Monitoring -why? View at breakfast, Hilton Hotel Izmir
Overview of global stripe rust monitoring:
lessons learned from stem rust monitoring
Second International Wheat Stripe Rus...
RELEASE OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
DEVELOPMENT OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
INCREASE
IN
ACREAGE
DECREASE
IN
ACREAGE
The “boom and bust c...
RELEASE OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
PATHOGEN CHANGES TO RENDER
RESISTANCE INEFFECTIVE
DEVELOPMENT OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
INCREASE
I...
RELEASE OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
PATHOGEN CHANGES TO RENDER
RESISTANCE INEFFECTIVE
DEVELOPMENT OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
INCREASE
I...
RELEASE OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
PATHOGEN CHANGES TO RENDER
RESISTANCE INEFFECTIVE
DEVELOPMENT OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
INCREASE
I...
RELEASE OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
PATHOGEN CHANGES TO RENDER
RESISTANCE INEFFECTIVE
DEVELOPMENT OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
INCREASE
I...
RELEASE OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
PATHOGEN CHANGES TO RENDER
RESISTANCE INEFFECTIVE
DEVELOPMENT OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
INCREASE
I...
RELEASE OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
PATHOGEN CHANGES TO RENDER
RESISTANCE INEFFECTIVE
DEVELOPMENT OF
RESISTANT VARIETY
INCREASE
I...
Integrated surveillance
“How can we expect practical men to be properly impressed with the
importance of our work and to v...
“How can we expect practical men to be properly impressed with the
importance of our work and to vote large sums of money ...
“How can we expect practical men to be properly impressed with the
importance of our work and to vote large sums of money ...
“How can we expect practical men to be properly impressed with the
importance of our work and to vote large sums of money ...
“How can we expect practical men to be properly impressed with the
importance of our work and to vote large sums of money ...
Distribution and incidence:
• where? [geo-referencing via GPS technology]
• on what? [primary/ accessory/ alternate host]
...
Distribution and incidence:
• where? [geo-referencing via GPS technology]
• on what? [primary/ accessory/ alternate host]
...
Distribution and incidence:
• where? [geo-referencing via GPS technology]
• on what? [primary/ accessory/ alternate host]
...
Rusts migrate rapidly over long distances (within and between continents)
Rust pathogens are highly variable (e.g. mutatio...
Surveillance scales:
Temporal [short-term, long-term]
Spatial [national, international, global]
Surveillance has been cond...
The Global Cereal Rust Monitoring System [GCRMS]
The Global Cereal Rust Monitoring System is the first time a concerted
in...
Four components:
Component 23.a. GCRMS
Component 23.b. Surveillance
Component 23.c. Pathogen characterization
Component 23...
GCRMS – current status
Online resources:
RustTracker
Wheat Rust Toolbox
Data from 2013:
1,240 published records
16+ countr...
Long-term sustainability
Pathogen
Limitations on movement of living rust cultures between countries
In-country race analys...
Long-term sustainability
Pathogen
Limitations on movement of living rust cultures between countries
In-country race analys...
- increased stripe rusting in triticale cv. Tobruk in southern NSW in 2009
- due to virulence for a minor APR gene, YrTobr...
Avocet NILs, Dr Colin Wellings
-monitoring virulence for minor genes
Genotype Yr gene
Yr1/6*Avocet S Yr18
Yr5/6*Avocet S Y...
Knowing resistance genes in cultivars
-wheat stem rust in Germany 2013
Image courtesy of Dr Kerstin Flath Julius Kühn-Inst...
  Rust Response Rust Resistance Genotype
Cultivar  Leaf Rust Stem Rust
Stripe Rust Stripe Rust
Leaf Rust Stem Rust Stripe ...
  Rust Response Rust Resistance Genotype
Cultivar  Leaf Rust Stem Rust
Ug99 Ug99+Sr24
Leaf Rust Stem Rust Stripe Rust(pred...
  Rust Response Rust Resistance Genotype
Cultivar  Leaf Rust Stem Rust
Ug99 Ug99+Sr24
Leaf Rust Stem Rust Stripe Rust(pred...
  Rust Response Rust Resistance Genotype
Cultivar  Leaf Rust Stem Rust
Ug99 Ug99+Sr24
Leaf Rust Stem Rust Stripe Rust(pred...
“The price of security from rust damage is a
continuous vigilance in the form of surveys to detect
any pathogenic changes ...
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2014 04 icarda wyr workshop_surveillance_park

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  • Yields in Australian cereal crops are generally low & hence genetic resistance is the most effective and economical means of diseas control
    The ACRCP is a national program targeting control of cereal rust diseases by genetic resistance
    Why is a nationally coordinated approach needed?
    Rust diseases have caused significant losses to Australian cereal crops (some estimates are given)
  • Yields in Australian cereal crops are generally low & hence genetic resistance is the most effective and economical means of diseas control
    The ACRCP is a national program targeting control of cereal rust diseases by genetic resistance
    Why is a nationally coordinated approach needed?
    Rust diseases have caused significant losses to Australian cereal crops (some estimates are given)
  • Yields in Australian cereal crops are generally low & hence genetic resistance is the most effective and economical means of diseas control
    The ACRCP is a national program targeting control of cereal rust diseases by genetic resistance
    Why is a nationally coordinated approach needed?
    Rust diseases have caused significant losses to Australian cereal crops (some estimates are given)
  • Yields in Australian cereal crops are generally low & hence genetic resistance is the most effective and economical means of diseas control
    The ACRCP is a national program targeting control of cereal rust diseases by genetic resistance
    Why is a nationally coordinated approach needed?
    Rust diseases have caused significant losses to Australian cereal crops (some estimates are given)
  • Yields in Australian cereal crops are generally low & hence genetic resistance is the most effective and economical means of diseas control
    The ACRCP is a national program targeting control of cereal rust diseases by genetic resistance
    Why is a nationally coordinated approach needed?
    Rust diseases have caused significant losses to Australian cereal crops (some estimates are given)
  • Yields in Australian cereal crops are generally low & hence genetic resistance is the most effective and economical means of diseas control
    The ACRCP is a national program targeting control of cereal rust diseases by genetic resistance
    Why is a nationally coordinated approach needed?
    Rust diseases have caused significant losses to Australian cereal crops (some estimates are given)
  • Yields in Australian cereal crops are generally low & hence genetic resistance is the most effective and economical means of diseas control
    The ACRCP is a national program targeting control of cereal rust diseases by genetic resistance
    Why is a nationally coordinated approach needed?
    Rust diseases have caused significant losses to Australian cereal crops (some estimates are given)
  • Yields in Australian cereal crops are generally low & hence genetic resistance is the most effective and economical means of diseas control
    The ACRCP is a national program targeting control of cereal rust diseases by genetic resistance
    Why is a nationally coordinated approach needed?
    Rust diseases have caused significant losses to Australian cereal crops (some estimates are given)
  • 2014 04 icarda wyr workshop_surveillance_park

    1. 1. Monitoring -why? View at breakfast, Hilton Hotel Izmir
    2. 2. Overview of global stripe rust monitoring: lessons learned from stem rust monitoring Second International Wheat Stripe Rust Symposium Regional Cereal Rust Research Centre, Izmir Turkey April 28th – May 1st 2014 Faculty of Agriculture & Environment Plant Breeding Institute Professor Robert F. Park Judith & David Coffey Chair in Sustainable Agriculture robert.park@sydney.edu.au Dr Dave Hodson CIMMYT Ethiopia
    3. 3. RELEASE OF RESISTANT VARIETY DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANT VARIETY INCREASE IN ACREAGE DECREASE IN ACREAGE The “boom and bust cycle” – driven by the “shifty enemy”
    4. 4. RELEASE OF RESISTANT VARIETY PATHOGEN CHANGES TO RENDER RESISTANCE INEFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANT VARIETY INCREASE IN ACREAGE DECREASE IN ACREAGE The “boom and bust cycle” – driven by the “shifty enemy”
    5. 5. RELEASE OF RESISTANT VARIETY PATHOGEN CHANGES TO RENDER RESISTANCE INEFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANT VARIETY INCREASE IN ACREAGE DECREASE IN ACREAGE The “boom and bust cycle” – driven by the “shifty enemy”
    6. 6. RELEASE OF RESISTANT VARIETY PATHOGEN CHANGES TO RENDER RESISTANCE INEFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANT VARIETY INCREASE IN ACREAGE DECREASE IN ACREAGE The “boom and bust cycle” – driven by the “shifty enemy”
    7. 7. RELEASE OF RESISTANT VARIETY PATHOGEN CHANGES TO RENDER RESISTANCE INEFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANT VARIETY INCREASE IN ACREAGE DECREASE IN ACREAGE The “boom and bust cycle” – driven by the “shifty enemy”
    8. 8. RELEASE OF RESISTANT VARIETY PATHOGEN CHANGES TO RENDER RESISTANCE INEFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANT VARIETY INCREASE IN ACREAGE DECREASE IN ACREAGE The “boom and bust cycle” – driven by the “shifty enemy”
    9. 9. RELEASE OF RESISTANT VARIETY PATHOGEN CHANGES TO RENDER RESISTANCE INEFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANT VARIETY INCREASE IN ACREAGE DECREASE IN ACREAGE The “boom and bust cycle” – driven by the “shifty enemy” The more information we have on the disease, the pathogen and the host, the more efficient control strategies become
    10. 10. Integrated surveillance “How can we expect practical men to be properly impressed with the importance of our work and to vote large sums of money for its support when in place of facts we have only vague guesses to give them and we do not take the trouble to make careful estimates.” Lyman GR (1918). The relation of phytopathologists to plant disease survey work Phytopathology 8: 219-228. Provides information on the disease, pathogen and host - advocacy - risk analysis and mitigation - direction for resistance breeding Importantly, it should also provide pathogen germplasm (“pathotypes”) for pre-breeding and breeding
    11. 11. “How can we expect practical men to be properly impressed with the importance of our work and to vote large sums of money for its support when in place of facts we have only vague guesses to give them and we do not take the trouble to make careful estimates.” Lyman GR (1918). The relation of phytopathologists to plant disease survey work. Phytopathology 8: 219-228. Provides information on the disease, pathogen and host - advocacy - risk analysis and mitigation - direction for resistance breeding Importantly, it should also provide pathogen germplasm (“pathotypes”) for pre-breeding and breeding Integrated surveillance
    12. 12. “How can we expect practical men to be properly impressed with the importance of our work and to vote large sums of money for its support when in place of facts we have only vague guesses to give them and we do not take the trouble to make careful estimates.” Lyman GR (1918). The relation of phytopathologists to plant disease survey work. Phytopathology 8: 219-228. Provides information on the disease, pathogen and host - advocacy - risk analysis and mitigation - direction for resistance breeding Importantly, it should also provide pathogen germplasm (“pathotypes”) for pre-breeding and breeding Integrated surveillance
    13. 13. “How can we expect practical men to be properly impressed with the importance of our work and to vote large sums of money for its support when in place of facts we have only vague guesses to give them and we do not take the trouble to make careful estimates.” Lyman GR (1918). The relation of phytopathologists to plant disease survey work. Phytopathology 8: 219-228. Provides information on the disease, pathogen and host - advocacy - risk analysis and mitigation - direction for resistance breeding Importantly, it should also provide pathogen germplasm (“pathotypes”) for pre-breeding and breeding Integrated surveillance
    14. 14. “How can we expect practical men to be properly impressed with the importance of our work and to vote large sums of money for its support when in place of facts we have only vague guesses to give them and we do not take the trouble to make careful estimates.” Lyman GR (1918). The relation of phytopathologists to plant disease survey work. Phytopathology 8: 219-228. Provides information on the disease, pathogen and host - advocacy - risk analysis and mitigation - direction for resistance breeding Importantly, it should also provide relevant pathogen germplasm (“pathotypes”, “races”, “strains”) for pre-breeding and breeding Integrated surveillance
    15. 15. Distribution and incidence: • where? [geo-referencing via GPS technology] • on what? [primary/ accessory/ alternate host] • when? • what rust or rusts [stem/ leaf/ stripe/ etc]? • how much is present? Adding value - information on the pathogen: • what pathotype(s) is/ are present? • what is the DNA fingerprint of the rust? Adding value - information on the host: • what cultivars are grown in the region? • what resistance genes do they carry? Iraq May 2010 Integrated surveillance Extension/ outreach
    16. 16. Distribution and incidence: • where? [geo-referencing via GPS technology] • on what? [primary/ accessory/ alternate host] • when? • what rust or rusts [stem/ leaf/ stripe/ etc]? • how much is present? Adding value - information on the pathogen: • what pathotype(s) is/ are present? • what is the DNA fingerprint of the rust? Adding value - information on the host: • what cultivars are grown in the region? • what resistance genes do they carry? Iraq May 2010 Integrated surveillance Extension/ outreach
    17. 17. Distribution and incidence: • where? [geo-referencing via GPS technology] • on what? [primary/ accessory/ alternate host] • when? • what rust or rusts [stem/ leaf/ stripe/ etc]? • how much is present? Adding value - information on the pathogen: • what pathotype(s) is/ are present? • what is the DNA fingerprint of the rust? Adding value - information on the host: • what cultivars are grown in the region? • what resistance genes do they carry? Iraq May 2010 Integrated surveillance Extension/ outreach
    18. 18. Rusts migrate rapidly over long distances (within and between continents) Rust pathogens are highly variable (e.g. mutation) More rust = more mutants = more races = resistances are overcome more rapidly Less rust = fewer mutants = fewer races = resistances last longer Strong justification for regional/ global coordination and collaboration Rusts are therefore “social diseases” Global monitoring of rust pathogens –why? Surveillance at any level is only as good as the network of people contributing
    19. 19. Surveillance scales: Temporal [short-term, long-term] Spatial [national, international, global] Surveillance has been conducted for all 3 wheat rusts in many countries and in some regions Few examples of truly international surveys, and even fewer of global monitoring 1st International Plant Pathology Conference (1968), resolution passed to survey regional differences in virulence in several plant pathogens including P. graminis tritici and P. striiformis tritici Until now, no long term global surveillance effort made on any plant pathogen Global surveillance of wheat rust pathogens
    20. 20. The Global Cereal Rust Monitoring System [GCRMS] The Global Cereal Rust Monitoring System is the first time a concerted integrated surveillance effort has been made for a rust (disease, host, pathogen) globally, long-term. Stem rust baseline survey workshop [Nov 2008 Shimla India]
    21. 21. Four components: Component 23.a. GCRMS Component 23.b. Surveillance Component 23.c. Pathogen characterization Component 23.d. Host characterization 12 organisations involved in research Many contributing partners Underpins pre-breeding (Objective 26), breeding (Objective 25), and the release and post-release management of wheat germplasm (Objective 21). Provides guidance to stem rust phenotyping activities (Objective 24), and is instrumental in advocacy efforts (Objective 22). Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat Project, Objective 23
    22. 22. GCRMS – current status Online resources: RustTracker Wheat Rust Toolbox Data from 2013: 1,240 published records 16+ countries 2 new countries – Malawi + Tanzania Overall data: 13,043 published survey records 35 countries
    23. 23. Long-term sustainability Pathogen Limitations on movement of living rust cultures between countries In-country race analysis Preserving living cultures of rust isolates Use of key pathotypes in pre-breeding and breeding Monitoring virulence for minor (Adult Plant) resistance Host – risk assessment and mitigation [early warning] What cultivars are grown in different regions The resistance genes in those cultivars and advanced breeding lines Sharing information Surveillance at any level is only as good as the network of people contributing Lessons learned: gaps and challenges Molecular diagnostics Linked markers
    24. 24. Long-term sustainability Pathogen Limitations on movement of living rust cultures between countries In-country race analysis Preserving living cultures of rust isolates Use of key pathotypes in pre-breeding and breeding Monitoring virulence for minor (Adult Plant) resistance Host – risk assessment and mitigation [early warning] What cultivars are grown in different regions The resistance genes in those cultivars and advanced breeding lines Sharing information Surveillance at any level is only as good as the network of people contributing Lessons learned: gaps and challenges Molecular diagnostics Linked markers
    25. 25. - increased stripe rusting in triticale cv. Tobruk in southern NSW in 2009 - due to virulence for a minor APR gene, YrTobruk + YrTobruk Images courtesy of Dr Colin Wellings Most cultivars have both major and minor (backbone) resistance -minor gene resistance to stripe rust in Tobruk triticale defeated 134 E16 A+ J+ 134 E16 A+ J+ T+
    26. 26. Avocet NILs, Dr Colin Wellings -monitoring virulence for minor genes Genotype Yr gene Yr1/6*Avocet S Yr18 Yr5/6*Avocet S Yr5 Yr6/6*Avocet S Yr6 Yr7/6*Avocet S Yr7 Yr8/6*Avocet S Yr8 Yr9/6*Avocet S Yr9 Yr10/6*Avocet S Yr10 Yr15/6*Avocet S Yr15 Yr17/6*Avocet S Yr17 Yr18/6*Avocet S Yr18 Yr24/6*Avocet S Yr24 Yr26/6*Avocet S Yr26 Yr27/6*Avocet S Yr27 Yr32/6*Avocet S Yr32 YrSp/6*Avocet S YrSpaldings Prolific Avocet R YrA Avocet S 147 two-gene combination lines have been produced Yr4, Lr53/Yr35, Yr40, Yr49 and YrJub II under development NILs with APR genes also under development
    27. 27. Knowing resistance genes in cultivars -wheat stem rust in Germany 2013 Image courtesy of Dr Kerstin Flath Julius Kühn-Institut (JKI) Pathotype is TKTTC (not Ug99) Information regarding Sr genes in German wheat cvs is lacking At present, little or no idea of the threat posed to German or European wheat production
    28. 28.   Rust Response Rust Resistance Genotype Cultivar  Leaf Rust Stem Rust Stripe Rust Stripe Rust Leaf Rust Stem Rust Stripe RustWA pt Yr17-27 pt Axe MR MS R-MR R-MR   Sr8b   Bolac MR-MS MR R-MR R-MR   Sr30 Yr4 Carinya R R-MR R MR-MS Lr24, Lr34, Lr37 Sr24, Sr38 Yr17, Yr18 Catalina R R-MR MS MS Lr24, Lr34 Sr24 Yr18 Chara MR-MS MR-MS MS-S MS-S Lr13, Lr34 Sr30 Yr18 Correll MS-S MR MR-MS MR-MS   Sr30   Crusader R R-MR R MR-MS Lr1, Lr13, Lr34, Lr37 Sr2, Sr30, Sr38 Yr17, Yr18, Yr30 Derrimut R MR R MS-S Lr13, Lr37 Sr2, Sr30, Sr38 Yr17 EGA Gregory R-MR MR MR MR Lr13, Lr23, Lr34 Sr30 Yr33, Yr18 EGA Wedgetail MS MR-MS MR-MS MR-MS  Lr34 Sr30 Yr18 Espada R R-MR R MR-MS Lr24, Lr37 Sr24, Sr38 Yr17 Gladius MS MR R MR-MS Lr37 Sr38 Yr17 Livingston R MR-MS R - Lr1, Lr13, Lr37 Sr2, Sr38 Yr17, Yr27, Yr30 Mace R MR R S-VS Lr13, Lr23, Lr37 Sr2, Sr38 Yr17, Yr30 Peake R MR MR-MS MR-MS Lr13, Lr37, Lr34 Sr2, Sr30, Sr38 Yr17, Yr18, Yr30 Ventura R R-MR R MS Lr13, Lr37 Sr2, S38 Yr17 Wyalkatchem R S S S Lr13, Lr23, Lr46* Sr8a, Sr15  Yr29*, Yr30 Yitpi MS S MS MS  Lr34 Sr30 Yr18 Knowing resistance genes in cultivars -the Australian Cereal Rust Control Program
    29. 29.   Rust Response Rust Resistance Genotype Cultivar  Leaf Rust Stem Rust Ug99 Ug99+Sr24 Leaf Rust Stem Rust Stripe Rust(predicted) (predicted) Axe MR MS S S   Sr8b   Bolac MR-MS MR S S   Sr30 Yr4 Carinya R R-MR R MS Lr24, Lr34, Lr37 Sr24, Sr38 Yr17, Yr18 Catalina R R-MR R MS Lr24, Lr34 Sr24 Yr18 Chara MR-MS MR-MS MS MS Lr13, Lr34 Sr30 Yr18 Correll MS-S MR S S   Sr30   Crusader R R-MR MR-MS MR-MS Lr1, Lr13, Lr34, Lr37 Sr2, Sr30, Sr38 Yr17, Yr18, Yr30 Derrimut R MR MS MS Lr13, Lr37 Sr2, Sr30, Sr38 Yr17 EGA Gregory R-MR MR S S Lr13, Lr23, Lr34 Sr30 Yr33, Yr18 EGA Wedgetail MS MR-MS MS MS  Lr34 Sr30 Yr18 Espada R R-MR R S Lr24, Lr37 Sr24, Sr38 Yr17 Gladius MS MR S S Lr37 Sr38 Yr17 Livingston R MR-MS MS MS Lr1, Lr13, Lr37 Sr2, Sr38 Yr17, Yr27, Yr30 Mace R MR MS MS Lr13, Lr23, Lr37 Sr2, Sr38 Yr17, Yr30 Peake R MR MS MS Lr13, Lr37, Lr34 Sr2, Sr30, Sr38 Yr17, Yr18, Yr30 Ventura R R-MR MS MS Lr13, Lr37 Sr2, S38 Yr17 Wyalkatchem R S R R Lr13, Lr23, Lr46* Sr8a, Sr15  Yr29*, Yr30 Yitpi MS S S S  Lr34 Sr30 Yr18 © University of Sydney Knowing resistance genes in cultivars -the Australian Cereal Rust Control Program
    30. 30.   Rust Response Rust Resistance Genotype Cultivar  Leaf Rust Stem Rust Ug99 Ug99+Sr24 Leaf Rust Stem Rust Stripe Rust(predicted) (predicted) Axe MR MS S S   Sr8b   Bolac MR-MS MR S S   Sr30 Yr4 Carinya R R-MR R MS Lr24, Lr34, Lr37 Sr24, Sr38 Yr17, Yr18 Catalina R R-MR R MS Lr24, Lr34 Sr24 Yr18 Chara MR-MS MR-MS MS MS Lr13, Lr34 Sr30 Yr18 Correll MS-S MR S S   Sr30   Crusader R R-MR MR-MS MR-MS Lr1, Lr13, Lr34, Lr37 Sr2, Sr30, Sr38 Yr17, Yr18, Yr30 Derrimut R MR MS MS Lr13, Lr37 Sr2, Sr30, Sr38 Yr17 EGA Gregory R-MR MR S S Lr13, Lr23, Lr34 Sr30 Yr33, Yr18 EGA Wedgetail MS MR-MS MS MS  Lr34 Sr30 Yr18 Espada R R-MR R S Lr24, Lr37 Sr24, Sr38 Yr17 Gladius MS MR S S Lr37 Sr38 Yr17 Livingston R MR-MS MS MS Lr1, Lr13, Lr37 Sr2, Sr38 Yr17, Yr27, Yr30 Mace R MR MS MS Lr13, Lr23, Lr37 Sr2, Sr38 Yr17, Yr30 Peake R MR MS MS Lr13, Lr37, Lr34 Sr2, Sr30, Sr38 Yr17, Yr18, Yr30 Ventura R R-MR MS MS Lr13, Lr37 Sr2, S38 Yr17 Wyalkatchem R S R R Lr13, Lr23, Lr46* Sr8a, Sr15  Yr29*, Yr30 Yitpi MS S S S  Lr34 Sr30 Yr18 Knowing resistance genes in cultivars -the Australian Cereal Rust Control Program
    31. 31.   Rust Response Rust Resistance Genotype Cultivar  Leaf Rust Stem Rust Ug99 Ug99+Sr24 Leaf Rust Stem Rust Stripe Rust(predicted) (predicted) Axe MR MS S S   Sr8b   Bolac MR-MS MR S S   Sr30 Yr4 Carinya R R-MR R MS Lr24, Lr34, Lr37 Sr24, Sr38 Yr17, Yr18 Catalina R R-MR R MS Lr24, Lr34 Sr24 Yr18 Chara MR-MS MR-MS MS MS Lr13, Lr34 Sr30 Yr18 Correll MS-S MR S S   Sr30   Crusader R R-MR MR-MS MR-MS Lr1, Lr13, Lr34, Lr37 Sr2, Sr30, Sr38 Yr17, Yr18, Yr30 Derrimut R MR MS MS Lr13, Lr37 Sr2, Sr30, Sr38 Yr17 EGA Gregory R-MR MR S S Lr13, Lr23, Lr34 Sr30 Yr33, Yr18 EGA Wedgetail MS MR-MS MS MS  Lr34 Sr30 Yr18 Espada R R-MR R S Lr24, Lr37 Sr24, Sr38 Yr17 Gladius MS MR S S Lr37 Sr38 Yr17 Livingston R MR-MS MS MS Lr1, Lr13, Lr37 Sr2, Sr38 Yr17, Yr27, Yr30 Mace R MR MS MS Lr13, Lr23, Lr37 Sr2, Sr38 Yr17, Yr30 Peake R MR MS MS Lr13, Lr37, Lr34 Sr2, Sr30, Sr38 Yr17, Yr18, Yr30 Ventura R R-MR MS MS Lr13, Lr37 Sr2, S38 Yr17 Wyalkatchem R S R R Lr13, Lr23, Lr46* Sr8a, Sr15  Yr29*, Yr30 Yitpi MS S S S  Lr34 Sr30 Yr18 Knowing resistance genes in cultivars -the Australian Cereal Rust Control Program
    32. 32. “The price of security from rust damage is a continuous vigilance in the form of surveys to detect any pathogenic changes …. And unrelenting efforts to develop cereal varieties resistant to any virulent races that may arise” [Johnson and Newton, 1946]
    33. 33. © University of Sydney

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