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TCA/TCO Benefits of Consolidating Databases and x86 Servers on IBM Enterprise Linux Servers


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Learn about the larger, faster IBM zEnterprise servers that have compelling TCO and TCA metrics that show considerable cost savings over VMware consolidation implementations. IBM zEnterprise is a …

Learn about the larger, faster IBM zEnterprise servers that have compelling TCO and TCA metrics that show considerable cost savings over VMware consolidation implementations. IBM zEnterprise is a viable data and server consolidation option. Linux on zEnterprise is a solution available to the line of business to promote enterprise class capability while reducing distributed server systems operations costs. For more information on IBM Systems, visit

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  • 1. White Paper:TCA/TCO Benefits ofConsolidating Databasesand x86 Servers on IBMEnterprise Linux Servers
  • 2. WinterGreen Research, Inc.Whitepaper: TCA/TCO Benefits of Consolidating Databases andx86 Servers on IBM zEnterprise Servers with LinuxAs a C-level executive, you are always on the lookout for ways to reduce IT costs whileincreasing systems capability in order to grow sales and/or improve service. Leveragingapplications with automated business processes that enable user centric interconnectedapplications embracing interfaces that are inherently enabled for smart devices withefficient systems represents a proven way to improve the business.As your IT managers look for economies within the data center, improved Linux systemscan provide those economies. Benefits of Linux open systems include capabilities forsupporting application and data base consolidation. Linux systems consolidationseliminate server sprawl and provide for virtualization of servers. Server sprawl may beeliminated in a partial manner by consolidating from many servers and moving them asimages to ten percent or fewer servers using VMware, or more completely by taking theimages onto one Enterprise Linux Server.Linux systems consolidation may occur within the line of business or inside the IT datacenter. The effect of having a zEnterprise server consolidation of images is to achieve acondensed footprint. This achieves elimination of application and database distributedservers, and decrease or elimination of many software application licenses and databaselicenses. The cost reduction implications are significant as illustrated hereafter.The larger, faster IBM zEnterprise servers have compelling TCO and TCA metrics thatshow considerable cost savings over VMware consolidation implementations. IBMzEnterprise is a viable data and server consolidation option. Linux on zEnterprise is asolution available to the line of business to promote enterprise class capability whilereducing distributed server systems operations costs.As an Executive responsible for controlling IT costs, you can use the approach outlinedherein to analyze your situation and to quickly identify potential IT cost reductionbenefits by doing a proper TCA/TCO analysis. The IBM Enterprise Linux Servertechnology cost advantages presented herein are achieved in part through serverCOPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 3. WinterGreen Research, Inc.consolidation. Fewer application and database software licenses, fewer people, and lessenergy costs provide compelling savings in IT acquisition and operations costs.Server, Networking, and Software Total Cost of Acquisition (TCA)ComparisonFollowing is a total cost of acquisition (TCA) cost comparison for 80 physical x86 serversin the first case versus 80 VMware images on 5 blade Linux servers in the second case,and 80 applications on one zEnterprise 114 in the third case. Figure 1 Total Cost of Acquisition (TCA) Comparison of Different Server Implementations of One Application TCA of 80 Linux Servers : x86 Distributed, Blade VMware Virtualized, and zEnterprise z/VM Servers 800000 730,388 700000In Dollars 600000 532,212 500000 400000 349,756 300000 200000 Distributed Blade VMware zEnterprise Linux Source: WinterGreen Research, Inc.COPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 4. WinterGreen Research, Inc.The total cost for one zEnterprise 114 (See Appendix 1 for configuration details) hostingthe virtual images, for server hardware purchase plus software and infrastructure ofnetwork, database, and storage is $349,756 as compared to $730,388 for 80 standalonex86 servers when every web service application instance is hosted on its very ownserver. This is versus $532,212 TCA for the consolidation to 5 larger distributed Linuxblade VMware equipped serversThe acquisition costs of hardware, software, and infrastructure components includingnetwork and storage systems have similar proportions for the three scenarios asillustrated in Figure 2. Figure 2 Component TCA Hardware, Software, and Network, Database, and Storage Infrastructure Costs for 80 Linux Servers and / or Images Proportion of Hardware, Software, and Infrastructure Cost for 80 Linux Production and 80 Linux Support Servers800,000.0 730,388700,000.0600,000.0 532,212500,000.0 349,756400,000.0300,000.0200,000.0100,000.0 0.0 1 2 3 Distributed x86 Servers Blade Unix Server with VMware zEnterprise with Linux Images Server Cost /x86, Blade Linux, z 114 Cost Software Application, OS, Security, VM Network, Database, and Storage Source: WinterGreen Research, Inc.COPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 5. WinterGreen Research, Inc. The two charts above illustrate that the zEnterprise 114 is the least cost system by 52% over the VMware blade systems when considering direct acquisition costs. When looked at from the point of view of the useful life of the equipment asset, the analysis yields different results; the zEnterprise server becomes far more attractive than the other systems implementations. Following is a snapshot analysis of acquisition cost divided by useful life to show single year cost for the different systems configurations when shared workload, useful life, and utilization are taken into consideration. As shown below, the savings are dramatic. Figure 3 Analysis showing Single Year Costs for Seven Year Timeframe Including Server Useful Life: TCA of 80 Linux Production TCA of 80 Linux Servers Over Useful Life of Equipment:and 80 Linux Support Servers x86 Distributed, Blade VMware Virtualized, and zEnterprise z/VM Including the effects of 160,000 variable systems utilization, 133,536 140,000 variable virtualization 120,000 efficiency and variableworkload sharing accumulated In Dollars 100,000 84,458 over seven years. This 80,000 analysis is rationalized for 60,000 constant lease payments, to show a one year snapshot of 40,000 TCA. 20,000 18,381 0 Distributed Blade VMware zEnterprise Linux Note: Includes virtualization consolidation efficiencies achieved and workload sharing effects. Source: WinterGreen Research, Inc. COPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. 5 tel 781-863-5078 email: Lexington, Massachusetts
  • 6. WinterGreen Research, Inc.In this case, the zEnterprise 114 is 4.6 times less expensive than the VMware bladeworkload systems implementation. The TCA of 80 Linux servers along with their supportsystems over the useful life of the equipment analysis illustrates that the 80 distributedservers plus the 80 support servers cost $133,536 per year, the blade VMwarevirtualized (80+80) systems for a comparable workload are $84,458 per year, and thezEnterprise 114 hosting (80+80 images) is $18,381 per year.Additional savings come from utilizing the zEnterprise 114 in a shared workloadenvironment, where the assumption is that 35% of the zEnterprise 114 processingcapacity is used for other applications (for example: managing distributed serversecurity authentication or another department running Linux) and 65% of workloadprocessing capacity is consumed by the consolidated Linux applications.The most compelling factors that have impact on the more detailed server TCA analysisbeyond purchase price are application workload, shared workload, utilization, and yearsof server useful life. By looking at the entire TCA costs for each of the three serverscenarios over 7 years, it is possible to derive rational, comparable costs for one year.The zEnterprise servers (with a single asset serial number) tend to be refreshed ratherthan replaced, permitting continuing lease whereby the actual lease amount goes downas the years go forward, because the box has been depreciated.COPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 7. WinterGreen Research, Inc. Figure 4 Selected Assumptions Used for TCA Analysis of ServersSelected Assumptions Used for TCA Analysis of Servers Distributed Virtualized Linux Servers Distributed zEnterprise HP Proliant HP Blade Virtual Machines DL 381 685 VMWare on z/VM# Production Servers x 2 for x86 and Blade 80.0 5.0 1.0$ Per Server 2,340.0 23,680.0 185,000.0Servers Purchase Price $ 374,400.0 236,800.0 185,000.0% Server Workload Shared 100.0 100.0 35.0% Utilization 5.0 35.0 85.0$ Per Server / Shared Workload 374,400.0 236,800.0 120,250.0Years of Useful Life / Refresh 3.0 3.0 7.0$ Server Costs Per Year Over Useful Life 133,536.0 84,458.7 18,381.1Source: WinterGreen Research, Inc.Distributed servers and blade VMware units have a typical 3 year shelf-life. The newerx86 systems use less energy and are more efficient, creating advantages to a 3 year x86server replacement cycle program.The independent benchmarks from TCP C, TCP A and others form the basis for makingassumptions about workload and cost per server. Many variables are considered in theseven year analysis where the seven year costs are totaled and divided by 7 for eachsystem. Distributed and blade servers that sit completely idle are a separate issue.Shared workload is an issue as well. Processing nonrelated workloads during lowutilization times has direct impact on reducing zEnterprise 114 TCA. The number ofapplication server licenses and database licenses in the virtualized blade systems are ancost issue for those systems. IBM zEnterprise requires considerably fewer softwarelicenses than the other systems being compared.COPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 8. WinterGreen Research, Inc.Total Cost of Acquisition (TCA) For Deployment TopologyTCA includes acquisition of server and storage hardware, but also the software licensesrequired for the deployment topology. Database servers and licenses, test anddevelopment servers, software licenses, networking routers and cabling are some of theoften overlooked server acquisition associated TCA costs.The usual as-is configuration in a horizontally scaled-out network of x86 distributedservers running a like application and/or copies of data to support application workloadsis well defined and typically somewhat standardized. (See Appendix for configurationused in this analysis). Many firms have already embarked on a consolidation andvirtualization strategy to collapse the high number of smaller user-centric single-application servers into a larger server shared by multiple users using technologies suchas VMware. A more scalable and cost effective mixed workload solution is provided byLinux on IBM zEnterprise.Even though the single server is $2,340 each, when compared to the cost of thezEnterprise at $185,000 (See Appendix for system configuration used in this analysis),the zEnterprise is less expensive because when considering workload, the moreexpensive unit is more efficient at running the workload, the $ per unit of workload islower on the zEnterprise 114 (z114).IBM zEnterprise 114 Lowers Entry CostThe IBM z114 lowers the entry cost to get started with the enterprise Linux server.Faster cores and a bigger system cache on the zEnterprise 114 and its larger siblingzEnterprise 196 let users do more processing at less cost. Whether running Linux onz/VM, or on integrated IBM System x or p blades within the zEnterprise BladeCenterExtension (zBX), the zEnterprise solution offers workload optimization choices beyondthe traditional mainframe operating environments -- and this flexibility of operatingenvironments and deployment choices within a single system is unique to thezEnterprise System.The total cost of acquisition analysis for a single application consisting of 80 productioninstances (plus 80 supporting server instances which we will discuss next) illustrates theCOPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 9. WinterGreen Research, Inc.differences in cost between images instantiated on single servers, VMware virtualizedservers and a zEnterprise z/VM virtualized server.The launch of production applications on 80 servers depends on the existence ofbackground server resources, used for testing, development, quality assurance anddatabase systems support. This analysis assumes that there is an equal number of non-production x86 and blade servers used for test, development, and database asproduction x86 and blade servers (a 1:1 ratio of production to non-production). Itshould be noted that this is a rather conservative estimate vs. the 1:4 or 1:6 ratios oftenused in similar analyses. Our belief is that the 1:1 scenario is more accurate than theother ratios, more representative of what is found in typical data centers. Any higherratio simply increases the savings from the zEnterprise 114 server case.Thus when we analyze 80 x86 Linux servers with a cost comparison, there are anadditional 80 x86 servers needed to make the application instantiation a reality. Forblade servers the same scenario holds true for hosted server images. IT has otherchoices for hosting test and development in the cloud, running the database on amainframe, and so forth, but we have chosen to analyze using this ratio.As shown in the illustrations, the 80 distributed production servers plus 80 supportingother servers together cost more to implement than the single zEnterprise 114 server.Applications can be implemented on real (physical) servers or as (virtual) server imageson blade servers or a zEnterprise 114 server. In every case there are a total of 160application images that need to be processed on some server.Designed, sized and priced for mid-sized organizations, the zEnterprise 114 is thenewest addition to the IBM zEnterprise System class of servers; it sells for approximately$185,000 USD in the selected configuration considered in this instance (pricing may varyby country) and is positioned as an alternative to scaled out virtualized servers for theline of business requirements. Consolidation of an application onto a single zEnterpriseserver turns out to be the most cost efficient way to implement web services. (Whoknew?)COPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 10. WinterGreen Research, Inc.Instantiation of multiple server images on a blade server using several servers usingVMware is the second most cost efficient way to deploy web services enabledapplications. Use of multiple single inexpensive x86 servers, one for each singleapplication instance (commonly called the “scale out” approach) is the most expensiveway to deploy these types of applications.There are many sets of web services enabled Linux applications running in IT datacenters on 80 or so production servers. This is a typical number of servers or images fora specific, targeted application.Competitive pricing for Linux on zEnterprise proves to be an attractive alternative toserver sprawl. A combined total cost of acquisition (TCA) and total cost of ownership(TCO) perspective provides insight into cost structures. In an environment with 5virtualized physical blade servers with 80 Linux images on production servers usingVMware as compared to the same Linux images on zEnterprise 114 with z/VM showsthere are multiple areas of cost reduction possible in the total infrastructure.Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)In part, the single x86 or blade servers are more expensive because they are more laborintensive than the zEnterprise 114 and labor accounts for 70% of the cost of running anIT department. The more automated process provided by zEnterprise 114 is significantbecause it permits faster, better application launch and systems management.In part the difference in IT TCO cost is because the single x86 servers run at only 15%utilization on average while the zEnterprise server demonstrates 85%+ utilization,creating economies of scale. Economies on consolidated systems are achieved inenergy, cooling and floor space efficiencies and in the need for fewer software licenseson the consolidated virtualized systems.Software cost for the VMware virtualized blade systems are particularly impacted by thenumber of cores in the server. The software and software maintenance pricing is bycore so even though there are only 5 distributed servers as in the above VMwareexample, there are still 16 cores on each server and 80 licenses needed withmaintenance, resulting in no database or application software savings.COPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 11. WinterGreen Research, Inc.The zEnterprise server uses three cores in this situation so there are significantly fewerlicenses, only three, but it needs to be noted that the dollar per core is higher for thistype of zEnterprise server and this impacts ongoing maintenance costs.The graphics following show more detail for the TCO of HW/SW for a smallconfiguration scenario (horizontal scale-out of distributed x86 servers, consolidatedlarger distributed blade servers with virtualization, and a zEnterprise consolidated /virtualized system. Figure 5 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) 80 Linux x 86 Production and 80 x86 Support Servers, 80 Blade Virtualized Production Images and 80 Support Virtualized Images Cost Comparison to One zEnterprise z/VM Implementation Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) 80 Linux Production Servers Cost Comparison 300,000.0 250,000.0 Outage Cost 200,000.0 Floor Space, Power, and 150,000.0 Cooling 100,000.0 Software and Hardware Updates and 50,000.0 Maintenance 0.0 Labor Costs Distributed Blade zEnterprise Note: Analysis per Year, Comparable Cost Over 7 Years.COPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 12. WinterGreen Research, Inc.The 80 production servers or server images are matched by an equal number of supportservers or server images (160 in total). The variables looked at in the total cost ofownership TCO include outage cost, floor space, power, cooling, software and hardwareupdates, backup, software and hardware maintenance, and labor costs.These TCO costs are shown for one year. They represent recurring costs so thedisparities become more pronounced over the seven years considered in the analysis.Even in one year, the TCO numbers show very compelling advantage to use ofzEnterprise for web services enabled workloads. An analysis showing significantadvantage to the operating costs of the zEnterprise System over an extended periodbeyond the initial first year is not shown but can be calculated fairly easily todemonstrate the effects over several years.The 80 x86 distributed production servers have operating costs of $288,298 for oneyear. The blade servers with VMware have one year operating costs of $127,225 andthe zEnterprise benefits from no outage costs and lower labor costs because of moreautomation in the system. An 80 production server configuration was chosen as anexample because it is representative of a variety of web application situationscommonly found in IT environments. Web services enabled applications are used forordering, transaction management, and shipping process management. While there arethousands of different IT data center metrics to analyze in the WinterGreen ResearchROI tool, a representative average has been chosen for this analysis.COPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 13. WinterGreen Research, Inc. Figure 6 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) 80 Linux Production Servers Cost ComparisonAssumptions Used for Analysis of Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Linux ServersIn Dollars Distributed Virtualized Linux Servers Distributed zEnterprise HP Proliant DL 380 HP Blade 685 Servers Virtual Machines VMware on z/VMLabor Costs 84,000.0 23,000.0 13,500.0Software, Hardware Updates, Maintenance 72,288.0 51,275.4 51,100.3Floor Space, Power, and Cooling 48,000.0 11,610.0 3,167.0Outage Cost 62,010.0 41,340.0 0.0Total $ 266,298.0 127,225.4 67,767.3Note: Per single year costs, comparable cost over 7 years.Source: WinterGreen Research, Inc. The zEnterprise 114 (or z196) server is costWhat costs $266,298 per year to efficient because it uses less power and fewerimplement as a set of Linux web services software licenses. Stand alone servers are veryenabled applications deployed inexpensive to purchase, but their utilizationenterprise wide on 80 distributed x86 tends to be low, software licenses areproduction servers, costs $127,225 on cumulatively more expensive. Application imagesblade servers with VMware. The virtualized under VMware on a Blade are morecomparable processing costs decline to expensive than on the zEnterprise 114.$67,787 on the zEnterprise 114 becausethe mature system has the bestautomated processes.COPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 14. WinterGreen Research, Inc.These numbers illustrate why consolidation of servers is creating significant incentive inthe market for IT departments to move to virtualized systems.As illustrated, virtualization alone is not sufficient, VMware systems have theirlimitations, and it is difficult to get many images on a server, 16 virtual server images ona blade is the number used for this analysis. Many users start out trying to put 50images on the blade. Studies show that 16 images per blade is reasonable, a little abovethe average of 10 images per blade. Utilization of 65% is difficult and expensive tosustain, 35% is more often the case. Blade servers are generally limited to only one typeof workload, the cost of electricity is still high, and the ratio of full time personnel toservers remains high.TCO and TCA Costs Form Basis For Comparative Consideration Of80 Linux Production ServersThe same amount of workload processing can be done in less time, with more reliability,more security, and more automated management of process leveraging the highavailability and high utilization for the zEnterprise servers. In addition, the zEnterprisecan manage many different workload types on the same system and is designed to runat 100% utilization, creating greater efficiencies than are available on blade systemsrunning VMware, which tend to be tuned for a specific workload type.For one year TCO / TCA for an organization to run web services enabled applicationserver virtual images on zEnterprise means that the total cost of each virtual imageincluding operations and labor is less than the cost of the distributed server hardwarealone. Distributed servers have additional costs for software, networking and databasestorage and operations. Once the hardware has been paid for, there are significantareas of savings from the operations aspects of ongoing systems support. The total costper image per year on zEnterprise is $700 in this scenario, including all the associatedhardware, software, labor, and operating systems costs and becomes even lessimproves as more workload is added to the system.This cost per unit of workload analysis is conducted in a thoughtful, detailed, andprofessional manner using the independent WinterGreen Research ROI tool, availableCOPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 15. WinterGreen Research, Inc.for subscription to anyone who is interested. Such an analysis of TCO and TCA costsforms the base for consideration of a range of systems configurations.Analyses are done keeping in mind that there are always many different scenarios anddata center complexities due to processor workload optimization and similarconsiderations. Identified trends appear over time.Security is integral to the design of zEnterprise. Security is built in the DNA of thezEnterprise hardware and operating systems which provide additional support for ANSI,firewalls, and PCI standards.IBM middleware packages run equally well on all platforms. This provides the capabilityto migrate systems off expensive application and database server sprawl to theconsolidated mainframe. The zEnterprise’s capability to integrate directly with a bladeserver extension (zBX) that runs select native POWER7 and System x x86 processors forthose workloads that require it, addresses any past shortcomings.Competitive IBM pricing for Linux on zEnterprise proves to provide a compellingalternative to server sprawl when looked at from a TCO / TCA perspective.ConclusionThe TCA and TCO benefits come from consolidating databases and distributed x86servers as images on zEnterprise with Linux. Benefits are compelling for the rightworkloads. The larger, faster zEnterprise server has TCO and TCA benefit needs to beconsidered by you as a fiscally responsible C level Executive. The direction outlined hereillustrates how you can control costs using the IBM zEnterprise server consolidation anddatabase consolidation value proposition.Competitive pricing for Linux on zEnterprise proves the scale up server is an alternativeto server sprawl. Linux on zEnterprise is a solution for the line of business. The LoB canachieve enterprise class capability at distributed server pricing. The benefits of Linuxopen systems capitalize on capabilities that enable application and data baseconsolidation. Clients are looking for economies relating to Linux. The costs of serversprawl and associated data base licenses are very high compared to the costs of theCOPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 16. WinterGreen Research, Inc.zEnterprise System. The same people who support Linux on distributed servers cansupport Linux on zEnterprise because it is the same.The Enterprise Linux Server runs multiple virtual Linux servers concurrently. IBMzEnterprise Linux Server provides simplification, scalability, reliability, high availabilityand security capabilities that go beyond anything a distributed server can offer and at alower TCA / TCO.Single-server simplicity is a priority and zEnterprise 114 (and/or z196) positions theEnterprise Linux Server to provide Web based and application functionality directly forthe line of business. The Enterprise Linux Server allows running applications on a singleserver, which saves software license and management costs, floor space and energycosts. It significantly reduces labor costs which represent 70% of the IT budget.The Enterprise Linux Server handles data analytics. It is a game changing,transformational server. The Enterprise Linux Server advanced virtualizationtechnology, automation features and highly-scalable server capacities are significant.Availability in an enterprise Linux server is enhanced by the backup (spare) cores withinto system so there is no single point of failure, providing a system that goes far beyondthe traditional server hardware in its ability to perform without any downtime.The availability design point focuses on the applications, which results in an integratedenvironment where hardware, firmware, virtualization software, Linux and middlewarework in concert to provide application and data availability and security.Executives are encouraged to view Enterprise Linux Server as another Linux server withmuch more scalability and flexibility. Linux will run on zEnterprise as it does on otherhardware and this enterprise class system has compelling cost of computing benefit.COPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts
  • 17. WinterGreen Research, Inc.Appendix – x86 Server Configurations Used In AnalysisAssuming lighter weight Linux web services enabled application:IBM zEnterprise 114 Server Machine Model: M05 Memory: 72 Gigabytes RAIM (Redundant Array of Independent Memory). Number of IFLs: 3 z/VM and Red Hat Linuxx86 Servers HP ProLiant Model DL381 Memory: 8 MB RAM Red Hat Linux CPU Type: Intel Xeon X5690 3.46 GHz Total # of Processors: 2 Total # of Cores: 12 Total # of Threads: 24Linux Midrange Blade Servers HP ProLiant Blade 685 Memory: 64 GB RAM Red Hat LinuxCOPYRIGHT 2012, WINTERGREEN RESEARCH, INC. www.wintergreenblog.comtel 781-863-5078email: info@wintergreenresearch.comLexington, Massachusetts ZSL03148-USEN-02