10MR 4162 7095 5629 18 TAM200/KAUZ/4/CHAM6//1D13.1/MLT/3/SHI4414/CROW 5R 4101 7046 5574 19 SPN/NAC//ATTILA/3/TRAKIA 5R 5047 6379 5713 20 KARL/NIOBRARA//TAM200/KAUZ/3/TAM200/KAUZ 5R 4421 8354 6388 21 CADET/6/YUMAI13/5/NAI60/3/14.53/ODIN//CI13441/CANON 5R 4452 6871 5661 22 TOB/ERA//TOB/CNO67/3/PLO/4/VEE#5/5/KAUZ/6/URES/JUN// KAUZ/7/URES/JUN//KAUZ/8/VEE/MJI//2*TUI/3/2*PASTOR 5R 4727 7735 6231 23 NWT/3/TAST/SPRW//TAW12399.75/6/VEE/TSI//GRK/3/NS55.0 3/5/C126.15/COFN/3/N10B/P14//P101/4/KRC67 5R 4414 6482 5448 24 Bezostaya (Check) 40 MR 3596 5559 4577 Tadesse et al 2014, Crop Science
  • 14. High yielding , drought tolerant and Hessian Fly resistant spring bread wheat genotypes, Marchuch, 2013 HessianFlyResistant Genotype YR respo nse Yield (t/ha) % of Arrehane KAUZ/PASTOR/3/ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA 5R 6.93 131 TINAMOU-3/BANA-4 40MS 6.59 125 NESSER/SERI/3/SHUHA-2//NS732/HER 40MS 6.51 123 MUNIA//CHEN/ALTAR 84/3/CHEN/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//BCN/4/MARCHOUCH-8 10MR 6.37 121 NESSER/SERI//TEVEE-1/SHUHA-6 15MR 6.33 120 KAUZ/PASTOR/3/ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA 5R 6.32 120 YEBROUD'S'//DOVE'S'/SERI/3/SAFI-1 10MR 6.17 117 SHUHA-4/FLORKWA-4//HUBARA-3 5MR 6.07 115 KAUZ/PASTOR/3/ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA 10MR 6.05 115 TEVEE-1/SHUHA-6//MASSIRA 5R 5.99 114 CHILERO-1/STAR'S'//SHUHA-2/FOW-2 15MR 5.93 112 NESSER/SERI/3/SHUHA-2//NS732/HER 10MR 5.92 112 NESSER/SERI//TEVEE-1/SHUHA-6 40MS 5.92 112 MUNIA//CHEN/ALTAR 84/3/CHEN/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//BCN/4/MARCHOUCH-8 5R 5.87 111 KAUZ/PASTOR/3/ALTAR 84/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//OPATA 10MR 5.70 108 QIMMA-12/PASTOR-6//QIMMA-12 30MS 5.65 107 KARAWAN-1/TALLO 3//REGRAG-1 5R 5.64 107 ALTAR 84/AE.SQUARROSA (219)//SERI/3/MASSIRA 5R 5.63 107 ALTAR 84/AE.SQUARROSA (219)//SERI/3/MASSIRA 5R 5.62 107 KARAWAN-1/TALLO 3//JADIDA-2 5R 5.58 106 Arrehane (check) 15MR 5.27 100
  • 15. Mean grain yield level (t/ha) of selected elite genotypes at Sids, 2013 NAME PEDIGREE YR response at Merchouch Yield (t/ha) ATTILA/3*BCN//FLAG-2 ICW06-00784-21AP/0KUL-0DZ/0AP-0DZ/0AP-5AP-0AP 20MR 11.1 FLAG-3/ICARDA-SRRL-5 ICW06-00858-7AP/0KUL-0DZ/0AP-0DZ/0AP-5AP-0AP 10MR 10.6 FLAG-6/ICARDA-SRRL-6 ICW06-00859-19AP/0KUL-0DZ/0AP-0DZ/0AP-2AP-0AP 15MR 10.3 SERI 82/SHUHA'S'//GRU90- 204782/3/MUNIA/CHTO//MILAN AISBW05-0252-1AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 50S 10.19 KAUZ'S'/SERI/4/CHEN/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//FCT/3/STAR AISBW05-0259-11AP-0AP-0AP-4AP -0SD 30S 10.0 KATILA-15//MNCH/3*BCN ICW05-0481-2AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 30S 9.9 SERI 82/SHUHA'S'//GRU90- 204782/3/MUNIA/CHTO//MILAN AISBW05-0252-1AP-0AP-0AP-3AP-0AP 50S 9.9 SERI.1B*2/3/KAUZ*2/BOW//KAUZ/4/KAUZ/FLORKWA-1 AISBW05-0390-7AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 20MR 9.8 KAUZ'S'/SERI/4/CHEN/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//FCT/3/STAR AISBW05-0259-4AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 70S 9.8 KAUZ'S'/SERI/3/KAUZ//KAUZ/STAR AISBW05-0088-1AP-0AP-0AP-3AP -0SD 70S 9.6 ATTILA 50Y//ATTILA/BCN/3/STAR*3/MUSK-3 AISBW05-0043-10AP-0AP-0AP-7AP-0AP 40S 9.6 DEBEIRA/4/KAUZ//ALTAR 84/AOS/3/KAUZ ICW05-0597-2AP-0AP-0AP-4AP-0AP 40S 9.5 KASYON/GENARO 81//TEVEE-1/../4/CHEN/AEGILOPS SQUARROSA (TAUS)//BCN/3/KAUZ AISBW05-0112-12AP-0AP-0AP-2AP -0SD 20MR 9.5 DEBEIRA/4/KAUZ//ALTAR 84/AOS/3/KAUZ ICW05-0597-8AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 40S 9.5 KAUZ/AA//KAUZ/3/KAPSW/SHUHA-17 AISBW05-0321-4AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 30S 9.4 BOUSHODA-1/4/SHUHA-2/3/BOW'S'/NKT'S'//TEVEE'S' ICW05-0521-3AP-0AP-0AP-2AP -0SD 30S 9.4 KAUZ//MON/CROW?S?/4/SERI.1B//KAUZ/HEVO/3/AMAD ICW05-0534-22AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 20MR 9.4 ATTILA 50Y//ATTILA/BCN/3/STAR*3/MUSK-3 AISBW05-0043-10AP-0AP-0AP-5AP-0AP 50S 9.3 KAUZ//MON/CROW?S?/3/VEE/PJN//2*KAUZ ICW05-0512-20AP-0AP-0AP-1AP -0SD 30S 9.3 DEBIRA 50S 9.3 MISR-1 50S 9.7 SIDS-12 70S 9.3
  • 16. Grain yield performance of elite spring bread wheat genotypes at Khafardan (rainfed) and Terbol (irrigated) environments, 2013 • At Terbol, grain yield performance of the genotypes ranged from 2.5-7.6 t/ha while at Kheferdan, the yield level ranged from 1.5 t/ha to 5 t/ha • Genotypes such as #10 (HAALA-34), #43 (MOUKA-4/RAYON), and #60 (QAFZAH-33*2/SALSAL-2) are among the best high yielding genotypes both at Terbol and Kheferdan locations indicating that they do have both drought tolerance and high yield potential.
  • 17. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Yellow Rust Leaf rust Septoria Numberoflines Wheat diseases R (≤10) MR (15-20) S (≥30) Response of elite spring bread wheat genotypes rust and septoria, 2012/13 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Yellow rust Stem rust Septoria Wheat diseases Numberoflines a) Marchouch (Morocco) b) Kulumsa (Ethiopia)
  • 18. 671 412 712 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800Numberoflines Response of 1795 spring bread wheat genotypes in PYT to yellow rust at Marchouch, Morocco, 2013/14 R (≤10) MR (15-20) S (≥30)
  • 19. Is the YR race similar in the CWANA region? Response of selected bread wheat cultivars in Marchouch, Morocco, 2013/14 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 YRseverityin%
  • 20. Response of spring bread wheat genotypes to stem rust at Kulumsa, 2013 • .
  • 21. Performance of wheat genotypes at Debrezeit, Ethiopia,Nov. 8, 2013
  • 22. Wheat genotypes response for stem rust at Debrezeit, Nov 2013
  • 23. DW genotypes response to stem rust at Debrezeit, Nov, 8, 2013
  • 24. Association mapping for yield potential, drought tolerance and yellow rust resistance Y irr; Y RF; YR; * < 0.01 Source: Tadesse et al, 2013
  • 25. wPt-466447.1 wPt-260058.6 wPt-5556 60.6 wPt-6199 61.7 wPt-4125 wPt-619263.2 wPt-849265.7 wPt-199270.1 tPt-51368973.1 wPt-114075.6 wPt-149479.1 tPt-412586.9 wPt-375590.3 wPt-051096.6 wPt-4210101.7 wPt-2415103.8 tPt-4248106.0 wPt-4072112.2 wPt-6643117.9 wPt-7829119.8 wPt-2214125.4 2BL Yr(5, 7) tPt-855750.0 wPt-73218352.3 tPt-904889.8 wPt-312792.4 wPt-73100299.0 tPt-513202105.0 wPt-664937107.9 6A Yr(D, Dru2) tPt-8698126.6 wPt-0137134.5 wPt-1553140.5 wPt-4025146.4 wPt-0312148.6 7BL Yr (39, C591, ZH84) wPt-45370.0 wPt-91928.6 wPt-74459515.0 wPt-127216.6 wPt-104619.9 wPt-855520.4 wPt-1120325.4 tPt-159333.4 4B wPt-66417460.3 wPt-492462.1 wPt-316865.7 wPt-855467.8 wPt-889268.8 6BL Association mapping profiles of resistance to P.tritici. Consensus linkage maps are based on information from Diversity Arrays Technology PTL. On the left, values are genetic distance in centimorgans (cM). On the right, diversity array technology markers (bold) are significantly associated with resistance to YR. On the far right side, the reported Yr genes are indicated. Tadesse et al 2014. Crop science Marker Chr Pos P FDR R 2 wPt-2600 2BL 58.6 0.00310 0.0003 5.6 wPt-5556 2BL 60.6 0.00113 0.0001 6.6 wPt-6199 2BL 61.7 0.00191 0.0002 6.2 wPt-6192 2BL 63.2 0.000062 0.000063 7.1 wPt-4125 2BL 63.2 0.00276 0.0003 5.6 wPt-744595 4BS 15.0 0.00178 0.0002 6.0 wPt-1272 4BS 16.6 0.00178 0.0002 6.0 wPt-732183 6AS 52.3 0.00002 0.00003 8.3 wPt-8554 6BL 67.8 0.00161 0.0001 6.7 wPt-4025 7BL 146.4 0.00446 0.0003 5.4
  • 26. Recently released varieties by NARS from ICARDA’s wheat breeding Program Variety Name Type Cross/Pedigree Year of Release Country SIDS-13 SBW KAUZ//TSI/SNB 2010 Egypt HOGGANA SBW PYN/BAU//MILAN (= ETBW 5780 2011 Ethiopia SHORIMA SBW UTQE96/3/PYN/BAU//MILAN 2011 Ethiopia HULUKA SBW UTQE96/3/PYN/BAU//MILAN 2011 Ethiopia KARIM SBW T.AEST/SPRW//CA8055/3/BACANORA86 2011 Iran GOUMRIA-3 SBW VEE#7/KAUZ 2013 Sudan GIZIL BUGDA FWW SAULESKU41/SADOVO1 2009 Azerbaijan CHUMON FWW CADET/6/YUMAI13/5/NAI60/3/14.53/ODIN//CI13441/CANON 2012 Tajikistan TACICAR FWW OR F1.158/FDL//BLO/3/SHI4414/CROW 2012 Tajikistan BUNIYODKOR FWW DORADE-5//KS82117/MLT 2012 Uzbekistan RIJAW FWW PATO/CAL/3/7C//BB/CNO/5/CAL//CNO/SN64/4/CNO//BAD/CH R/3/KL../6/SABALAN 2011 Iran HUMA FWW PYN/PARUS/3/VPM/MOS83-11-4-8//PEW/4/BLUGIL 2011 Uzbekistan
  • 27. Capacity Building of NARS Classical and Molecular Approaches in Wheat Breeding
  • 28. Summary  Strengthen the search and introgression of novel resistance alleles (pre-breeding)  Continue to combine major genes with minor genes in adapted and high yielding cultivars for multiple disease resistance using molecular markers  Strengthen and promote IPM options  Improve access to better seeds  Strengthen database management and networking  Capacity building of NARS
  • 29. Acknowledgements • ICARDA’s Wheat Team+ M.Sc. and PhD students • NARSs in the CWANA • INRA-Morocco; ARC-EGYPT; AUB & AREC- Lebanon; EIAR-Ethiopia; ARC-Sudan and Turkey • WHEAT CRP; CIMMYT; GRDC; AfDB, EU-IFAD, YASP
  • 30. Thank you