IBM System Storage LTO Ultrium 6 Tape Drive Performance White Paper

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The sixth generation IBM LTO-6 tape drive offers a great storage capacity and an excellent performance using technology designed for the mid range open systems environment that include IBM System p®, IBM System i® and IBM System x® servers; selected Oracle® and Hewlett Packard® servers and Intel® servers running supported versions of Microsoft® Windows® or Linux®. The LTO-6 tape drive features hardware encryption of data, two interface options, and two form factors. The data rate improvement from the previous generation is 14% and the tape capacity also increases 67% from the previous generation 5. Learn More: http://ibm.co/ONeH7m

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IBM System Storage LTO Ultrium 6 Tape Drive Performance White Paper

  1. 1. IBM® System Storage®September, 2012 IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape Drive Performance White Paper By Rogelio Rivera, Tape Performance Gustavo Vargas, Tape Performance Marco Vázquez, Tape Performance IBM Guadalajara
  2. 2. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 1Table of Contents IntroductionIntroduction.....................................1 This white paper describes the performance of the IBM® System Storage® LTOLTO-6 Tape Drive Overview............1 Ultrium 6 tape drive (LTO-6 tape drive) working on open systems environments.Performance Overview....................2Performance Evaluation..................2 LTO-6 Tape Drive OverviewFC Data rate Performance..............4SAS Data Rate Performance..........9 The sixth generation IBM LTO-6 tape drive offers a great storage capacity and an excellent performance using technology designed for the mid range openTape Capacity...............................13 systems environment that include IBM System p®, IBM System i® and IBMLocate and Rewind Performance..14 System x® servers; selected Oracle® and Hewlett Packard® servers and Intel® servers running supported versions of Microsoft® Windows®Load/Unload Performance............15 or Linux®.Speed Matching Performance......16 There are 2 interfaces available for the LTO-6 tape drive:Conclusions...................................17 • 8Gb Fibre Channel (FC-8) • 6Gb SAS Both interfaces are available on half and full heights models. The IBM LTO-6 tape drive offers a native data rate of up to 160 MB/s an increase of 14% over the previous IBM LTO-5 tape drive. The IBM LTO-6 tape drive offers a new generation of data cartridge (gen6 media)The LTO-6 tape drive features that offers a native capacity of 2500GB (6250GB with 2.5:1 compression) 1.7x thehardware encryption of data, two capacity of the previous gen5 tape cartridge generation. This new capacity isinterface options, and two form achieved in the same tape length (846m) as the gen5 media due to a higherfactors. The data rate improvement density format (gen6 format).from the previous generation is 14%and the tape capacity also increases The IBM LTO-6 tape drive will support the Linear Tape File System (LTFS) which67% from the previous generation 5. presents the tape storage as a file-based storage system. Additionally the IBM LTO-6 tape drive is able to read and write previous generation 5 media and read only generation 4 media to help customers protect their existing tape investments.
  3. 3. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 2 Performance Overview The key features of the IBM LTO-6 tape drive are designed to improve performance and capabilities when compared to the IBM LTO-5, IBM LTO-4 and other vendors tape drives, some of the improvements are: • Native data rate of up to 160 MB/s • Native data physical capacity of 2500GB • The data compression engine improvements- data that compresses with LTO-5 drives at 2:1 should now compress at 2.5:1 • Faster tape drive mechanism (9 m/s for half height drives) which results in quicker locate and rewind times • Support for 8Gb FC and 6Gb SAS connectivity • SkipSync Function to provide small file backhitchless flush capability • Cache buffer: 1024MB (full height models) and 512MB (half height models) This white paper examines the performance benchmarks of the IBM LTO-6 tape drive and associated features. The performance of the different drive host interface types will also be closely examined. Performance Evaluation All the performance benchmarks were run on one or more of the following systems: • Server IBM System x3850 running Linux RHEL 6.1 with an LSI® SAS 9212-4i4e HBA and a QLogic® QLE2562 8Gb FC HBA. • Server IBM System x3755 running Linux SUSE 11 SP1 with an LSI® SAS 9200-8e HBA and a QLogic® QLE2562 8Gb FC HBA. • Server IBM System x3250 running Linux SUSE 11 SP2 with a QLogic® QLE2562 8Gb FC HBA.
  4. 4. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 3 The performance benchmarks used for the tests are a toolbox of in- house C-based performance measurement tools designed to fully exercise the host interface and tape drive with the least amount of overhead. As such, the primary goal of the benchmarks was to provide a picture of the maximum capabilities of the LTO-6 tape drive. All data rates/capacity reflect a decimal basis where MB = 1,000,000 bytes and GB=1,000 MB. Actual tape drive data rate and cartridge capacity might vary depending on factors such as data compression, server and disk performance variables. There are a number of factors that impact performance, especially data rate at high compression ratios and large block sizes. Server hardware performance, server slot and operating system/device driver performance are important factors. Another source of variability in the data rate performance tests could be due to the firmware used for the Fibre Channel and SAS connections. Since this white paper is primarily concerned with looking at LTO-6 tape drive capabilities, it is beyond the scope of this whitepaper to attempt to present a complete picture of the relative performance characteristics of all possible host server/HBA/tape drive combinations. However, when appropriate an attempt will be made to provide some idea of how operating system or HBA selection can affect data rate performance.
  5. 5. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 4 Fibre Channel Data Rate Performance The data rate performance of the IBM LTO-6 Fibre Channel full height tape drive is described by the following set of charts that show how the drive behaves when writing or reading data that compresses uniformly at ratios 1:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1 and maximum (80:1) using differing block sizes and LTO gen6 media. LTO6 FC FH Write Data Rates Gen6 Media 700 600 500 Data Rate (MB/s) 1:1 400 2:1 2.5:1 300 3:1 Max 200 100 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)The IBM LTO-6 tape driveachieves a native data rate of160 MB/s with LTO gen6 media.Higher rates are reached withcompressible data and the new2.5:1 compression engine. LTO6 FC FH Read Data Rates Gen6 Media 700 600 500 Data Rate (MB/s) 1:1 400 2:1 2.5:1 300 3:1 Max 200 100 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)
  6. 6. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 5 The following charts show the IBM LTO-6 Fibre Channel full height tape drive performance when writing or reading LTO gen5 media with data that compresses uniformly at ratios 1:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1 and maximum (80:1) using differing block sizes. LTO6 FC FH Write Data Rates Gen5 Media 600 500 Data Rate (MB/s) 400 1:1 2:1 300 2.5:1 3:1 200 Max 100 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)The LTO-6 drive can read andwrite LTO gen5 media at the LTOgeneration 5 operating point.With no compressible data adata rate of 140 MB/s isachieved. LTO6 FC FH Read Data Rates Gen5 Media 700 600 500 Data Rate (MB/s) 1:1 400 2:1 2.5:1 300 3:1 Max 200 100 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)
  7. 7. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 6 The following set of charts show streaming data rate performance of the IBM LTO-6 Fiber Channel half height tape drive when writing or reading data that compresses uniformly at ratios 1:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1 and maximum (80:1) using differing block sizes and LTO gen6 media. LTO6 FC HH Write Data Rates Gen6 Media 700 600 500 Data Rate (MB/s) 1:1 400 2:1 2.5:1 300 3:1 Max 200 100 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)The half height form factor driveprovides similar streamingperformance as compared withthe full height drive. LTO6 FC HH Read Data Rates Gen6 Media 700 600 500 Data Rate (MB/s) 1:1 400 2:1 2.5:1 300 3:1 Max 200 100 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)
  8. 8. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 7 The following set of charts describe the IBM LTO-6 Fibre Channel half height tape drive performance when writing or reading LTO gen5 media with data that compresses uniformly at ratios 1:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1 and maximum (80:1) using differing block sizes. LTO6 FC HH Write Data Rates Gen5 Media 700 600 500 Data Rate (MB/s) 1:1 400 2:1 2.5:1 300 3:1 Max 200 100 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)The half height form factor drivecan read and write LTO Gen5media with similar rates ascompared with the full heightdrive with LTO Gen5 media. LTO6 FC HH Read Data Rates Gen5 Media 600 500 Data Rate (MB/s) 400 1:1 2:1 300 2.5:1 3:1 200 Max 100 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)
  9. 9. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 8 The above performance benchmarks show IBM LTO-6 Fibre Channel tape drive performance (full height and half height models) from one or more of the systems: IBM system x3850 running RHEL 6.1 with a QLogic® QLE2562 HBA, IBM system x3755 running SUSE 11 SP1 with a QLogic® QLE2562 HBA and IBM system x3250 running SUSE 11 SP2 with a QLogic® QLE2562 HBA. It must be noted that results from the IBM system x3850 for Max compression ratio at 512KB block size dropped about 9% from those shown, however, the rest of the data rates for all the compression ratios and block sizes were consistent on all systems. In this case, some aspect of the host-side configuration decreased the system data rate performance for the specific case mentioned.
  10. 10. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 9 SAS Data Rate Performance The data rate performance of the IBM LTO-6 SAS full height tape drive is described by the following set of charts that show how the drive behaves when writing or reading data that compresses uniformly at ratios 1:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1 and maximum (80:1) using differing block sizes and LTO gen6 media. LTO6 SAS FH Write Data Rate Gen6 Media 550 500 450 400 Data Rate (MB/s) 350 1:1 2:1 300 2.5:1 250 3:1 200 Max 150 100 50 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)The SAS data rate performancecapability of the IBM LTO-6 fullheight drive meets expectationsat all compression ratios. LTO6 SAS FH Read Data Rate Gen6 Media 550 500 450 400 Data Rate (MB/s) 350 1:1 2:1 300 2.5:1 250 3:1 200 Max 150 100 50 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)
  11. 11. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 10 The following charts show the IBM LTO-6 SAS full height tape drive performance when writing or reading LTO gen5 media with data that compresses uniformly at ratios 1:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1 and maximum (80:1) using differing block sizes. LTO6 SAS FH Write Data Rates Gen5 Media 500 450 400 350 Data Rate (MB/s) 1:1 300 2:1 250 2.5:1 200 3:1 Max 150 100 50 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)The LTO-6 SAS full height drivemeets the LTO gen5 data ratesexpectations when using LTOgen5 media. LTO6 SAS FH Read Data Rates Gen5 Media 500 450 400 350 Data Rate (MB/s) 1:1 300 2:1 250 2.5:1 200 3:1 Max 150 100 50 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)
  12. 12. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 11 The following set of charts show streaming data rate performance of the IBM LTO-6 SAS half height tape drive when writing or reading data that compresses uniformly at ratios 1:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1 and maximum (80:1) using differing block sizes and LTO gen6 media. LTO6 SAS HH Write Data Rates Gen6 Media 550 500 450 400 Data Rate (MB/s) 350 1:1 2:1 300 2.5:1 250 3:1 200 Max 150 100 50 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)The LTO-6 SAS half height formfactor drive provides similarstreaming performance ascompared with the SAS fullheight drive. LTO6 SAS HH Read Data Rates Gen6 Media 550 500 450 400 Data Rate (MB/s) 350 1:1 2:1 300 2.5:1 250 3:1 200 Max 150 100 50 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)
  13. 13. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 12 The following charts show the LTO-6 SAS half height tape drive performance when writing or reading LTO gen5 media with data that compresses uniformly at ratios 1:1, 2:1, 2.5:1, 3:1 and maximum (80:1) using differing block sizes. LTO6 SAS HH Write Data Rates Gen5 Media 500 450 400 350 Data Rate (MB/s) 1:1 300 2:1 250 2.5:1 200 3:1 Max 150 100 50 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB) LTO6 SAS HH Read Data Rates Gen5 Media 500 450 400 350 Data Rate (MB/s) 1:1 300 2:1 250 2.5:1 200 3:1 Max 150 100 50 0 32 64 128 256 512 Block Size (KB)
  14. 14. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 13 Tape Capacity The following chart shows the capacity for LTO gen6 and LTO gen5 media measured with the LTO-6 tape drive. Tape capacity is obtained by writing 256KB blocks of uncompressible data until an error code is returned when EOT (End Of Tape) is reached. The LTO-6 tape drive with gen6 media increases about 67% over gen5 tape cartridge capacity offering a native physical capacity of 2500GB while maintaining the 1500 GB expectation with gen5 media. Tape Capacity 2500 2000 Capacity (GB)The LTO-6 tape drive with gen6 1500 Gen6 Mediamedia offers a significant Gen5 Mediacapacity increase over gen5 1000media. 500 0 FC FH FC HH SAS FH SAS HH
  15. 15. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 14 Locate and Rewind Performance The following charts show the average time for the LTO-6 drive to locate a random block id on the tape starting at BOT (Beginning Of Tape), the average time to locate a random block id starting at some random location on the tape, the average rewind time as well as maximum times measured for the three operations. To determine average and maximum times, plenty locate and rewind operations were made on a completely filled tape. The full height form factor drives offer faster locate and rewind performance than the half height form factor drives when using LTO gen6 media. With LTO gen5 media, a similar difference is observed. LTO6 SAS and FC Locate and Rewind Times Gen6 Media 120 105 120.15 90 103.6 107.9 FH FC Seconds 106 97.89 75 HH FC 92 91.91 106.81 60 FH SAS 120.98 112.1 109.2 88.4 45 HH SAS 55.7 55.6 49.58 48.8 30 48.97 48.3 55.7 33.2 39.9 56.6 34.28 15 40.7 0 Avg BOT Avg RND Avg Rewind Max BOT Max RND Max RewindThe full height form factor drives Locate Locate Locate Locateoffer faster locate and rewindperformance than the half heightform factor drives when usingLTO gen6 media. LTO6 SAS and FC Locate and Rewind Times Gen5 Media 120 100 98.12 98.53 80 FH FC 93.06 92.65 92.93 92.87 Seconds HH FC 60 107.37 108.06 101.66 100.73 FH SAS 100.01 99.74 40 HH SAS 51.01 50.95 47.72 48 38.12 38.26 57.01 54.1 53.58 51.94 38.08 45.41 20 0 Avg BOT Avg RND Avg Rewind Max BOT Max RND Max Rewind Locate Locate Locate Locate
  16. 16. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 15 Load and Unload Performance The following charts show the tape cartridge load and unload times for the LTO-6 tape drive with LTO gen6 and LTO gen5 media. The performance when loading a cartridge is slightly better for the full height drives. The time to unload a cartridge is faster for the full height drives and there is no significant difference regarding the interface type used. LTO6 SAS and FC Load and Unload Times Gen6 Media 25 20 21.45 21.34 17.2 17.41 LTO6 HH FC Seconds 15 LTO6 FH FC 13.35 13.38 LTO6 HH SAS 10 11.68 11.52 LTO6 FH SAS 5 0 Load Time Unload TimeThe IBM LTO-6 tape drive has goodload performance for all formfactors, generation media andinterface types. The time to unload acartridge is faster for the full heightform factor drives for both gen6 andgen5 media. LTO6 SAS and FC Load and Unload Times Gen5 Media 25 22.26 22.62 20 17.28 17.35 LTO6 HH FC Seconds 15 LTO6 FH FC LTO6 HH SAS 10 11.4 11.48 9.8 9.85 LTO6 FH SAS 5 0 Load Time Unload Time
  17. 17. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 16 Speed Matching Performance The IBM LTO-6 tape drive disposes of 14 defined speeds to match the host data rate. The implementation of this feature allows to reduce the number of backhitches when the net host data rate is less than the maximum drive native data rate, reducing unnecessary tape motion, and may increase overall performance in certain environments. To perform this test, host delays are used to vary the speed of the data from the host to the LTO-6 tape drive. At each host data rate the number of datasets handled by each speed is recorded (A dataset is the unit of writing for the drive on the physical tape side and consists of collection of logical blocks, file marks, ECC, and other format attributes). The Y-axis shows both the effective data rate and the number of datasets handled by each speed for the host data rate (X-axis). The chart shows how the drive selects the appropriate speed from the available 14 speeds to match the host data rate and most of the datasets written are handled by the suitable speed. LTO6 FC FH Write Speed Matching s1 4000 180 s2 160 s3 3500 s4 3000 140 s5Speed matching helps to 120 Dataset Count 2500 s6improve the overall tape drive 100 2000 s7data rate at lower host data 80 s8rates. 1500 60 s9 1000 40 s10 500 20 s11 0 0 s12 s13 32 48 65 82 95 111 124 137 149 159 s14 Host Data Rate (MB/s) DR
  18. 18. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 17 Conclusions Since the introduction of the first IBM LTO tape drive, every following generation has incorporated new features and performance improvements to respond storage needs, now the IBM LTO-6 tape drive in conjunction with the new LTO gen6 media represents an efficient solution for todays growing storage demands. Native capacity increase from 1500GB (gen5 media) to 2500GB (gen6 media) and even more with data that is compressible (6250GB with 2.5:1 compression) while maintaining the same tape length (846m). This capacity increase does not impact locate/rewind performance and the faster mechanism for the half height form factors improves performance for tape motion operations (locate/rewind times) from previous half height drive generations. In addition, the IBM LTO-6 tape drive continuous to support media partitioning, encryption of data and WORM media. All the improvements make the IBM LTO-6 tape drive suited for handling backup, restore, and archive of higher data capacities at higher data transfer rates as compared with the previous LTO-5 tape drive.
  19. 19. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 18 © International Business Machines Corporation 2012 IBM Systems Group 5600 Cottle Road, San Jose, CA 95193 Printed in the United States of America 05-07 All Rights Reserved IBM, the IBM logo, IBM System i, IBM System p, IBM System x, System Storage are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. Linear Tape-Open, LTO, the LTO Logo, Ultrium and the Ultrium logo are trademarks of HP, IBM Corp. and Quantum in the U.S. and other countries. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. Other company, product and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others. Product data has been reviewed for accuracy as of the date of initial publication. Product data is subject to change without notice. This information could include technical inaccuracies and/or typographical errors. IBM may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or programs(s) at any time without notice. References in this document to IBM products, programs, or services does not imply that IBM intends to make such products, programs or services available in all countries in which IBM operates or does business. Any reference to an IBM Program Product in this document is not intended to state or imply that only that program product may be used. Any functionally equivalent program, that does not infringe IBM’s intellectually property rights, may be used instead. It is the user’s responsibility to evaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program or service. The performance data contained herein was obtained in a controlled, isolated environment. Actual results that may be obtained in other operating environments may vary significantly. While IBM has reviewed each item for accuracy in a specific situation, there is no guarantee that the same or similar results will be obtained elsewhere.
  20. 20. IBM® System Storage® LTO Ultrium 6 Tape DriveTape Drive Performance White PaperPage 19 THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THIS DOCUMENT IS DISTRIBUTED "AS IS" WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. IBM EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. IBM shall have no responsibility to update this information. IBM products are warranted according to the terms and conditions of the agreements (e.g., IBM Customer Agreement, Statement of Limited Warranty, International Program License Agreement, etc.) under which they are provided. IBM is not responsible for the performance or interoperability of any non-IBM products discussed herein. The provision of the information contained herein is not intended to, and does not, grant any right or license under any IBM patents or copyrights. Inquiries regarding patent or copyright licenses should be made, in writing, to: IBM Director of Licensing IBM Corporation North Castle Drive Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A.

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