Integrated Service management forges link between IT and business value whitepaper
IBM Global Technology Services October 2010Thought Leadership White PaperIntegrated service managementforges link betweenIT and business valueService management investments can help CIOs measure IT’sability to support business goals
2 Integrated service management forges link between IT and business valueContents It is clear from the 2009 IBM Global CIO Study, the service management study, and from IBM engagements with CIOs 2 Introduction worldwide, that chief information officers want to measure the 3 Understanding what CIOs want to accomplish business value of information technology. That same research, that same experience, has uncovered an interesting dichotomy. 3 Evaluating the current state of service management IT executives may want to measure IT’s value to the business as a whole, yet the metrics they typically use evaluate the state 7 Aligning IT to business strategy of IT operations instead—metrics that gauge the performance15 Conclusion of individual elements of the infrastructure, for example, or measure project budget variances and the number of IT labor16 For more information hours required to complete IT initiatives.Introduction These metrics are clearly important, since they assess theIBM believes that smarter service management strategies can health of IT operations. Unfortunately, though, operationalhelp IT executives obtain a holistic understanding of the serv- metrics don’t always address the stated CIO goal1 of aligningices IT delivers; link those services to activities most likely to IT investments with business value. Nor do they consistentlyprovide value to the business; and measure those services measure the return those IT investments provide to theusing metrics that are meaningful to chief executive officers, business.chief ﬁnancial officers and other C-level executives. In imple-menting these strategies, CIOs can also often gain a better IBM believes that for IT to directly support the business, itunderstanding of where to best invest IT funds to provide must stop thinking of itself as a unique and separate organiza-competitive differentiation for their companies. tion. IT, like any other corporate division, must see itself as a critical business function, not as an IT function that supportsBefore examining how service management can more closely the business. Concurrently, IT executives must measure ITlink IT to business value, we must look at two IBM research success in business terms. In other words, IT must think,studies. The ﬁrst is the 2009 IBM Global CIO Study1, published communicate and measure itself in a context that the businessby the IBM Institute for Business Value. The second, a study understands. The role of IT is to make technology transparentconducted by the IBM Market Insights organization, examines to the business, so that the KPIs IT uses to measure and com-how companies use service management to link IT operations municate success must also be transparent to the entire busi-to business value—and the key performance indicators (KPIs) ness, which means that, by design, they will not be measuresthey use to gauge success. of information technology.
IBM Global Technology Services 3Understanding what CIOs want The research ran in two phases. The ﬁrst consisted ofto accomplish 14 in-depth interviews with senior IT executives in the UnitedBetween January and April of 2009, IBM interviewed more States, Canada and the United Kingdom. The second con-than 2,500 CIOs—the largest such sampling to date—for sisted of 300 survey interviews with senior IT executives fromthe IBM Global CIO Study. These executives represented enterprises of 1,000 employees or more operating in variousorganizations of varying sizes in 78 countries, operating in industries in the United States, Germany, China and Japan.19 industries. The objective of the study was to better under- Interviews consisted primarily of close-ended questions, withstand the challenges facing today’s CIOs; their goals; and how respondents evaluating the importance of service managementthey deploy IT to make the most signiﬁcant impact on their projects to their organizations and the ease of measuring theenterprises. success of these initiatives. Each respondent was screened to ensure that he or she had signiﬁcant involvement in and inﬂu-Using companies’ 2004-2007 proﬁt-before-tax growth relative ence over recent or planned IT service management projects.to peers in their industries, organizations examined were clas- IBM was not revealed as the sponsor of this research.siﬁed in one of three growth levels: high, medium or low.According to the study, raising the return on investment Service management projects evaluated were:(ROI) of IT and expanding IT’s impact on the business rank 1. Incident, problem and service desk managementamong the top three goals of high-growth-company CIOs. 2. Service monitoring and event management 3. Service catalog, workﬂow and request managementTo accomplish these goals, CIOs said they strive to align IT 4. Service strategy and planningoperations with overall business aims. They noted that theywant to engender shared responsibility for business success 1. Incident, problem and service desk management wasthrough joint performance metrics based on business out- deﬁned by the research as IT’s ability to improve the pro-comes. They want to develop metrics that will convince the ductivity of IT users through a well-designed service deskC-suite of IT’s contribution to the organization and inspire that acts as a single point of contact for user interaction.these executives with IT’s potential to drive business innova- This category encompasses activities such as service desktion and improve operational dexterity. response to service requests; reduction in the impact of incidents on IT services; preventing incidents from occur- ring through root cause analysis; and initiating appropriateEvaluating the current state of requests for change.service managementUnderstanding that CIOs want to raise the ROI of IT, in early Thirty percent of IT executives interviewed ranked reducing2010 IBM commissioned research to see how well IT execu- the frequency of IT service interruptions ﬁrst in their top threetives use service management to link IT services to business goals for this category. This was followed by increasing end-objectives. The research also details the KPIs IT executives user satisfaction with IT services (25 percent) and reducing theuse to measure success in this arena. mean time to problem resolution (23 percent).
4 Integrated service management forges link between IT and business value2. Service monitoring and event management was 4. Service strategy and planning was deﬁned as setting deﬁned as IT’s ability to monitor both IT operations and long- and short-term goals for information technology and IT-enabled business services. This category encompasses deciding which service management-related investments activities such as detecting, correlating, ﬁltering and would best support overall business strategy. responding to IT service events (notably, threshold breaches that could potentially lead to faults or service level Thirty-one percent of respondents named better aligning IT exceptions); and providing operational information to other services to the most critical needs of the business as one of their service management processes. top three priorities for this category. This was followed by (at 26 percent) reducing the cost of managing and maintaining Forty-three percent of IT executives interviewed ranked the IT services portfolio and (at 22 percent) developing clear, increasing end-user satisfaction with IT services through better standardized deﬁnitions of IT services offered. system availability among their top three priorities for this category. This was followed by reducing the number and fre- Overall, the study found that while IT executives expect their quency of IT service interruptions (33 percent) and improving IT infrastructures to accomplish a variety of tasks, the out- productivity of IT personnel (30 percent). comes most important to them were tied to business needs. Conversely, measurements of IT operational outcomes—those3. Service catalog, workﬂow and request management was that ensure a steady or improved IT state—were rated lower deﬁned as IT’s ability to develop base deﬁnitions of IT in importance by the respondents to this survey. Several services, service characteristics and business requirements— business-oriented service management themes surfaced among and ensuring that these are organized and stored centrally the IT executives interviewed. They were: via a service catalog. (These types of catalogs can be made available to users via a self-serve portal). This category also ● End-user satisfaction with IT services encompasses IT’s ability to deﬁne, standardize and auto- ● IT services uptime and reduction in the frequency and dura- mate service requests based on business requirements; tion of interruptions manage service requests; and execute service workﬂow ● Greater end-user understanding of the IT services available programs. to them and fulﬁllment of user expectations ● More automated, efficient and cost-effective provisioning of When asked to rank their top three priorities in this cate- IT services. gory, 30 percent of survey respondents ﬁrst named faster provisioning of IT services to end users through automated, online delivery. (Faster provisioning can lead to faster time to value for the business service.) Reduced IT labor costs to fulﬁll IT service requests came in second (at 27 percent); followed by easier and more efficient processes and workﬂows to request IT support (25 percent).
IBM Global Technology Services 5 % Mentioned Allocated costs higher/lower than projected in budget 45% Tier 1 Current project status ahead/on-track/behind schedule 42% Percent of key project milestones delivered on time 39% Labor hours used for project rework 34% Percent of implementation steps meeting SLA targets 32% Number of recorded change requests due to quality issues 31% Tier 2 IT systems performance within target parameters during interim checks 31% Number of project status reports delivered 30% Labor hours forfeited or project delays caused by lack of resource availability/capacity 28% Number of recorded charge requests due to scope creep 28% Number of failed quality inspections 28% Number of unexpected project delays (not considered early on) 24% Tier 3 Frequency of project planning meetings 22% Number of unplanned IT service interruptions during the project 22% Number of end user/customer complaints during the project 20%Figure 1: The KPIs that CIOs and other IT executives most frequently use to address the success of service management projects are shown here.
6 Integrated service management forges link between IT and business valueThese ﬁndings varied somewhat by country, enterprise size that, at their most fundamental level, these activities provideand job role of the survey respondent. In the United States, value to the business. “End-user satisfaction with IT services”there was a particular focus on using service management to means that employees have the technology they need to doensure end-user satisfaction, system uptime and IT services their jobs. “Improved productivity of IT personnel” suggestsalignment to business goals. In China, using service manage- that the company is striving to save money in labor costs—andment to improve the productivity of IT personnel is viewed as probably not just in IT. However, IBM argues that the typesparticularly important. of key performance indicators used by many companies to measure IT’s value to the business fail to clearly make theLarger companies (ranging from 5,000 employees to more ledger connections most important to chief executive officers,than 10,000) place more emphasis on certain outcomes that chief ﬁnancial officers and other C-level executives.relate to the challenges of their size. These include: IBM believes that intelligent, integrated service management● Providing faster, automated, lower cost IT services activities can help CIOs link IT services to the organization’s provisioning most critical business needs, and provide the KPIs that meas-● Eliminating redundant or unnecessary IT services from the ure IT’s success in supporting crucial business goals. This is portfolio imperative if CIOs wish to reach their stated goal of raising● Reducing the number of security-related incidents in the IT the ROI of IT. Why? IT divisions traditionally have been environment support organizations. They did not build the better mouse● Reducing IT labor costs. traps that increased company sales. Rather, they brought value to the organization primarily by optimizing operationalMeanwhile, smaller companies (ranging from 1,000 to activities, improving worker productivity and reducing costs.2,499 employees) focus on creating IT services standardization However, the IT organizations of high-growth companiesand efficiencies. Their goals include: identiﬁed in the 2009 IBM Global CIO Study clearly have a larger mission. Their goal is to provide IT-enabled business● Developing clear, standardized service deﬁnitions services directly to the marketplace. IT serves not only as a● Delivering more consistent levels of IT service performance new customer channel (enabling and enhancing customer● Improving the productivity of IT personnel. buying experiences), but also, in many cases, as a producer of the information and services that are responsible for generat-Whether it’s increasing end-user satisfaction with IT services ing revenue.or improving the productivity of IT personnel, these servicemanagement activities are laudable. And no one can doubt
IBM Global Technology Services 7Aligning IT to business strategy ● Create key measurement indicators based on businessThis leads to the question: How can organizations shift from outcomessimply measuring operational outcomes to measuring IT’s ● Drive improved decision making and change within theimpact on the business? IBM believes that it is a matter of organization by providing advanced business analytics toexamining business goals; using integrated service manage- better understand business outcomes.ment to link underlying IT services to the most critical busi-ness activities; and demonstrating that linkage through the Identify critical business services and related IT componentsdevelopment of KPIs of value to C-level executives. Demonstrating the business value of IT starts with evaluating the strategic importance of the business services and activitiesThe single most important factor when aligning IT and the that IT supports. This step offers an opportunity for the CIObusiness is to clarify how the corporation plans to use technol- to collaborate with other C-suite officeholders and line-of-ogy to achieve its business strategy. Is the intent to use tech- business executives in working together to answer:nology primarily as a means to improve efficiency and reduceoperational costs, including the cost of technology itself? Or is ● What are the most critical business services—those thatthe intent to use technology as a means to gain market share, drive the highest revenue or have the largest impact on cus-improve customer intimacy, or enable new products from tomer satisfaction and overall business success?information—essentially enabling the business strategy, rather ● Which business processes support those key business serv-than simply supporting it? The IBM commodity/utility/ ices and help make the company more competitive orpartner/enabler model (Figure 2) is one way to determine this responsive in the marketplace?basic relationship and communicate the relative importance of ● Which business services and supporting processes needthe components of value (beneﬁts and costs). There are times increased management attention to improve effectivenesswhen cost is the primary focus, and the task is to determine and efficiency?what beneﬁts can be delivered for a ﬁxed amount.Alternatively, some enterprises focus ﬁrst on the beneﬁts to be The more challenging next step is to map these business serv-delivered, then strive to deliver those requirements in the ices and processes to the various IT components that supportmost cost-effective manner possible. them. IBM has developed frameworks and analytics that can help IT executives model their operations in terms of keyTo implement integrated service management activities components, then link those components to the business activ-that tighten IT-to-business alignment and measure success, ities they support (such as customer relationship management,organizations can: business management and service delivery). IT components can then be assessed for strategic differentiation and effective-● Identify critical business services and the underlying IT ness and mapped against spending and staffing. IBM has also infrastructures that support them● Standardize IT processes around these business services
8 Integrated service management forges link between IT and business value IT Provider Relationship Model High Provider researches, recommends Enabler and implements technology to enable quantum leap in business capability Provider works with others to develop Partner a service and provide resources/skills necessary to support that service Provider of a quality service at a cost Utility equal to or lower than the competition Provider of an adequate service at a Benefit Commodity cost lower than the competition. IT as a driver of value High Cost IT as a driver of cost reductionFigure 2: The IBM commodity/utility/partner/enabler model, illustrated here, is one way to communicate the relative importance of the components ofvalue—beneﬁt and cost.
IBM Global Technology Services 9developed tools that can use this information to populatecomponent heat maps, helping the IT management teams see IBM helps bank chart IT priorities for merger,where IT can better contribute to business goals. (See sidebar, deal closingIBM helps bank chart IT priorities for merger, deal closing.) This A major South American bank was involved in a complexhelps to answer such questions as: merger with several other ﬁnancial institutions. The banks had to begin operating as a single market entity in order● Where do we need to improve our performance? to close a signiﬁcant deal. The South American bank● Where can IT resources be reallocated to better ﬁt the turned to IBM to develop a business model for prioritizing organization’s strategic priorities? and completing business and IT projects.● Which non-differentiating activities should be considered During an IBM Business of IT Executive Workshop, the for alternative sourcing options? IBM consulting team guided the bank through the process of deciding its IT priorities, helping it implement deal-This information can also be incorporated into executive and critical capabilities while continuing to maintain dailyoperational service management dashboards. These dash- steady-state IT operations.boards offer visibility into IT operations across the enterprise, With the information gleaned from the Business of ITproviding the real-time and predictive performance and risk Executive Workshop and associated IBM tools, the bankindicators needed to assess IT operations relative to the was able to determine how to best align IT with overallbusiness’s strategic goals. Dashboards give IT executives a business goals and priorities. IBM’s work also gave theview into the health and performance of business services; company new ideas of which IT initiatives to pursue to aidbusiness processes; the client experience; and the relationship in the bank’s growth. Finally, IBM clearly outlined how theand impact of technology on them. IT executives can monitor bank could direct resources to the IT projects likely toand track critical IT activities responsible for meeting per- have the strongest bottom-line impact.formance and risk commitments and understand IT’s impacton sales, customer service and other key areas of operations.Further, dashboards allow drill-down from the business servicelevel to the speciﬁc IT silos and resources that may be causingproblems, eliminating ﬁnger-pointing across interdependentIT roles and functions.
10 Integrated service management forges link between IT and business valueStandardize IT processes around business servicesOrganizations can further strengthen the IT–business link by Industrial products company works with IBM tostandardizing IT actions around the business services they reinvent ITsupport. To optimize and standardize IT organizational rou- The IT department of a multinational provider of aerosoltines, it is necessary to identify and document IT processes sprays and dispensers was unable to realize a standard-and their associated activities: where they start and stop; what ized service delivery process for the company’s mission-they include and exclude; how they interact with one another; critical IT management services. The business’s chiefwhat resources are being allocated to them; and whether information officer wanted to transform IT capabilities toinvestment in those resources is paying off. transform IT into a true business enabler. The CIO’s goals were to align IT to business requirements and to organizeAll this can be accomplished by measuring the organization’s IT operations in support of a new corporate businessservice management system against a robust reference model. model.A process model for IT management provides a frame of ref- This company worked with IBM to assess IT processes.erence against which an organization can assess whether it is First, IBM examined the current alignment between ITdoing the right things in the proper way. There are currently a operations and overall business goals. Second, thevariety of process frameworks and quality management sys- IBM team assessed the services IT delivered to the busi-tems for managing IT. The best of them identify the set of IT ness, ranking maturity levels of IT processes and deﬁningmanagement processes required for moving beyond a singular intervention priorities.cost focus to the principled decision making that accounts for During the third phase of work, IBM identiﬁed ITIL®changing business and technology conditions; for managing processes and mapped best practices for the IT environ-the complexity of existing systems; and for more closely link- ment. Finally, the IBM team combined the results of all thising IT operations to business value. work to create a comprehensive view of the client’s exist- ing processes and services. Based on this comprehensiveThese models are powerful service management tools for view, IBM delivered to the company an evolutionaryinvestigating and identifying areas for IT improvement and roadmap that deﬁned the maturity level of each IT process and service and suggested initiatives to ﬁll existing gaps.for the standardization of IT functions. In engendering astructured approach to integrated service management, they As a result, this industrial products company was able tocan help improve IT governance and control and improve IT deﬁne and document the pain points of its IT organization.processes. Further, working from a common model can help Using the roadmap provided by IBM, the company’s ITorganizations determine the range of methods and techniques division can now deﬁne precise actions the organization needs to take to more fully align IT with business goals.needed to enhance and standardize service management activi-ties. (See sidebar, Industrial products company works with IBM toreinvent IT.)
IBM Global Technology Services 11Once organizations have deﬁned and measured their service executive team analyze the infrastructure for standardizationmanagement activities against a sound reference model, many and optimization opportunities in terms of management andIT professionals ﬁnd it helpful to document service manage- technical domains, pinpointing areas for improvement.ment processes against industry best practices. This canhelp organizations signiﬁcantly improve IT efficiency and Create measurement indicators based oneffectiveness by enabling users to easily understand processes, business outcomesthe relationships between processes, and the roles and tools Once CIOs and other IT executives have determined the bestinvolved in efficient process implementation. The focus is on way to use service management to link IT services to businessevaluating service management success in areas such as inci- needs, they must create measurements that gauge IT’s contri-dent management, capacity management and request fulﬁll- bution to the desired business outcomes. KPIs that measurement—along with customer satisfaction management, demand IT getting “bigger, better, faster” are not always valuable tomanagement, facilities management, knowledge management, C-level executives. Rather, IT divisions must quantify metricsrisk management and supplier management. in terms of business value.Cutting-edge approaches may strengthen the business–IT Consider the running of an automated teller machine (ATM)approach by standardizing IT processes around business serv- as an example. A bank has many reasons for placing an ATMices they support. Approaching IT as a fabric of processes, in a given area: customers may pay to use it; customers maytechnologies and organizational capabilities that supply or perceive value from the convenience of the ATM location; thesupport IT services is a way to start. From this vantage point, bank may be able to reduce the hours of operation at theirIT management can begin to assess the technologies and orga- brick and mortar locations; the location may give the bank anizational capabilities that supply or support IT services in the presence in a previously untapped market.context of IT strategic intent, structure and status. This canhelp an enterprise to articulate the current state of its IT Better service management strategies (such as those discussedinfrastructure and compare it to the desired state. above) can assist IT personnel in determining which services will help the bank meet its desired outcomes for this ATM.Implicit in this type of approach is the recognition that just as With this information in hand, IT can then develop KPIs toa business delivers value to its customers through products and track how well the ATM performs against these goals. KPIsservices, IT delivers value to the organization it serves can measure how much customers pay to use this ATM, thenthrough technological products and services. The challenge compare that income against the cost of running the machinelies in articulating the speciﬁc role of IT processes, technolo- to determine the bank’s proﬁt. KPIs can track how many cus-gies and organizations in business terms, and in establishing tomers are being introduced to the bank through the presenceand standardizing the connection between IT capabilities and of an ATM in an area where the institution has no branchthe business activities they support. Once business and IT offices. Finally, they can measure the success of on-ATM-executives agree on the best strategy for using technology to screen advertising initiatives to determine how many newachieve business–IT alignment and to provide context for IT transactions (such as consumer loans) the ATM helps toinvestment priorities, this type of approach can help the IT generate.
12 Integrated service management forges link between IT and business value Business Pain Point Business KPIs KPI Linkage IT KPIs IT Service Process New product Function reduces CAD revenue share of Application function Develop development cycle services Not enough total revenue new new products products New product time Function improves mfg ERP Application function to market integration services Function and Application function ERP Errors per order performance reduce Inefficient and performance services errors order picking/ Pack orders loading Average order Resolve errors and ID Problem resolution Help Desk pick/pack time root cause time services New product Sales tracking drives Sales revenue per sales Application function Sales force performance services Sell FTE not selling products New product new products Drive new web sales Application function eBusiness revenue share of channel and availability services total revenue IT costs increase Cost per capacity Application IT cost/revenue Unpredictable Deliver business costs unit delivery and expensive business IT service applications Application Availability increases Application Application availability when business results availability delivery neededFigure 3: Organizations can link business and IT KPIs to measure IT’s value.
IBM Global Technology Services 13This is just one example. The list of KPIs that help track IT’s A comprehensive approach to IT governance includes estab-contribution to business goals seems never ending. The right lishing governance models, processes, structures and relationalKPIs can, for example, measure improvement in sales because mechanisms that engender clarity and transparency in direct-of increased transaction processing time on the business’s ing and controlling IT. Ultimately, governance must ensureInternet storefront. They can link improved Voice over IP clear and transparent decision rights and accountability chainstelephone system uptime to increased telesales. And if a com- for directing and controlling each critical management activitypany invests in applications that give those telesales represen- required by a strategy.tatives a universal view of the customer’s buying patterns, theright KPIs can show how that information leads to increased Here is a list of typical IT governance tasks, and the type ofadd-on sales. bodies that perform them:Figure 3 illustrates how organizations can directly link IT ● Direct IT. This task is often taken on by steering commit-services to business value by connecting business and IT KPIs. tees, boards, councils and working groups.These KPIs offer a tangible mathematical link between IT ● Control IT operations. Planning committees and boardsservices and the business processes they support. They use often exercise ownership and control over IT architecture,ﬁnancial, functional, performance and availability measure- data, tools, frameworks, processes and services. Thesements as a mechanism by which IT executives can quantify groups also provide the organizational authority needed tobusiness–IT linkages. In short, these KPI connections help require adherence to the policies and decisions that havebusinesses to quantitatively assess the impact of IT invest- been made, including process and service standards.ments on the business. ● Execute IT initiatives. Process and service management work groups take charge of functions that include executingDrive improved decision making and change within IT activities within the constraints of governing standardsthe organization and within the constraints of policies relating to architectureIn order to shift from measuring the health of IT operations standards, service level agreements, process and serviceto tracking technology’s true contribution to the business, design, control objectives and guiding principles.many organizations ﬁnd that they must improve decisionmaking. This can be accomplished though improved IT gov-ernance. The importance of intelligent IT governance cannotbe overstated.
14 Integrated service management forges link between IT and business valueDecision types Governance questionsDirecting ● Who directs and controls “hot” IT components?IT competencies, services, ● How will they be directed and controlled?management, processes, ● What are the charters of each decision-making group and the relationships among various groups?architectures, infrastructures ● What are the roles within each group? What are their decision rights and accountabilities?and applications ● What information will be required? ● How are performances and outcomes measured and reviewed?Controlling ● Who controls each process and service critical to the business strategy?IT competencies, services, ● How should they exercise that control?management processes, ● Do they have the authority to require adherence to the process and service designs and policies?architectures, infrastructuresand applicationsExecuting ● Who participates in the execution of the processes and services?IT competencies, services, ● Are the accountability charts clear for each activity required to achieve the business strategy?management processes,architectures, infrastructuresand applicationsCommunicating ● What vertical and horizontal communications are required? ● Who needs to know what, and when? ● What are the best format, content, medium and frequencies for the required communications?Guiding principles ● What are the principles and policies that will guide delegated decision making? ● Are the principles aligned with good-practice audit control objectives and information standards? ● Are the rationales and implications of each principle clearly understood so they can be properly acted upon?Table 1: Questions IT staffs must ask if they want to improve IT governance.
IBM Global Technology Services 15Good governance can help address the greatest risk that serv-ice organizations face today: behaviors and decision making Value-based governance propels businessthat are not aligned with strategic objectives. Intelligent transformationgovernance practices minimize the depth and duration of IBM is involved in an ongoing business transformation—performance declines during periods of change and innova- one that has thus far resulted in US$4.7 billion in businesstion. (See sidebar, Value-based governance propels business savings. IT transformation alone has led to US$5.9 oftransformation.) More speciﬁcally, good IT governance can cumulative beneﬁt yield for every dollar invested. Smart IThelp minimize time wasted as people search for individuals governance strategy proved crucial to this transformation.who have decision rights; overlapping and unclear accounta- The IBM Office of the CIO founded the IBM Businessbility resulting from conﬂicting direction; and the signiﬁcant Transformation Information Technology Group (BT/IT).problem of critical decisions going unmade because no one BT/IT took charge of vetting which potential new ITknows who has the authority to make those decisions. Often, projects should be implemented. BT/IT ranks potentialimproper governance can cause the decisions to be deferred IT projects using both business value and risk factors.until just prior to execution. In many cases, this means the BT/IT uses a ﬁve-step process to identify and implementindividuals least equipped to make decisions—due to lack of IT projects, and to measure IT success:experience or availability of information—are the ones forced 1. Value Identiﬁcation: IBM identiﬁes and prioritizesto do so. potential IT actions according to potential beneﬁts and opportunities for value.Conclusion 2. Value Quantiﬁcation and Interlock: IBM develops theIBM knows that CIOs want to measure the business value of business case for IT initiatives. Intended value is clearlyinformation technology. But, too often, the metrics they deﬁned, as are measurements of success.use to gauge success simply reﬂect the health of IT operations.Service management strategies such as those described in this 3. Value Realization Execution Planning: IBM establishes the plan by which execution teams will deliver thepaper can help CIOs make, and measure, the link between IT intended business value.services and the critical business strategies they support. Byimplementing these types of strategies, CIOs can come closer 4. Value Realization Delivery and Planning: Metrics meas-to the universal goal of raising the ROI of IT. uring the IT initiative’s value to the business are devel- oped, tracked and reported. 5. Leverage Results: Once the IT initiative has been implemented, this process helps IT continuously improve the initiative’s value to the business as a whole, leveraging successes into other business areas and mitigating failures.