In 1997, a computer named Deep Blue defeated Garry
Kasparov, the world chess champion at the time. In 2011,
another computer, Watson, competed and won against former
champions of Jeopardy!, the popular U.S. television quiz show.
Both events changed perceptions about what computers could
do. Deep Blue demonstrated the power of new parallel
processing technology, and Watson showed that computers can
understand ordinary language to meet the challenges of the