IBM Sales and Distribution Media and EntertainmentThought Leadership White PaperCloud Computingfor the Media andEntertainment Industry
2 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryContents Media cloud evolution As a result of these challenges, media executives are having to1 Executive Summary rethink their supply chain. We are learning that the troika of4 Introduction service-oriented architecture (SOA), digital supply chain, and cloud is evolving into the blueprint for enjoying innovation8 IBM takes a leadership role to address cloud industry issues and challenges with the potential to reduce capital expense and operating expense. This triad of technologies, SOA, digital supply chain,13 IBM recommendations for successful cloud and cloud will enable media companies to keep pace with27 General recommendations turbulent times by providing:29 IBM Global Business Service cloud “get started” and • Faster time to market “keep going” offerings • Increased sales by increasing exposure to content30 Cloud computing resources • A richer flow of information to adapt quickly to changing consumer interests and demand • Decreased labor, inventory, and working capital costs • Faster, fresher content packaged, identified, and available toExecutive Summary the right consumer anywhere, anytimeChallenges facing media executivesThese are very turbulent times for media executives. Media Content that is available “forever” as deep catalog or digitalCEOs are having to adapt their business models at an inventory that has the potential able to produce a revenueunprecedented rate. How will media companies manage to stream over the Long Tail or for years to come.keep pace with the ever-accelerating rate of innovation? Howwill media companies maintain competitive advantage over Media companies are looking for ways to innovate withoutnew entrants? Are there cloud consumption models that are compromising their content ownership and digital rights.appropriate for media companies to pursue? Should media Cloud providers must be aware that security and contentcompanies be leaders or adopters? protection are key issues that media executives care about. IBM® has been involved in cloud computing from theMarket forces and landscape of media beginning, was one of the original co-authors of the Cloudand entertainment Manifesto in 2009, and continues to be the media andThe new reality is that the consumer is in the eye of the storm. entertainment industry’s trusted partner: a partner thatWhere there was once a scarcity of content, now there is a brings innovation when and where it provides value; notseemingly unlimited supply coming from traditional media technology for its own sake; and, only when it strengthenssources as well as new media and social network Internet sites clients’ strategic goals and objectives. IBM provides facilities,via more and more portable consumer devices. It is estimated hardware and software, and professional services to match ourthat by 2012 there will be one trillion devices connected to the clients’ needs, budget and their optimal cloud deploymentInternet and 50 billion of them will be mobile phones. model. IBM appreciates that media consumers, along with media assets, both hold the highest value to media companies.
IBM Sales and Distribution 3 • Provide e-commerce and storefront capabilities with ad insertion capability.IBM has been involved in cloud computing • Support subscription and pay-per-view models.from the beginning, was one of the original • Maintain control over the cloud’s content delivery resources:co-authors of the Cloud Manifesto in 2009, Prevent rogue applications from over-consuming resources using SOA governance capabilities.and continues to be the media and • Integrate enterprise legacy and backend systems—such asentertainment industry’s trusted partner. enterprise resource management (ERP), customer relationship management (CRM) and supply chain management (SCM)— with external cloud services.Working closely with our clients, IBM continues Why IBM?to extend digital supply chains reliably and securely to create IBM appreciates that the journey will be different for eachnew revenue streams that pursue the right customers with media company. IBM is a trusted partner offering proventhe right content. technology, products, and professional services. IBM is focused on creating value and delivering meaningful solutions. Media“What do I have to do?”—IBM Recommendations companies and IBM share the key values of reliability andMedia companies must understand where they are in security. IBM is a global company that supports opendeveloping their digital supply chain and how they can best standards, oversees complex projects, brings relevant emergingutilize SOA and cloud computing to augment and improve it. technologies to market, and stays in the trenches with ourThe application of technology to enrich the digital supply clients from the development of strategy through the ongoingchain and to improve competitive advantage will depend upon implementations of new solutions and business models.a wide variety of factors. However, a generic strategy for amedia company might include combinations of these elements, IBM believes that enhancing the digital supply chain withall of which are related to digital supply chain, and all of which cloud computing holds the key to providing cost-effective,IBM has a history of successfully delivering to media clients: extra-enterprise content processing services that can extend and enhance media companies’ core competencies and enable• Build digital archives (convert analog assets to digital assets): them to compete and thrive in today’s consumer-centric Digitize assets, store them on-site and off-site applying best marketplace. Cloud computing represents a fresh approach to practices in storage and asset management. outsourced and managed services solutions, which have long• Leverage the digital archive to support on-going production been salient IBM capabilities. This paper is intended to provide services. media executives with new business insights into how cloud• Protect assets using encrypted communications computing can extend their core enterprise capabilities, and it (authentication, authorization) and the encryption of content. will provide some guidance, current and future offerings and• Provide analytics to support pricing, product mix, release date, step-by-step recommendations for help along the unique and placement decisions. journey each company will take to reach its goals.• Provide separate portals for business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) processes to support branding and consumer experience.
4 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryIntroduction targeted consumers. In other words, media companies areToday, economic pressures are forcing media companies looking to the cloud to enhance their digital supply chain—to alter the way they do business. We live in an “attention adding specific media processing services—while reducingeconomy” and compete for the ever-changing attention operating expenses. There is considerable talk about how cloudof consumers. Our customers and consumers are more computing can help reduce capital expenses; however, this isdemanding and less loyal than ever before. Advertising as a less likely for large, mature media companies than it is forsource of revenue isn’t what it used to be. Media companies small-to-medium media companies. Small-to-mediumcannot simply raise prices or sell more advertising to attain businesses (SMBs) are likely to be more eager to outsourceprofit goals, and there is not much room left to cut from content storage and content processing than the very largeoperating expenses. In today’s economy, there is an increased media companies since it is difficult to increase capital andfocus on the effectiveness of digital supply chains. However, operating expenses. Large media companies are likely to havemerely reacting well in today’s attention economy is not developed highly efficient custom enterprise systems that aresufficient to survive financially. not likely to be replaced by generic or composite services in the cloud. Also, large media companies are likely to haveMedia CEOs are adapting their business models at a rapid decentralized storage pools in multiple physical data centerspace. How will media companies keep up with the ever- presenting access complexities and limitations. There is alsoaccelerating rate of innovation in the new economic the issue of how much content is still in analog formats.environment? How will media companies maintain competitive However, no media company can afford more capital expensesadvantage over new entrants? Are there cloud consumption merely to accommodate seasonal needs or for resources thatmodels that are appropriate for media companies to pursue? are not fully utilized.Should media companies be leaders or adopters? The greatest opportunities for media companies are available wherever content storage, media processing and distribution services are co-located. Just as economies of scale becomeUsing cloud computing, media companies are available to media companies seeking to reduce their cost per gigabyte (GB) to $0.10 or less, processing services economiesdeveloping new and better ways to quickly and of scale become available when the range and intensity ofefficiently deliver content to fine-grained content services are co-located with the content itself. Fortargeted consumers. example, it is becoming clearer that processing services are not standalone services. If large video files need to be transcoded, it is probably not cost effective to merely transcode these files since the communication costs may be too great. However,Media companies are responding with new ways to enhance when transcoding services and other content processingtheir digital supply chains using cloud computing. Using cloud services are co-located with the content, the communicationcomputing, media companies are developing new and better costs become a proportionately smaller part of the overall cost.ways to quickly and efficiently deliver content to fine-grained
IBM Sales and Distribution 5Media companies will need to prepare themselves to make the The new reality: Consumers at the eye of the stormjourney and take advantage of these evolving media clouds. Today, the traditional economics of media have beenWhile few media clouds exist today, they will evolve over time overturned. Before the Internet, there were limited sources ofalong paths of greatest return, in terms of time to market and content, or what Bob Garfield, author and long-time writer forthe ability to distribute more B2B and B2C content to more Advertising Age, has called the “age of scarcity.” Today, theconsumers for the least investment. supply of content is greater than the demand. Advertising alone cannot support media delivery. As new business models emerge, it is clear that the consumer is at the eye of the storm. Content that cannot be discovered and easily located, played orCloud computing represents many downloaded will be forgotten. Media executives now mustopportunities for media companies to improve rethink their supply chain: The emphasis is on the assets rathertheir competitive advantage by getting content than the medium and consumers are no longer dependent on a dominant medium for the content they want.to multichannel, three-screen (or evenfour-screen) markets faster than ever before What is the most efficient way to get content to consumers?while potentially reducing costs. What is the best way to reduce time to market? The supply chain of the past, which focused on the distribution of content after it was created, is being inverted to focus on the consumer. IBM believes its key differentiator is being able to bring all theCloud computing represents many opportunities for media various technologies, components, services, and businesscompanies to improve their competitive advantage by getting partners together in these media value chains to create businesscontent to multichannel, three-screen (or even four-screen) value and deliver real-world solutions.markets faster than ever before while potentially reducingcosts. This paper begins by looking at how cloud deployments Current and future cloud deployment: What havehave been done in the past. It reviews the promises and risks others done?associated with cloud computing, what media and IT industries Over the past two years, several surveys have been performedare doing to address these opportunities and risks, and provides in an attempt to better understand how companies are usingthe IBM point of view. It concludes with IBM’s cloud computing today, and how they plan to use cloudrecommendations and identifies resources that will enable computing in the future. In 2008, a professional IT journalmedia companies to enhance their digital supply chain by using study revealed that storage, archiving, and disaster recoverycloud and SOA technologies. were the most likely uses and planned uses for cloud computing. In 2009, an industry analyst published the results of a study that identified security and performance as the issues that most concerned executives about cloud computing. Another study in 2009 showed that less than half of decision- makers were either using or considering using cloud computing, and, of those who were planning to use cloud, most were considering private clouds.
6 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryMore recently, a cloud adoption survey was performed that Cloud gains momentum in mediaincluded nearly 600 respondents responsible for managing From the surveys cited, it can be observed that despite thetheir organization’s IT budget and operations throughout challenges, cloud computing, mainly due to its economicCanada and the United States in 2009. This survey revealed attractiveness, continues to grow. There are good reasons tosome interesting findings: switch to cloud: low costs, low barriers to entry, increased mobility and scalability. There has been an emergence of• Security remains the leading reason for not adopting cloud content clouds recently. As technical and cost barriers fall and computing. Forty-six percent of respondents who indicated security issues are addressed, the cloud has become a viable they were not going to adopt cloud computing indicated that platform not only for back-end operations, but also for key lack of sufficient security was the reason. business practices, including content management and• Despite the fact that security and integration issues are users’ distribution. During the 2008 presidential election in the biggest fears, this has not dissuaded them from implementing United States, the New York Times online was able to handle cloud-based applications. record traffic using cloud technology. The on-demand nature• The survey shows strong satisfaction with cloud computing of massively scalable clouds has enabled media companies to once it has been installed. provide more video on demand (VOD) without having to make• Seventy percent of the decision-making respondents plan to investments in content delivery networks. By harvesting, move additional applications into the cloud; most indicated hosting and combining their content with other content in the they would be doing so within the next year. cloud, publishers and media companies can answer a higher• Sixty-two percent of the respondents considered using cloud level of questions for the customer. Consumer demand computing. rules—getting content to the consumer fast is the key to• When those who indicated they were not going to adopt cloud success. cloud computing were asked what changes or improvements would change their minds, 33 percent said maturity of This concept of “mix and match” around content is not new; solutions and 32 percent said better integration. however, cloud-based distribution of content promises to• Thirty-two percent indicated that existing infrastructure enable consumers to use vast amounts of digital content in investments were a reason for not adopting cloud computing. ways that currently do not exist. John du Pre Gauntt, the• Twenty-six percent indicated that integration worries founder of Media Dojo, describes a digital supply chain prevented them from moving to cloud. manufacturing cloud that will enable customers to pick and• Cost is still the primary motivation for moving to cloud, choose among media titles and how they want to experience however, agility is gaining momentum. them based on their product or service purchases. The news source BBC, in its information and archive strategy, describesAt a recent major software industry event, panelists estimated moving to an asset-focused approach with enhanced metadatathat approximately 20 percent of enterprise computing takes that will make content searchable and accessible. Thisplace inside the cloud, while 80 percent, generally the more demonstrates the digital archive cloud as another channel.mission-critical applications, take place inside the firewall. Inother words, most enterprises are still running theirapplications on their own servers in their own data centers.
IBM Sales and Distribution 7Gauntt takes this further in his discussion of media scenarios, Table 1. Major cloud outages 2008 - 2009describing “smart media” that has been strategically tagged andwill seek out interested consumers regardless of the channel or Service Outage Date Duration Sourceconsumer device. Until rights management is better controlled Amazon S3 02/15/08 4 hours cnetin software as a service, more media companies like The NewYork Times will convert their internal application Amazon EC2 04/07/08 1 hour techcrunchprogramming interfaces (APIs) to externally facing APIs on Amazon S3 07/20/08 8.5 hours amazonclouds so that customers can license feeds or download content Amazon EC2 06/11/09 7 hours cnetand mix it with their own content. For some media companies, Amazon EC2 12/09/09 1-5 hours datacenter-there is a greater willingness to package and price content on knowledgean a la carte basis. Google App 6/17/08 7 hours softpedia EngineRecently, in a move to increase the ability to earn more Google Gmail 07/16/08 2.5 hours pcworldrevenue from digital distribution, a consortia of 48 mediacompanies, called the Digital Entertainment Content Google Apps and 08/06/08 about pcworld Gmail 15 hoursEcosystem (DECE), agreed to standardize on a commonformat and enable proliferation of their content using Neustar Google Gmail 08/11/08 1.5 hours gmailblogas the cloud-locker along with five digital rights management Google Gmail 08/15/08 more than pcworldformats: digital rights management (DRM) formats (Adobe® 24 hoursFlash Access, CMLA-OMA V2, the Marlin DRM open Google Gmail 10/16/08 30 hours pcworldstandard, Microsoft® PlayReady and Widevine). Through Google Gmail 02/24/09 2.5 hours googleblogcloud computing, entertainment that consumers buy would be Google Gmail 03/09/09 up to 22 hours cnetstored in a digital locker, Neustar, and remotely accessed from Google network 05/14/09 2 hours arborne-any device that meets DECE’s format requirements. networksThe dark side of clouds Google App 07/02/09 6 hours techcrunch EngineIn order to increase the adoption of cloud computing by mediacompanies, it will be necessary to build trust and confidence. Google Gmail 09/01/09 2 hours gmailblogPublic clouds have made the news frequently over the past two Google Gmail 09/24/09 2.5 hours cnetyears with major outages (Table 1). Microsoft Hotmail 03/12/09 5 hours network- worldSecurity and performance issues cannot be controlled by the Microsoft Azure 03/13/09 22 hours network-media company in the public cloud; these issues represent worlddependencies. Not only have there been instances of stolen Microsoft 10/04/09 6 days + cnetcontent, but there have many cases of stolen online identity. Sidekick total loss ofThese issues can be summarized as loss of control by the contact datacontent provider. Salesforce.com 02/11/08 6 hours zdnet Salesforce.com 01/06/09 1 hour The Register
8 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryOther important issues that worry public cloud users include • Investigative reporting: It may be impossible for some cloudvendor lock-in, or the inability to get information out of the providers to support investigations of inappropriate or illegalcontent, or to transfer it to another cloud provider if the cloud activities since logs, data and content may be dispersed overuser deems the service to be unsatisfactory. Cloud computing ever-changing hosts and data centers.continues to mature and address these issues; however, it is • Long-term viability: What are the provisions if the clouddoubtful that many media companies are rushing to put the provider goes out of business or gets acquired by anothercrown jewels into public clouds. The best analogy is putting company?money in a bank; it takes time to realize this level of trust andconfidence. IBM takes a leadership role to address cloud industry issues and challengesAnother more obscure issue is data dispersion, or the fact thatthe cloud user does not know where the data physically resides. IBM and the Open Cloud ManifestoCountries where content may reside could have very different In 2009, the Open Cloud Consortium, originally a consortiumlaws regarding access and privacy. IT research and advisory of universities, was formed to address the creation of opengroup Gartner, Inc. has identified seven risks: standards to provide for inter-cloud interoperability—basically, a pledge to develop standards that would make it possible to• Privileged user access: Cloud customers do not know the easily move applications from cloud to cloud. Shortly background, credentials or police records of those who thereafter, it was recognized that the corporate computing administer public clouds. Enterprises generally have physical, industry would need to develop a coordinated approach, which logical and personnel controls. came in the form of the Open Cloud Manifesto, and was• Regulatory compliance: Many businesses must be SAS largely driven by IBM. The resulting document was brief (only 70-compliant1. Regardless of whether or not one uses a cloud seven pages) but it laid out the basic principles for companies provider, ultimately it is the customer who is responsible for and cloud suppliers to work together and make it possible to the security and integrity of the data or content, even if it is interoperate between clouds and to provide the flexibility to being managed by a cloud provider. switch between suppliers. IBM and 29 other groups agreed to• Data location: This is another way of describing the data the Open Cloud Manifesto. dispersion problem of not knowing where data and content is physically located. One of the more recent outcomes from the original Open• Data segregation: Cloud users assume that their content is Cloud Manifesto is the work of the Cloud Computing Use segregated from other users. While encryption helps, users do Case Discussion Group, which continues its efforts today, and not always know or understand what schemes are in effect (or in which IBM continues to be a major contributor. IBM how effective they are). continues to foster an open discussion about cloud computing,• Recovery: Cloud users may not know what will happen to their and created http://cloudusecases.org, as a launch site for our content in the event of a disaster. original work with Google. This group produced an important white paper, Cloud Computing Use Cases White Paper, identifying key cloud business scenarios. This white paper is now in its fourth version focused on service level agreements (SLAs) and use cases for security compliance. This document
IBM Sales and Distribution 9provides easy-to-understand descriptions of cloud service Cloud value driversconsumer and cloud service provider, as well as descriptions of There are a number of ways that clouds can drive businessthe most typical use case scenarios (not intended to be an value. Cloud provides much more than merely a cost-focusedexhaustive list): return on investment (ROI) model:• End user-to-cloud: Consumer gains access to content through subscriptions, pay-per-use and/or sponsored advertising• Enterprise-to–cloud-to-end user: Media company stores archive content offsite in private cloud and cloud pushes derivative content to subscribing consumer• Enterprise-to-cloud: Media company collocates content distribution services and consumer behavior analytics in the cloud, and integrates with the cloud to monitor sales and time to market• Enterprise-to-cloud-to-enterprise (digital supply chain): Media companies collaborate on content; for example, studio dailies, multi-lingual/global production and distribution• Private cloud: An in-sourced, enterprise-hosted, on-premises private cloud, or outsourced private cloud managed by an Figure 1. Cloud value drivers help define how business value is created. external entity• Changing cloud vendors: Business continuity• Hybrid cloud (single cloud has characteristics of private cloud and public cloud): Cloud stores copies of digital masters Cloud value drivers have the potential to transform business (private cloud); manufactures digital derivatives for B2B and strategy in many ways: B2C distribution, and may provide storefront capabilities (public cloud) • Driving business innovation • Increasing business agility • Lowering total cost of ownership • Improving asset utilization and products-services time to market • Optimizing technology investments • Enabling real-time content and metadata sharing • Providing globally available resources • SOA and cloud: The dream team
10 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryThe media and entertainment industry has been met with Service oriented architecture (SOA) has been increasinglydramatic changes over the last five years that have moved it promoted as a means of addressing the media business’ needsfrom nearly all physical products to predominantly digital in a cost-effective and responsive manner. In 2008, Gartnerproducts. Everything associated with the creation of content reported that most European and North American companieshas turned from physical goods to digital. While this transition were planning to adopt SOA over the next 12 months. SOAhas opened up new opportunities in delivering new products promises to provide services as the basis of abstraction so thatand services to consumers (such as new audio and video services are loosely coupled, autonomous, stateless and includedelivery services that have evolved to products like iPads), new their own explicit quality of service characteristics (security,challenges have been introduced in understanding where performance, etc.).content is inside the client’s environment, what state it is in,who needs to get it, and when it needs to be delivered. An SOA is the perfect architecture for cloud because services run on any system that exposes them, inside or outside theSystems and processes have evolved over time to support the enterprise. An SOA allows you to manage, orchestrate and usephysical creation and distribution of these products and services and create “situational” applications that areservices. As the content and its delivery environment have “composites” of services, which enable business agility. This ischanged, many of these systems have as well, but for the most made possible because an SOA provides the following threepart the systems and technologies do not all work well fundamental properties:together. Closed, proprietary and siloed infrastructures mustnow give way, or at least harmonize with open, standardized • Open standardsand more horizontal processes and applications. – SOA provides a standard method of invoking web services allowing disparate organizations access to theseMedia companies, dealing with a more competitive services across network boundaries.environment during difficult economic times, are searching for – Web services use open standards to allow inter-ways to minimize their technology costs while, at the same enterprise connectivity across networks and the Internet.time, offering more sophisticated products and services. Media – Messaging protocols (SOAP) and transport protocolscompanies’ resources have been organized according to the (including HTTP, HTTPS, JMS)specific business functions they support which, as we have – Security can be handled at both the transport levelstated, have resulted in the formation of separate application (HTTPS) and/or at a protocol level (WS-Security).silos. In response, these separate application silos result in – Web Service Definition Language (WSDL) allowsduplication of application functionality, high integration costs, web services to be self-describing for a looselyunderutilization of resources, and limited ability to share coupled architecture.content and information. Media companies’ underlying • Integrationtechnology has become much more complex and less flexible, – Interfaces are provided to wrap service endpoints tomaking it increasingly difficult to respond and keep pace with provide a system-independent and application-the revolutionary changes in the industry. independent architecture. – SOAs can provide dynamic service discovery and binding, which means that service integration can occur on demand.
IBM Sales and Distribution 11• Virtualization the workflows necessary to provide multiple channel content – A key principle of SOA is that services should be distribution are too much for many media companies. On invoked by service requesters that are oblivious to the other hand, doing nothing could mean disintermediation service implementation details, including location, or, worse, obscurity. platform and if appropriate to the business scenario, even the identity of the service provider. How media companies can benefit from SaaS SaaS minimizes the upfront costs associated with hardware andAll of the properties above are prerequisites to support software acquisition and helps companies avoid having to hireservices delivered from the cloud. Additionally, if an SOA more staff to operate and maintain in-house systems. There areframework is to provide the ability to situationally create a four basic SaaS models (and combinations that can benefitcomposite service, it must be able to provide the messaging media companies):properties that are required to connect the various servicesthat comprise the composite service. Messaging properties, 1. A multi-tenant architecture owned and maintained by a cloudsuch as persistence, transformation, routing and mediation, are service provider (ASP-style)necessary precursors to be able to support the choreography 2. Hosted internally and maintained remotelyof the composite service. Extending these messaging properties 3. Internally developed and hosted on cloud providerto media objects enables content agility and is the key to infrastructureproviding an SOA that allows a seamless integration of the 4. Self-hosted software providing software services to partners ortransactional messaging and content essence that exist in all subscribersservices that emit or consume digital media.A cloud based on SOA allows an enterprise’s intra-organizational business processes to be extended into the In the future, most internal-facing, mediacloud and take advantage of the benefits of cloud computing, company enterprise applications will be deliveredparticularly on-demand services and highly scalable IT in the form of reliable and secure services usingservices. Cloud computing and SOA combine to form the“dream team.” Since a cloud is basically an instance of an private networks and the Internet.architecture, using SOA ensures that cloud computingprovides be the most agile and cost-effective cloud platform. In addition, there are various combinations of the basic models.Cloud computing provides media companies with software-as-a-service (SaaS), infrastructure services (infrastructure- In the future, most internal-facing, media company enterpriseas-a-service, or IaaS), and platform services (platform-as-a- applications will be delivered in the form of reliable and secureservice, or PaaS). Considerable pressures exist to meet services using private networks and the Internet.consumer demand. However, the development and infra-structure costs associated with building the technology and
12 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryHow media companies can benefit from IaaS IBM has been building large data centers for years, offeringIBM offers IaaS by using core competencies in various these benefits:infrastructure technologies, including cluster computing,autonomic computing, grid computing, utility computing and • Reliability: An IBM data center typically provides 99.99virtualization. IaaS benefits media companies by providing percent up time.elastic or scalable infrastructure on demand to handle • Smarter data center management: Thousands of sensors,traffic and content overflow situations. IaaS uses statistical connecting IT equipment, data center and buildingmultiplexing to increase and shrink resource utilization. automation systems, provide data that can be analyzed forSome estimates are that statistical multiplexing reduces future capacity planning, conserve energy and maintainresource utilization costs by a factor of five to seven. operations in the event of a power outage. • Energy efficiency: An IBM data center uses half the energy costA mission-critical, enterprise-scale cloud provider must to operate compared to data centers of similar size by takingpossess large-scale reliable and secure fundamental advantage of free cooling—using the outside air to cool theinfrastructure resources: data centers, managed services, data center. Intelligent systems use sensors to continuouslymassively scalable storage, massively scalable processing read temperature and relative humidity throughout the dataand secure network connections. center and dynamically adjust cooling in response to changes in demand. • Cloud computing capability: Support for cloud computing workloads allows clients to use only the resources necessary to support IT operations at any given moment—eliminating the need for up to 70 percent of the hardware resource that might have been previously needed to perform the same task. The data center also hosts recently announced “Smart Business” cloud computing offerings—each of these solutions can significantly reduce a client’s total cost of ownership (TCO) by up to 40 percent. • Built for expansion: Due to an innovative modular design method, IBM will be able to add significant future capacity inFigure 2. IBM North Carolina Leadership Data Center nearly half the time it would take traditional data centers to expand. This design/build method, called IBM Enterprise Modular Data Center (IBM EMDC), also enables IBM to rapidly scale capacity to meet demand by adding future space, power and cooling to the data center with no disruption to existing operations. This means up to 40 percent of capital costs and up to 50 percent of operational costs may be deferred until client demand necessitates expansion. An IBM data center can also quickly and seamlessly expand its power and cooling capacity.
IBM Sales and Distribution 13How media companies can benefit from PaaS IBM recommendations for successful cloudFinally, as a layer built on top of IaaS, PaaS offers media Digital supply chaincompanies consistent services such as authentication, IBM has been looking at how the new business reality impactsauthorization, data persistence and task scheduling. PaaS supply chain. By using digital supply chain, media companieshas been a topic of interest with telcos since they already can use their core competencies and call upon clouds toprovide content, storage, and connectivity services to enhance their supply chain. Clouds are places to store, process,consumers and businesses. Telcos are providing their existing distribute and support exposure of content in an elastic fashion.IaaS as a platform for B2B and B2B2C digital supply chains. To increase supply chain efficiency and deliver the productsIBM is building digital media exchange clouds supporting and services consumers want, media companies are looking to acomprehensive content aggregation, management, derivative combined SOA and cloud computing solution.manufacturing, and multichannel distribution built on topof clients’ outsourced and managed services. Using SOA and cloud computing in the new digital supply chain enables media companies to keep pace with the rate of innovation. SOA and cloud computing support:IBM is building digital media exchange • Faster time to marketclouds supporting comprehensive content • Increased sales by increasing the exposure of contentaggregation, management, derivative • Richer flow of information to adapt quickly to changing consumer interests and demandsmanufacturing, and multichannel distri- • Decreased labor, inventory and working capital costsbution built on top of clients’ outsourced • Faster fresh content that is packaged, identified and availableand managed services. to the consumer • Available “forever” deep catalog content IBM’s commitment to digital supply chainThe IBM SOA software group framework managementTo support the digital supply chain, IBM Software Group IBM structures a digital supply chain that is customer-centric,has developed the IBM Media Enterprise Framework built responds to new consumer behavior, and is smarter or opti-on SOA architecture using IBM software. Cloud computing mized using business intelligence and analytics. The IBMprovides a way to virtualize the service executions, security Media Enterprise Framework shows IBM’s strong commit-and infrastructure. Media Enterprise framework can work ment to its clients by taking a “we’re in it together” approach.with the cloud in realizing the capabilities, such as business Cloud offerings often fail because clients do not perceive thatanalytics and optimization, media, metadata and information the cloud provider understands or cares about the client’smanagement, multi-channel enablement, business process business. IBM’s commitment includes becoming an integraltransformation, security and infrastructure management. part of the design and delivery team.The Media Enterprise Framework can be used as a deliveryplatform to help manage the services in each of the capabilities.
14 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryLeading the evolution of media clouds: as simple as an in-house, in-sourced, on-premises managedWhat should I do? service model to a full hybrid cloud that is fully integrated withMedia companies must understand where they are in the media company’s enterprise systems. There are severaldeveloping their digital supply chain and how they can best reasons to begin with the archive:utilize SOA and cloud computing to augment and improve it.The application of technology to enrich the digital supply • The archive is not in the production-critical path; therefore,chain and to improve competitive advantage will depend upon there is less risk to current mission-critical processes. At thea wide range of factors. However, a generic strategy for a media same time, there are likely to be hidden treasures in thecompany might include combinations of these elements, all of archive, or, what retailers used to call “deep catalog.”which are related to digital supply chain, and all of which IBM • Most media companies store copies of their assets. Somehas a history of successfully delivering to media clients: media companies are applying approved asset preservation and disaster recovery budgets to justify private cloud archive• Build digital archives (convert analog assets to digital assets) initiatives. and store digitized assets on-site and off-site, applying best • Most media companies have a mix of analog and digital practices in storage and asset management. content in their on-premises archives. Some of the digital• Develop an enterprise-wide strategy for standards-based content may be stored off-site as part of the disaster recovery metadata creation, discovery, use and exchange. and business continuity policies.• Protect assets using encrypted communications • Media companies can develop their metadata strategy (authentication, authorization) and the encryption of content. (metadata creation, discovery, use, and exchange) in a• Provide separate portals for B2B and B2C to support deliberate and controlled pace rather than being driven by the branding and consumer experience. demands of live events and live content.• Provide e-commerce and storefront capabilities with an ad insertion capability. IBM GA cloud offering use cases and• Support subscription and pay-per-view models. media and entertainment specific use cases• Maintain control over the cloud’s content delivery resources It is important to separate media and entertainment use cases by preventing rogue applications from over-consuming into two groups: (1) generic use cases, or, those use cases that resources. can be used regardless of the industry environment, and (2)• Integrate enterprise legacy and backend systems with external media and entertainment-specific use cases that address cloud services. specific needs in the media and entertainment industry. Generic use cases may provide value to those media companiesThe journey begins at the same spot for every media considering how best to “wade into” cloud computing, or thosecompany—digitizing content, to create the new digital supply looking to implement a cloud to demonstrate cost savings andchain. IBM recommends that media companies begin with provide the organization with valuable hands-on experiencetheir digital archive as a means of building a pilot to explore and understanding of cloud challenges and benefits. Forthe use of a private or public cloud. Deployment models can be example, IT organizations of media companies can immediately implement the generic use cases to demonstrate and test the value of cloud computing in supporting workloads optimized for IT, such as testing of applications and software.
IBM Sales and Distribution 15 Figure 3. Media and entertainment sub-industries and cloud use casesSee the first column in Figure 3, which identifies several clients access to IBM compute clusters (IBM System x®, IBMgenerally available IBM cloud offerings: BladeCenter®, IBM System p®, and IBM System Storage®) on an hourly, weekly or yearly rental basis.• IBM Smart Business Desktop on the IBM cloud subscrip- • IBM Smart Business Development and Test on the IBM tion service helps clients virtualize desktop computing cloud is designed to help enterprises reduce operational costs resources, and provides a logical, rather than a physical, and large amounts of capital outlays, improve cycle times method of accessing data, computing power, storage capacity for faster time to market and improve quality with virtually and other resources. instant, security-rich access to a standardized test and• IBM Compute on Demand infrastructure offering, provides development environment. • The IBM Smart Analytics Cloud is a solution offering to
16 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment Industry enable delivery of business intelligence. This offering uses desktops, designed to help you quickly back up, restore, IBM hardware, software and services to offer a complete archive and maintain access to critical data on demand. solution enabled at the customer site. • IBM LotusLive™ iNotes® is a secure cloud-based messaging• IBM Smart Business Storage Cloud offers a storage- service that provides essential email and calendaring virtualization solution designed to support a company’s capabilities. IBM LotusLive iNotes can be integrated storage optimization efforts. It can help alleviate data storage alongside existing enterprise messaging solutions or operated challenges by enabling quick implementation of a scalable, standalone to reduce overall cost of ownership. global file storage system with flexibility in deployment and management options. Media and entertainment-specific use cases• IBM Smart Business End User Support self enablement Media and entertainment sub-industries and cloud use cases portal is an Internet-based solution that enables end users also provides basic cloud use cases for television and radio to resolve their support issues due to a leading-edge know- broadcasters, movie studios, the games sub-industry, and ledge database that delivers a comprehensive, personalized, publishing. Those use cases that can be met by current IBM multichannel experience in multiple languages through a offerings have been color-coded in dark-blue, those use cases single easy-to-use interface. for which IBM offerings are imminent have been color-coded• IBM Information Protection Services is a range of managed in light-blue, and those use cases that IBM will include in services. It includes both on-site and remote data protection future offerings have been color-coded in white. capabilities for your data center servers, applications and databases, as well as protection for email, laptops and Figure 4. Common cloud management
IBM Sales and Distribution 17IBM’s goal is that our cloud offerings will be based on a • Business intelligence and analytics—a gaming cloud maycommon cloud platform that provides a foundation for generate billions of transactions in a day. There is simply novalue-added services, including but not limited to: way to make sense of trends, purchasing patterns, and do forecasting without business intelligence and analytics. IBM• A public cloud with multiple service “on-ramps” for clients, has world-class capabilities in designing and implementing hosted in key centers worldwide BI-based digital supply chains.• A common infrastructure to provide computing and • B2B monetization—integration of content distribution storage resources processes with back-office and business intelligence processes.• A common platform, business support services (BSS) and operational support services (OSS) to operate and manage Note that all of these use cases will depend heavily on the the cloud implementation development of an enterprise and, to the extent possible, a• A full range of IBM and partner services standards-based, extra-enterprise metadata strategy. Without a• The implementation and hosting services to build “private sound metadata strategy implemented as early in the digital clouds” for strategic outsourcing (SO) data centers and supply chain as possible, the less visible and useable digital other clients content may become.IBM believes the following digital supply chain use cases IBM also envisions the following future use cases in media andhold the greatest value for cloud computing in media and entertainment:entertainment in the immediate future: • Fully integrated B2B/B2C business models: Integration• Digital archive—off-site content disaster recovery with with commerce, supply chain management (SCM), potential to evolve into B2B and B2C business models and enterprise resource management (ERP) and customer new revenue streams. IBM has a proven record of providing relationship management (CRM) systems. IBM has a global digital archive as an outsourced and managed service. team of integration specialists who integrate enterprise,• Production support—an extension of archive to support legacy, and cloud-based systems using best practices in on-going production processes. IBM designs WAN and SOA-based integration. LAN infrastructures and works with partners to provide • Digital cinema end-to-end workflow support using cloud: cloud-based production support. Centralized ad insertion, securing the production through• Broadcast facility resiliency—content archived to provide post-production workflow with Key Delivery Message real-time broadcast failover in the event of a broadcast (KDM) management for dailies and distribution to theatres. facility outage. • Real-time streaming analytics (based on IBM System S):• High-intensity processing—clouds equipped with special Cloud-based capability of analyzing many inbound real-time high-intensity processing (grid computing) required to sources of audio, video, text and metadata to support real- expedite rendering, watermarking, transcoding and time business model adaptation and collaborative planning encryption processing. forecasting and replenishment (CPFR) processes in digital• Derivatives manufacturing—transcoding, encrypting, etc., supply chain. and final packaging content for push or pull distribution. • Intelligent dissemination of content using push models and smart content: Clouds maintain atomic content (pre-wrapped with rights pointers) and associated metadata, as well as the analytics to target consumers.
18 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryTable 2. Media and entertainment-specific use cases and deployment modelsUse Cases Sub-Industry Sub Use Cases Deployment Model(s)Digital Archive All On-site Digital Archive Private Off-Site Content Disaster Recovery PrivateOverflow All Storage Public, Private, Hybrid Processing Private, HybridB2B Monetization All Derivatives Manufacturing Private B2B Distribution Private Order Fulfillment PrivateHigh Intensity Processing TV, Studios, Games Rendering Private, Hybrid TV, Studios, Games Transcoding/MXFwrap/ MXFunwrap Private, Hybrid TV, Studios, Games Watermarking Private TV, Studios, Games Encryption Private Publishers Text Analytics Private, HybridBroadcast Facility Resiliency TV Real-time Analytics (System S) Private, HybridBI/Analytics All SCM, CRM, ERP integrations Private, HybridStreaming Analytics TV PrivateLive Events Studios, Games Private, hybridDigital Cinema Studios KDM Management Private Studios Digital Dailies PrivateText Analysis Publishers Private, HybridSemantic Search Publishers Private, HybridB2C Distribution All Private, HybridSmart Content All Private, Hybrid
IBM Sales and Distribution 19 Figure 5. Sub-use case off-site preservation of contentMedia and entertainment-specific use cases and • Private clouds are better than public clouds when tighttheir deployment models controls are required.Each use case has a likely deployment model or set of • Public clouds are best when distributing massive amounts ofdeployment models based on the level of content protection, content to consumers over the Internet is required.security requirements and degree of processing required within • Hybrid clouds are best when content aggregation,the deployment model (Table 2). management and distribution workflows need to be contiguous to support the digital supply chain.
20 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryDigital archive can be deployed equally well as an on-site, Digital media archive sub-use caseson-premises private cloud or as an off-site private cloud. IBM recommends that media companies start with theirStorage overflow has been implemented with great success archives. Figures 5, 6, and 7 show an elaboration on thisusing the public cloud model. Depending upon how custom or use case in the form of three sub-use cases: (1) off-sitesophisticated the processing requirements are, high-intensity preservation, (2) off-site production support and (3) B2Bor high-performance processing can be performed in a private monetization of content.or a public cloud. Generally, those content processes related tocontent protection and usage tracking, such as encryption andwatermarking, respectively, are best performed in a privatecloud where strong governance and oversight are important. Figure 6. Sub-use case off-site production support
IBM Sales and Distribution 21Figure 7. Sub-use case B2B Content Monetization
22 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryGlobal evolution of media clouds once, however, from what weIn a recent survey conducted by IBM and NHK, the national have observed in major media companies around the world,broadcaster of Japan, it was revealed that each of the 12 media the highest priorities are digitizing content and protecting it.companies are managing their assets and long-term archivealong a roadmap or continuum that is moving from enterprise Note that each deployment model has its own business models,to private cloud to hybrid cloud (Figure 8). There is nothing benefits, assets, technical and business activities, and its ownthat precludes using all three cloud deployment models at set of key decisions. Figure 8. Evolution of media clouds
IBM Sales and Distribution 23Enterprise deployment model • Technical activities:• Business models: – Digitize: New revenue models, particularly mone- – On-site preservation of assets tization, are based on having digital content. Even – On-site production support: Pre-production research, licensing models benefit from digital content since the search-browse-preview of archived content, and digital master can be used to produce many identical repurposing of preserved content. copies for re-broadcast.• Benefits: – Encrypt: Within the enterprise, encryption may or may – Strong control of content and systems manipulating not be used; in some cases content is encrypted since it content will be sent to external B2B consumers. (An example is – Continuity of knowledge (institutional knowledge) the AES 128-bit KDM encryption included in the digital• Assets: cinema initiative specification.) – Content is likely to be both analog and digital in the – Log/Catalog: Content cannot be located if there is no enterprise deployment model. metadata associated with it. Cataloging is the more – New content today is likely to arrive in digital formats formal, information science activity associated with and be relatively easy to ingest. preserving and archiving content. – Legacy, videotape-based content, may or may not be in • Critical decisions: the process of being digitized. – What seasonal and cyclical peaks and variability – Many digital asset management (DAM) vendors provide should be taken into consideration? What are the archive-as-you-go capabilities, saving content to the temporary bandwidth and storage requirements that archive once the content has been ingested, once must be addressed that the current infrastructure finished shows have been approved to air, and while may not be able to handle? content is actually being aired; in addition, these DAM – What content are candidates for cloud storage? systems provide low resolution proxy generation and – What performance service level agreements (SLAs) logging and cataloging capabilities to generate and are required? enhance metadata. – What security SLAs are required?• Business activities: – What content protection and/or encryption – Creation of a baseline or balanced scorecard: Represents are required? the value of the enterprise model, associated costs, – What is the expected ROI or cost-benefit? including capital and operating expenses and benefits, particularly with respect to production support (pre- production research, repurposing, and so forth); degree of security and content protection, which will help provide the justification for making the transition to a cloud deployment model. – The baseline information consists of workflow analysis, content audit and activity-based cost analysis: What do we have? How it is processed? And, how much does it cost to create content products and metadata?
24 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryPrivate cloud: IBM’s focusThere are really two private cloud options: outsourcing andinsourcing. With outsourced, or external private, clouds are asingle-tenant cloud outsourced to a second party; internalprivate clouds are those run by the same entity that uses them.In the outsourced private cloud deployment model, the privatecloud may be operated inside a firm’s fire wall at its data centeror at the outsourcer’s facility.IBM is focusing on providing and supporting the creationof private clouds, as well as the transition from enterprisecomputing models to an integrated enterprise-private cloudmodel. From IBM’s perspective, an IBM or IBM-suppliedprivate cloud represents a more secure, stable, reliable,predictable and controlled environment than the public cloudenvironment. Gartner predicted last year that while publicclouds have generated most of the media attention, on thisemerging compute model most organizations will initially optto build private clouds internally. Costs can actually go up ifall a company wants to do is replace its current on-premisesoperations with an exact replica in the cloud. (The interest inthe public cloud deployment model is being driven by a mediacompany’s ability to manage variable work loads over shorttime periods without incurring additional capital expense.) Figure 9. Private cloud
IBM Sales and Distribution 25• Business models: • Technical activities: – Off-site preservation/disaster recovery: Copies of digital – Cloud technical readiness assessment: Does the masters are stored off-site or in a separate physical enterprise have the proper SOA stack to provide the location from digital masters for business continuity. complex integration that is required? – Off-site production support: Off-site pre-production – Ingest-index: Technical and descriptive metadata need research using search-browse of metadata, preview of to be associated with the content through wrappers low resolution proxies of archived content, and and/or in metadata repository. repurposing of (on-site or off-site) preserved content. – Transcode: If low resolution proxies are not generated• Benefits by enterprise systems, they will need to be generated for – Strong protection of content and systems manipulating the private cloud. These proxies should be lower quality content since this is a closed environment than broadcast quality and optionally include visible – Reduction of capital expenses/fixed costs, as well as some watermarks. operating costs – Inventory connectors/integration-as-a-service (make• Assets: or buy). – Off-site copies of digital assets: Bit-for-bit identical – Storage assessment: Analysis for current and future copies of digital assets stored off-site, perhaps, originally storage requirements by application and user access for disaster recovery and for B2B, and later for location will provide a baseline of current storage costs, generation of packaged digital derivatives for multi- limitations, and future requirements on which to channel distribution. develop cloud architecture requirements. – Low resolution proxies: Low bitrate video proxies that • Critical decisions: enable enterprise users, such as producers and editors, – What content should be placed in the cloud? and external users, such as B2B business partners, to – What content cannot be placed in the cloud? search the digital content inventory. – What metadata needs to be captured? – Metadata: Metadata must be associated with content – What latency and usage requirements drive whether the content is on the enterprise premises or in content location? the cloud. Metadata repositories may be replicated – What are the anticipated communications costs to between enterprise and cloud deployment models. connect to the private cloud?• Business activities: – What SLAs are required to support a private cloud? – Cloud readiness assessment or private cloud business case: Readiness means mapping out the business or functional components of the enterprise, identifying which components are candidates for the cloud based on lowering storage costs and processing costs (few servers required in the enterprise), as well as economies of scale, in general. As mentioned before, cost savings are not assured with cloud computing. – Risk assessment: Assess security, reliability and content protection provided by the cloud.
26 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryHybrid cloud (combined private and public cloud • Business models:deployment models) – Multi-channel distribution of content: Three-screen distribution including licensing broadcast quality digital content (from digital copies) and monetizing derivative content (selected, segmented, transcoded, wrapped content) for broadband and mobility • Benefits: – Strong protection of content and systems manipulating content since this is a closed environment – Reduction of capital expenses/fixed costs, as well as some operating costs – Potential joint venture/shared revenue opportunity with cloud provider – Potential to accelerate content distribution and market share with only incremental costs (business intelligence features, content processing to create, stage and distribute to three screens) – Additional revenue stream from distribution of content • Assets: – Digital copies for licensing rebroadcast (created during “private cloud phase”) – Derivative content (“manufactured” content—formats made to order) – Packaged digital goods metadata—metadata associated with the derivative content (including but not limited to technical metadata, rights and descriptive metadata) • Business activities: – Distribution business case: Consumer demand estimation. What are the competitive pressures? Is exposing content to consumers at an accelerated rate now considered to be an investment or has it reached Figure 10. Hybrid cloud the stage where it might be considered the cost of doing business? What are competitors doing? What should the brand be? What pricing schemes should be applied? – Projected ROI: Identify revenue potential – Distribution pipeline: B2B partners – Rights management: Selection of digital rights management (DRM), key hosting – E-commerce: Selection of clearinghouse
IBM Sales and Distribution 27 – Integration strategy: Identification of candidate legacy General recommendations and other external systems for integration 1. Enhance digital supply chain by starting with the archive. – Analytics/business intelligence: Necessary for Digital archive is a core IBM competency. IBM has, understanding actual consumer demand patterns and perhaps, the longest history in the industry at designing, developing a dynamic pricing strategy implementing, and integrating digital archives. Digital• Technical activities: content and consumer demand are brought together – Distribution formats: Required distribution efficiently and effectively with a strong digital supply specifications, formats and DRMs chain strategy. A good place for media companies to start – Identify required content processes using cloud storage and services is with their archives. – Packaged digital goods inventory connectors/ Media companies, which already store copies of their integration-as-a-service (make or buy) content off-site for disaster recovery purposes, may – Provide partner access to search-browse-preview leverage additional revenue streams from stock footage of content licensing and from the manufacture of digital derivatives – Analytics/BI integration for multichannel distribution. IBM private clouds can – Metadata transformation for export provide the reliability, security, and content protection – Wrap/package content: Wrap content with metadata media companies expect. and rights information 2. Pilot cloud project – Analysis of volume variability, retrieval SLAs (latency The best way to learn about the issues and benefits of requirements, variability with age, other attributes), cloud is to use the technology. A pilot could be storing on which to base private-hybrid-public cloud non-mission-critical content or data in a public cloud. Some applicability, storage tier architecture, and location have taken steps to use storage-as-a-service and platform- limitation requirements as-a-service for overflow purposes. For example, The New• Critical decisions: York Times used a public cloud during the 2008 presidential – Selection of B2B partners/pipeline election for traffic overflow. It doesn’t make sense to invest – Pricing strategy in servers and storage that may never be used again. – DRMs: For inclusion in “manufacturing” and 3. Perform a security assessment. “packaging” processing Whether one builds one’s own private cloud, signs a contract for managed services in a private cloud, or uses aSummary of media cloud evolution public cloud, one should assess system security using bothAs mentioned previously, despite the issues and challenges, internal and external experts. IBM and other companiesmedia companies continue to adopt clouds, and the cloud offer security assessments that include content protection/provider business continues to grow and mature. Given the access/encryption/vulnerability analysis, general networkrisks—stolen content, lost revenue, reuse of content in and application security.inappropriate ways and the potential impact on brand, thegrowing consensus on the part of media companies is thatthey must take a pragmatic, incremental approach. Here aresome general recommendations to help media companiesget started with cloud.
28 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment Industry4. Learn from other industries: Retail, education and healthcare. Take advantage of the work done by the retail industry. Supply chain management, logistics and risk management processes created for manufacturing and retail can be applied to digital goods and digital supply chain management. Given declining advertising dollars and the downturn in the economy, it is not unusual to hear terms like digital supply chain management, derivative manufacturing, and B2B order/fulfillment.5. Identify the complex integration. Not all integration work is created equally. Despite all the claims around simple integration of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software components and applications, expect to perform some integration work. As one looks to integrate Figure 11. Strategic analysis and cloud deployment with in-house legacy systems, especially those never designed for integration, the complexity increases. Integration of the production workflow and/or archive workflow with legacy and backend business systems—titling, rights management, 7. Identify the optimal cloud deployment model. ERP and CRM represent a higher level of complexity. Each media company is unique. Therefore, first understand Another layer of complexity is the integration of third-party current costs, workflows volumes, IT architecture and content manufacturing processes—transcoding, aspect ratio security. Develop a baseline understanding and plan a conversion, up/down conversion, quality control and so transition along the continuum or evolutionary path forth. IBM recommends that media companies follow an described above. evolutionary path and not bite off too much at once.6. Storage assessment and strategy The value of cloud services will be based on IT application and use requirements; volumes, including variability; and latency requirements. An analysis of enterprise storage and backup environments, coupled with a forecast of future requirements, is critical. IBM recommends a storage assess- ment to gain full insight into the best approaches for using cloud technology to minimize TCO and meet enterprise performance objectives and flexibility requirements.
IBM Sales and Distribution 29IBM Global Business Service cloud “get Similarly, depending on where a media company identifiesstarted” and “keep going” offerings itself on its own cloud roadmap, projects can be tailored toIBM has a set of Global Business Service offerings to support meet each media company’s unique set of needs from amedia companies that are considering deploying and menu of approaches and techniques. These approaches andoptimizing cloud computing. A typical strategy and change techniques can be mixed and matched to form a very targetedengagement might look like that in Figure 12. engagement and executed using IBM’s proven methodology. Figure 12. Sample strategy engagement
30 Cloud Computing for the Media and Entertainment IndustryCloud computing resourcesThe following information will provide good referencematerials around cloud computing definitions, frameworksand security.National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/This website contains NIST’s definition of cloud computingand other related guidance. This definition will serve as afoundation for our upcoming publication on cloud models,architectures and deployment strategies. Computer scientists atNIST developed this draft definition in collaboration withindustry and government and we expect it to evolve over timeas the cloud industry and cloud technology matures.NIST Definition of Cloud Computinghttp://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.docPresentation on effectively and securely using the cloudcomputing paradigmEuropean Network and Information Security Agency Figure 13. NIST Cloud Definition Framework(ENISA)http://www.enisa.europa.eu/ENISA is working with Network and Information Securityfor the EU and the Member States.Cloud Use Case Group (associated with Open CloudManifesto)Read the Cloud Computing Use Cases Whitepaperhttp://opencloudmanifesto.org/Cloud_Computing_Use_Cases_Whitepaper-3_0.pdf
IBM Sales and Distribution 31 Figure 14. Open Cloud User Group Open Cloud FrameworkIBM developerWorks® Cloud Computinghttp://www.ibm.com/developerworks/cloud/ John A. Hoehn, MS. MBAAn excellent resource for getting started in cloud computing Mr. Hoehn is currently working in the role of global SME in the Media and Entertainment (M&E) industry. During his tenure at IBM, he has provided aand connecting with the cloud computing community. decade of experience in various business, management and technical roles working with premier M&E clients. He is a doctoral candidate whoseFIPS 140-2 Security Requirements for Cryptographic dissertation topic is “How media companies make decisions to extendModules digital supply chains using cloud computing”.http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips140-2/fips1402.pdf Contributors • Peter H. Guglielmino, CTO, IBM Digital MediaDigital Cinema Initiative, Key Delivery Message • Richard D. Hennessy, Client IT Architect(encryption) • Jay Rostonhttp://www.dcimovies.com/reference/ • Janet Snowdon, M&E Business Development Executive