IBM Global Technology Services April 2011Thought Leadership White PaperGetting cloud computing rightThe key to business success in a cloud adoption is a robust,proven architecture.
2 Getting cloud computing rightContents As a consequence, interest in cloud computing is very strong. In one IBM study, between 45 and 55 percent of IT leaders 2 Introduction surveyed reported implementing or planning to implement a 3 The importance of a proven cloud reference architecture private cloud project1 and 91 percent of the 2,000 IT profession- als responding to the most recent IBM Tech Trends Survey 5 Deﬁning the requirements for industrial strength cloud anticipate that in ﬁve years cloud computing will overtake tradi- service delivery tional on-premises computing as the primary way organizations acquire IT.211 Supporting an open, vendor-neutral approach to infrastructure The reasons cited are compelling. Early adopters of cloud11 Simplifying service development and adoption with computing—including IBM’s own IT organization and standards-based tools IBM customers—have already realized signiﬁcant beneﬁts, including:12 External partners help extend cloud capabilities ● Reducing IT labor cost by up to 50 percent in conﬁguration,13 Real-world examples of cloud services built on the IBM reference architecture operations, management and monitoring ● Reducing server and application provisioning cycle times from19 Summary weeks to minutes ● Improving quality, eliminating up to 30 percent of20 For more information software defects ● Lowering end-user IT support costs by up to 40 percent.IntroductionToday’s CIOs and business leaders from industry and govern- With the growing adoption of cloud computing there has been aments around the globe are challenged to stay competitive and concurrent growth in the number and variety of vendors in themeet business objectives. Aligning the enterprise IT model with marketplace with cloud offerings. These providers range fromthe business, controlling costs and keeping pace with the rapid established IT industry leaders like IBM to software as a servicerate of innovation are critical. vendors leveraging cloud computing to broaden their scope— Salesforce.com, for example—to players leveraging other domain expertise or partnerships to enter the cloud arena, such as Amazon, Google, Cisco and VMware, along with numerous telecommunications and hosting service providers.
IBM Global Technology Services 3The more crowded this marketplace becomes, the more chal- practices in a standardized, methodical way, this reference archi-lenging it is for CIOs to select the right cloud vendor to meet tecture ensures consistency and quality across IBM developmentthe organization’s needs. And as the applications deployed on and delivery projects. IBM’s cloud reference architecture:private or public clouds move up the value chain and into theenterprise computing realm, the stakes increase as well—with ● Is based on open standardsselection criteria shifting from an emphasis on price to consider- ● Delivers robust security, governance, compliance and privacyations such as security, reliability, scalability, control and tooling, capabilitiesand a trusted vendor relationship. ● Combines powerful automation and services management (low touch) with rich business management functions for fullyThe importance of a proven cloud integrated, top-to-bottom management of cloud infrastructurereference architecture and cloud servicesCloud computing can potentially be a disruptive change to the ● Supports the full spectrum of cloud service models, includingway an enterprise’s IT services are delivered. We propose that infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS),examining a candidate cloud solution provider’s reference archi- software as a service (SaaS) and business process as atecture should be a standard element of a CIO’s cloud vendor service (BPaaS)evaluation strategy. To that end, in this paper we will describe ● Enables the ﬂexible scaling and resiliency required forthe proven cloud computing reference architecture that successful cloud economics and ROIIBM employs in building private clouds for clients, private ● Facilitates seamless integration into existing customers’clouds that house IBM internal applications and the IBM Cloud environmentsthat supports our public cloud service offerings. This same ● Is based on our industry-leading expertise with SOA forreference architecture is reﬂected in the design of IBM cloud building services and service-oriented architectures.appliances (bundled hardware and software for cloud implemen- Employing best practices for continuous improvementtation) and IBM cloud service management software products. Developed by the IBM cloud computing architecture board— comprising technology leaders from IBM Research and IBM’sCloud computing must be enabled with effective security, software, systems and services organizations—the referenceresiliency, service management, governance, business planning architecture is derived from extensive client interaction com-and lifecycle management. These are the components of an bined with IBM’s extensive capabilities and experience in build-effective and comprehensive cloud architecture that will enable ing industrial strength IT systems and SOA solutions. Moreover,the enterprise to control the environment more effectively, a process of continuous improvement (see Figure 1) helps ensureoptimize productivity, reduce associated labor costs and ensure a that the reference architecture is both responsive to real-worldresilient, safe environment for business users. By delivering best implementation experiences and technology developments via IBM products and evolving design speciﬁcations.
4 Getting cloud computing right Following the continuous improvement strategy, IBM has recently extended the reference architecture to address two Lessons Lessons industry-speciﬁc requirement sets. For telecommunications serv- learned and learned and requirements requirements ice providers, offering cloud-based services is a key strategy for business expansion and revenue growth. The IBM Cloud Service IBM Cloud IBM Cloud Provider Platform (CSP2) solution design captures the unique Reference Research (public) requirements and operational models within the cloud that will Architecture enable service providers to create, manage and monetize high- volume, large-scale multitenant, blended cloud-based services. IBM systems, IBM internal software, and client For the healthcare industry, IBM has extended the reference services private clouds architecture to address, for example, data privacy concerns in developing cloud-based collaborative care solutions for physicians and patients.Figure 1: Continuous improvement helps ensure that both real-worldexperiences and technology advancements from IBM Research are integratedinto IBM’s cloud reference architecture and management components. Principles guiding IBM’s cloud architecture decisions An architectural principle is an overarching guideline or para-This reference architecture provides speciﬁcations not only for digm driving decisions across the entire architecture devel-the physical components of a cloud implementation (network, opment process. IBM established three principles that guidecompute, storage, virtualization), but as importantly for the IBM cloud architects in deﬁning the detailed components ofsoftware components required to run operational and business each module:management processes. It also deﬁnes governance policies ● Efficiency principle. Design for cloud-scale efficienciestailored for the environment or organization. and time-to-deliver/time-to-change metrics when realizing cloud characteristics such as elasticity, self-serviceIBM’s cloud reference architecture provides detailed documenta- access and ﬂexible sourcing. Objective: drive down coststion of all components, including how to realize each component per service instance hour and time to response by ordersfor cloud-scale efficiencies. More than a single-use diagram for a of magnitude.discrete implementation, it is a comprehensive, tightly integrated ● Lightweight principle. Support lean and lightweightcompilation of documents that describe in detail how to build a service management policies, processes and technologiesmanagement platform for delivering any type of service—and with an eliminate-standardize-optimize evolutionaryincludes use cases, non-functional requirements, components, approach. Objective: radical exploitation of standardizationoperations, security, performance and scalability, resiliency, con- in cloud environments to reduce management costs.sumability considerations, cloud service creation guidance and ● Economies-of-scale principle. Identify and leveragemuch more. Various aspects are covered in different documents, commonality in cloud service design. Objective: Optimize sharing of management components and infrastructureand in the aggregate these documents make up the reference across cloud services to reduce capital expense, operatingarchitecture. This loose-coupling approach allows architectural expense and time to market.elements to be reﬁned independently, focusing subject matterexpertise and enabling parallel development and rapid innova-tion. A set of architectural principles (see sidebar Principlesguiding IBM’s architectural decisions) guides IBM cloud architectsacross the entire development process.
IBM Global Technology Services 5Deﬁning the requirements for industrial (see Figure 2). With this strict separation of concerns, the cloudstrength cloud service delivery architecture enables speciﬁc perspectives to be assumed in orderIBM’s cloud reference architecture addresses the three major to understand the requirements, expectations and value proposi-roles in any cloud computing environment: cloud service tions placed upon the system, and the supporting capabilitiesprovider, cloud service creator and cloud service consumer necessary to fulﬁll these requirements. Cloud Cloud Service Provider Cloud Service Service Consumer Creator Cloud Services Common Cloud Management Platform (CCMP) Partner Business Process Capabilities as a Service Cloud Service Integration Software Tools as a Service Operational Business Service Support Support Creation Tools Platform Services Services Consumer as a Service (OSS) (BSS) In-house IT Infrastructure as a Service Infrastructure Security, Resiliency and Performance GovernanceFigure 2: This high-level diagram illustrates how the cloud reference architecture developed by IBM addresses the requirements of all participants in the cloudecosystem: cloud service providers, cloud service creators and cloud consumers.
6 Getting cloud computing right● From the service consumer’s perspective, a simpliﬁed interface cloud services layer and the physical infrastructure layer. This is needed with well-understood service offerings, pricing and approach is critical to maintaining consistency in how various contracts. The value proposition for the service consumer is to non-functional requirements are executed at each of these other get fast, on-demand access to the service they need while only layers of the architecture. For example, if a security policy at the paying for the period of time the service is used. highest level deﬁnes that customer information cannot leave the● From the service provider’s perspective, a highly efficient serv- country, then at the lower level of physical resources, disk space ice delivery and service support infrastructure and organization must be allocated only in the country where the data originates. are needed in order to provide differentiated, well-understood, standardized and high-quality services to end users. Service IBM’s reference architecture speciﬁcations incorporate proven management makes it possible for signiﬁcant economies of security and reliability technologies as well as simpliﬁed security scale to be achieved. A self-service portal allows exposing a management and enforcement. Built on IBM’s published security well-deﬁned set of services in a highly automated fashion at a framework as well as extensive industry security leadership, very attractive cost point. IBM security surrounding clouds focuses on developing trusted● From the service creator’s perspective, a tooling environment virtual domains, authentication, isolation management, policy is needed for modeling and assembling service elements and integrity management, and access control (see Figure 3)— (virtual images, for example) as well as an effective means resulting in cloud environments that are secure by design. of managing the service lifecycle. Within the context of the reference architecture, IBM can work with clients to tailor a private or public security implementationProviding end-to-end, workload-appropriate qualities to meet the requirements of different workloads.of serviceIn IBM’s cloud reference architecture, security, resiliency, per-formance and consumability underpin all other service providercomponents: the common cloud management platform, the Security Resiliency Software, Resiliency Command Identity Lifecycle Data System and Compliance and Control Management Resiliency Service Assurance Assessment Audit and Security Access Conﬁguration for Resiliency Policy Compliance Policy Management Resiliency Management Management Availability and Threat and Security Data policy Resiliency Continuity Vulnerability Entitlement enforcement Monitoring/Analysis ManagementFigure 3: Cloud security and resiliency architecture components.
IBM Global Technology Services 7Although IBM’s cloud security architecture is built on decades For example, a medical research application pulls data from clin-of experience with mainframe architectures and industry-leading ical and billing services from multiple hospitals, so patient namesexperience in service security in enterprise solutions, security for and other personally identiﬁable information must be removedvirtualized resources in a public, multitenant cloud environment from all sources. The centralized entitlements management serv-is still very much a work in progress across the IT industry. ice speciﬁed in the reference architecture can help ensure thatIBM continuously invests in research and development of common policy is deﬁned and enforced to protect patientstronger isolation at all levels of the network, server, hypervisor, conﬁdentiality across all cloud services.process and storage infrastructure to support massive multite-nancy and hybrid clouds. Common cloud management platform: optimizing service delivery through visibility, control and automationThe key security focus areas for the cloud services layer include: Well-designed cloud architectures and solutions must address the difficult realities of “layers of complexity” in distributed● Federated identity, authorization and entitlements IT environments. While much industry discussion has focused● Audit and compliance reporting on infrastructure (network, compute, storage), signiﬁcant chal-● Intrusion detection and prevention lenges also exist in achieving the low-touch automation required● Secure separation of subscriber domains to successfully scale to economically successful cloud solutions.● Secure integration with existing enterprise security Masking complexity for users, supporting cloud business models infrastructure. and managing heterogeneous, distributed environments are the top service management challenges for any cloud architecture.IBM’s reference architecture is designed to provide security serv-ices in a highly dynamic and agile fashion, potentially under very To address these challenges—and to enable the standardizationcomplex trust relationships in a large and open user population and scaling required for cloud computing—IBM’s referencewhere there are no pre-established relationships between cloud architecture establishes a common cloud management platformprovider and subscriber. IBM’s approach also enables ﬁne-tuning (CCMP) that integrates the operational and business manage-of execution to match the security requirements of different ment of all layers of the cloud environment, including thetypes of workloads. CCMP itself. The CCMP exposes a set of management services which are generally needed for the delivery and managementWhile many cloud vendor implementations focus on speciﬁc of any cloud service—across infrastructure-, platform-, software-protocols, such as OpenID for identity federation, and favor and business process-as-a-service. Cloud service developers usespeciﬁc architectural styles, such as representational state transfer the services provided by the CCMP to realize the economies(REST), it is IBM’s point of view that enterprise-class cloud of scale, reuse and standardization required for achieving thecomputing must not limit its users to a speciﬁc protocol or extremely high degrees of efficiency associated with any cloudstyle, but rather offer ﬂexibility and choice. IBM supports computing environment. In a traditional IT environment it isREST-based interfaces and protocols where appropriate. common to see a software component developed uniquely forAdditionally, IBM’s cloud reference architecture addresses estab- different areas of the business—so that accounts receivablelishing and managing consistent policies for entitlements and uses one billing application, for example, while web commerceaccess control—which are needed to ensure that the underlying uses a different one. With IBM’s common cloud managementcomponents of a cloud service maintain data conﬁdentiality platform, the service provider deploys one billing applicationand adhere to compliance regulations. or other software component and may reuse that instance as appropriate.
8 Getting cloud computing right The CCMP is comprised of two modules: operationalFour cloud service delivery models: a helpful taxonomy support services (OSS) and business support services (BSS) (see Figure 4). The IBM reference architecture decomposesInfrastructure cloud services (“infrastructure as a service” each module into components and sub-components or functionsor IaaS)—The capability provided to the consumer is to pro- required for creating a CCMP implementation. For each mod-vision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental ule, the reference architecture includes a detailed componentcomputing resources where the consumer is able to deployand run arbitrary software, which can include operating sys- model that:tems and applications. The consumer does not manage orcontrol the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control ● Deﬁnes each component and sub-component, including howover operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and the components are different from the traditional enterprisepossibly limited control of select networking components IT management scope(e.g., host ﬁrewalls).4 ● Incorporates industry standards, including ITIL-based bestPlatform cloud services (“platform as a service” or PaaS)— practices for service managementThe capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto ● Provides product-neutral guidance (speciﬁcation) on howthe cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired appli- each functional component should be scoped and realized tocations created using programming languages and tools support cloud-scale efficiencies and costssupported by the provider. The consumer does not manage ● Details the relationships and dependencies between individualor control the underlying cloud infrastructure including net- components, including diagrams and textual descriptions ofwork, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control component interfacesover the deployed applications and possibly application ● Identiﬁes candidate IBM software products (internal applica-hosting environment conﬁgurations.5 tions for use in IBM clouds as well as IBM commercial soft-Application cloud services (“software as a service” or ware products) that CCMP implementation teams can use.SaaS)—The capability provided to the consumer is to use These include IBM Tivoli® service management and cloudthe provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. computing products; IBM WebSphere® portal and applicationThe applications are accessible from various client devices server products; and IBM DB2® database software.through a thin client interface such as a web browser(e.g., web-based email). The consumer does not manage orcontrol the underlying cloud infrastructure including network,servers, operating systems, storage, or even individualapplication capabilities, with the possible exception oflimited user-speciﬁc application conﬁguration settings.6Business process cloud services (“business process as aservice” or BPaaS)—Business process services are anybusiness process (horizontal or vertical) delivered throughthe cloud service model (multitenant, self-service provision-ing, elastic scaling and usage metering or pricing) via theInternet with access via web-centric interfaces and exploit-ing web-oriented cloud architecture. The BPaaS provideris responsible for the related business function(s).
IBM Global Technology Services 9 Common Cloud Management Platform Operational Support Services (OSS) Business Support Services (BSS) Service Delivery Catalog Customer Service Service Account Offering Offering Management Catalog Management Service Automation Management Service Development Portal and API Service Consumer Portal and API Contracts and Service Order Agreement Request Service Change and Image Management Management Management Request Conﬁguration Lifecycle Management Management Management Subscription Entitlement Pricing Incident and IT Service Management Management Provisioning Problem Level Management Management Metering Rating Billing Monitoring IT Asset and Capacity and and Event License Performance Management Management Management Clearing and Accounts Accounts Settlement Payable Receivable Platform and Virtualization Management Service Provider Portal and APIFigure 4: The components of the Common Cloud Management Platform execute the operational and business management of all layers of the cloudenvironment, including the CCMP itself.
10 Getting cloud computing rightOperational Support Services hardware failure—zero touch administration and “lights out”The OSS module deﬁnes the set of systems management serv- automated operation at a much lower cost—that characterizesices that may be exploited by cloud service developers. Many service management in the cloud and is described in theof the management domains speciﬁed in the OSS (see Figure 4) IBM Cloud Computing reference architecture.can also be encountered in traditionally managed data centers,such as monitoring and event management, provisioning, inci- Business Support Servicesdent and problem management. Although these management The BSS module deﬁnes the capabilities required to enable thedomains are conceptually the same in both traditional and cloud business management of one or more speciﬁc managed cloudIT environments, in a cloud architecture these domains can be services. For example, the billing service component of the BSSimplemented in very different ways. must be capable of performing billing for the consumption of virtual machine resources (infrastructure as a service), a multite-Consider, for example, incident and problem management. If a nancy capable middleware platform (platform as a service) andphysical server fails in a traditional IT environment, a trouble a multitenancy application such as collaboration or customerticket is opened and assigned to a systems administrator for relationship management (software as a service).manual (and therefore costly) intervention and resolution. Ifthe problem is not resolved in the time speciﬁed by service level Other components of the BSS (see Figure 4) address serviceagreements, it may be escalated until it is resolved. If a physical management and automation at the user interface level. Theseserver fails in a cloud environment, new virtual machines (and capabilities include a user-friendly self-service interface and serv-their applications) are automatically brought up on another ice offering catalog through which consumers select, conﬁgure,physical server where resources are available, without delaying arrange payment for and discontinue cloud services. The BSShandling the incident with a long, drawn-out investigation of delivers the functions required to operate a self-service cloudthe failed physical machine. This approach is typically referred business. These include automated, rules-based execution ofto as “replace vs. repair,” based on the assumption that manually pricing, contracts and agreements, invoicing, and clearingrepairing things is often more complex than just replacing them. and settlement. The BSS also provides business managementClearly, this is not possible for all workload types. SLAs and root capabilities, including offering, customer, subscriber, order,cause analysis still has to be done for broken physical machines, fulﬁllment and entitlement management.but it gives inspiration on how management processes can berealized in novel ways. It is this kind of rules-based response to
IBM Global Technology Services 11Enabling the business side of the cloud services paradigm A key factor to consider in evaluating a cloud reference architec-Cloud services represent any type of IT capability that is offered ture is how these typically virtualized resources will be managed.by the cloud service provider to cloud service consumers. Typical As a vendor designing, implementing or managing privatecategories of cloud services are infrastructure, platform, software cloud implementations for customers—either on premises oror business process services. In contrast to traditional IT serv- outsourced—IBM’s reference architecture is vendor and technol-ices, cloud services have attributes associated with cloud comput- ogy neutral. This approach means that IT organizations haveing, such as a pay-per-use model, self-service acquisition of greater ﬂexibility in repurposing existing physical server, storageservices, ﬂexible scaling, and sharing of underlying IT resources. and network resources for use in a cloud environment.In the IBM cloud reference architecture, the CCMP is designed Simplifying service development andto enable these cloud-speciﬁc capabilities through the OSS— adoption with standards-based toolswhile handling the ongoing management of all of the provider’s In evaluating vendors for enterprise-class cloud solutions, con-cloud service instances—while the BSS is responsible for sider also the way a vendor’s reference architecture supports thehandling all business-relevant aspects of a cloud service. tools that service creators and service consumers use to develop and integrate cloud services. Some cloud platforms are highlySupporting an open, vendor-neutral proprietary, and in turn require developers to use proprietaryapproach to infrastructure tools and develop to proprietary standards, resulting in highThe infrastructure layer of the cloud reference architecture switching costs to move logic, data or applications from onecomprises all hardware infrastructure elements needed to pro- cloud service provider to another.vide cloud services. This includes facilities as well as the server,storage and network resources and how those resources are IBM’s approach to cloud computing focuses on open standardsdeployed and connected within a data center. It is important to such as Java®, JEE, Web 2.0, Ajax, Uniﬁed Modelingnote that in a true cloud environment, signiﬁcant engineering Language and Eclipse as well as broad support for IBM andand thinking must be invested for selecting and deploying these non-IBM hardware platforms, operating systems, virtualizationinfrastructure elements to achieve minimal costs in combination platforms and hypervisors. IBM Tivoli service management andwith optimal performance, scalability, security and resiliency. automation software as well as IBM WebSphere middleware and
12 Getting cloud computing rightIBM DB2 information management software are standards Service integration tools: It is important for customers to bebased and support interoperability. Similarly, IBM offers a range able to integrate cloud services with in-house IT. This function-of products and technologies, including the IBM Rational® ality is speciﬁcally relevant in the context of hybrid clouds, wherefamily of products, designed to support industry standards and seamless integrated management and usage of different cloudenable rapid, cost-effective development and testing of cloud services and in-house IT is critical. IBM and IBM Businessservices. IBM also offers services based on its industry-leading Partners offer a range of service integration tools and services forSOA services and experience. both in-house and hybrid cloud integration, extending services from existing SOA solutions.The reference architecture builds on existing SOA referencearchitecture standards3 and deﬁnes open standards support for External partners help extend cloudseveral categories of tools used by service creators and service capabilitiesconsumers. These include: As an extension of its philosophy of an open, vendor-neutral approach to cloud computing, IBM works with an ecosystemService creation tools: Service creation tools are used to create of IBM Business Partners to accelerate and optimize the journeynew cloud services. These include tools for developing runtime to a cloud environment. This ecosystem will continue to growcomponents, such as virtual machine images or SaaS applica- as cloud computing matures and expands to include new work-tions, as well as tools supporting the development of cloud loads. IBM works with independent software vendors (ISVs) toservice-speciﬁc management conﬁgurations and artifacts for all enable them to deliver their applications on IBM public cloudsOSS and BSS components. These conﬁgurations and artifacts in an IBM-hosted environment. IBM’s partner ecosystem alsodeﬁne how the CCMP OSS and BSS functionality is used in includes companies that offer software development platforms,the context of the respective cloud service. open-source toolkits, virtualization technology and platform services that can provide cloud customers the capabilities for delivery success and the ability to meet and even exceed their own business case milestones. IBM is also making it easier for ISV and enterprise software developers to gain cloud computing skills with no-charge access to online workshops, skills tutorials, and social networking tools.
IBM Global Technology Services 13Real-world examples of cloud services 2. The logical design of the cloud solution can be derived frombuilt on the IBM reference architecture the detailed architecture overview provided by the referenceIBM employs a well-deﬁned process for using the cloud refer- architecture. The architect/designer can choose from existingence architecture to implement numerous clouds that are solution patterns to guide the design, choose the applicableoperational today and delivering value to IBM clients and the architectural components that are needed to support thecompany itself. Our experience demonstrates that using the requirements, and choose the appropriate products to imple-cloud reference architecture signiﬁcantly reduces the time and ment the components.resources required to deﬁne, build and deploy cloud infrastruc- 3. The physical design of the cloud solution deﬁnes the detailstures and realize business value. of the implementation. The ﬁrst step is to choose the detailed components and nodes from those deﬁned in the referenceThe reference architecture supports the detailed design of the architecture that will form the basis of the implementation.cloud solution in three major steps: These are augmented with the deﬁnition of the service ﬂows (derived from those provided by the reference architecture) of1. Deﬁne the requirements (both functional and non-functional) the automated management processes. The ﬁnal step is to lay for the cloud implementation by leveraging and extending the out the details of the solution deployment, including nodes, deﬁned roles, use cases and non-functional requirements from networking and topologies. the reference architecture. Furthermore, the reference archi- tecture deﬁnes a step-by-step process for creating new cloud The above design approach is further supported by the reference services as the basis for capturing requirements associated with architecture through the deﬁnition of applicable architectural each new service that the cloud implementation will deliver. decisions, standards and detailed technical domains (e.g., scala- Finally, the reference architecture provides the considerations bility and performance) that can be used to guide the solution for the consumability of the cloud services that can be used design and implementation details. Note that the reference to impose further requirements on the implementation. architecture provides this support in terms of documented work products that cover each of the areas discussed above, and is con- sistent with the solution design methodology used across IBM.
14 Getting cloud computing rightMoreover, as we will describe in the two examples that follow, ● A private, internal development and test cloud for IBM. Thethe reference architecture can equally accommodate the different IBM CIO operations department needed a self-service testingrequirements of public and private clouds as well as varying environment to support developers in multiple different ITuse cases: organizations within IBM. The main objective of the cloud implementation was to reduce the time and cost required to● Development and test services on the IBM public cloud. The build and manage development and test environments. The IBM SmartCloud Enterprise service is designed to augment CIO implemented a cloud computing environment using and enhance software development and delivery capabilities, IBM Integrated Service Management solutions to create a particularly in large enterprises where IT departments handle service-oriented approach that allows developers and testers hundreds of development projects every year. Unlike tradi- to quickly provision, deprovision, power on, power off and tional development environments, developers can log on to change the size of their virtual machines. The cloud imple- IBM SmartCloud Enterprise and get access to customizable mentation improved service by reducing the engagement and virtual machines in minutes. To help customers leverage exist- deployment time for provisioning a new image from about ing investments, these new services support development ﬁve days to one hour; decreased capital costs by enabling the across heterogeneous environments, including Java, Open CIO to support more people with fewer systems; shortened Source, .NET and the IBM Rational Jazz framework. The the testing life cycle; and lowered end-user costs by providing IBM SmartCloud Enterprise service provides the following billing based on services consumed. features to software developers and testers: instant self-service provisioning of development and test environments; a dynamic As described above, the ﬁrst step in using the reference architec- and elastic environment to support an organizations’ test lab ture to implement a cloud service is to document the service- and build infrastructure; metered pricing. speciﬁc user roles, use cases, non-functional requirements and consumability characteristics, guided by a dedicated work product around cloud service creation. For each of these areas, the reference architecture provides a “starter set” of standard requirements. For example, the reference architecture deﬁnes several dozen use cases, grouped into “packages” along the cloud service life cycle. Table 1 shows an extract of user roles deﬁned in the reference architecture, with examples of speciﬁc user roles identiﬁed for the IBM public and private development and test (dev/test) cloud services. Similarly, Table 2 shows a sampling of standard and service-speciﬁc use cases.
IBM Global Technology Services 15 Reference architecture example user IBM SmartCloud Enterprise A private, internal development and roles test cloud for IBM Cloud Service Provider IBM SmartCloud Enterprise service IBM CIO operations department delivery team Deployment Architect GTS Architect IBM CIO IT Engineering Engineer responsible for deploying integrated Engineer responsible for deploying integrated service delivery management components in service delivery management components in IBM service delivery data center IBM CIO data center Security and Risk Manager GTS Security Team, IBM Service Delivery ITB CIO Security Department Cloud Service Creator IBM SmartCloud Enterprise developers IBM CIO engineering department Offering Manager Project lead for IBM SmartCloud Enterprise Project lead for IBM CIO private cloud project Cloud Service Consumer Various companies and users of the service Various IBM developers Consumer Business Manager Company Business Manager IBM Line of Business IT manager Consumer End User Company end users IBM CIO Line of Business end usersTable 1. Comparison of example user roles. Reference architecture example use IBM SmartCloud Enterprise A private, internal development and cases test cloud for IBM Self-guided information and education Educate end users about the capabilities of Educate end users on how to use the the IBM SmartCloud Enterprise offering and self-service portal on how to use the self-service portal Sales channel Primarily web sales channel Internal communications via IT managers Enable customers for consuming managed Registration and subscription management Project onboarding servicesTable 2. Comparison of example use cases.
16 Getting cloud computing rightDocumenting the decisions made for each service-speciﬁc aspect service request manager components to handle the requests fromof a cloud implementation results in work product documents. the service consumer, and the provisioning component to buildThese in turn feed requirements into the next step for using the up the virtual development/test environments associated withcloud reference architecture: developing the implementation- the request.speciﬁc architecture overview diagram of the cloud implementa-tion. The reference architecture overview diagram serves as the While both public and private cloud services employ the meter-starting point for this exercise. In Figure 5, we can see where the ing components of the BSS, the implementation of support forservice-speciﬁc requirements for the public and private cloud consumers from outside IBM—in the case of IBM SmartCloudservices resulted in different implementation-speciﬁc approaches Enterprise—is quite different compared to supporting internalfor certain components of the OSS, BSS and Cloud Services IBM consumers as part of the private cloud implemented by theelements, and where components could be reused from the CIO organization. These differences are identiﬁed in the userreference architecture without customization. roles, use cases, non-functional requirements and all resulting work products as provided by the reference architecture. TheFor example, both the public and private cloud services need to areas highlighted in orange in Figure 5 indicate components ofprovide the following features to software developers and testers: the BSS that the architecture teams addressed uniquely for theinstant self-service provisioning of development and test envi- public cloud service, including the subscriber management com-ronments, and a dynamic and elastic environment to support ponent to handle users; the pricing/rating component to handlechanging demand for services. The areas highlighted in green the various pricing options; and the accounting and billing com-on Figure 5 show how both the public and private service ponent to manage payments.architectures utilize OSS components to orchestrate the cloudservice delivery along with the supporting components necessaryto ensure effective service delivery: the respective portals forrequesting, activating and accessing the services for both theservice consumer and provider, the service delivery catalog and
IBM Global Technology Services 17 Cloud Services Common Cloud Management Platform Partner BPaaS Operational Support Services (OSS) Business Support Services (BSS) Capabilities BPaaS Customer Service Service Service Delivery Catalog Management Account Offering Offering Interfaces Management Catalog Management Service Development Portal and API Service Automation Management Service Consumer Portal and API SaaS Contracts and Service Order Agreement Request Service Change and Image Management Management Management SaaS Mgmt Request Conﬁguration Lifecycle Interfaces Management Management Management Subscription Entitlement Pricing Incident and IT Service Management Management Provisioning Problem Level PaaS Management Management PaaS Mgmt Metering Rating Billing Interfaces Monitoring IT Asset and Capacity and and Event License Performance Management Management Management Clearing and Accounts Accounts IaaS Settlement Payable Receivable Platform and Virtualization Management Platform and Virtualization Management Service Provider Portal and API Infrastructure New element common to both environments New element for public cloud only New element with unique execution in each environment Existing element or not in scopeFigure 5: Some architecture elements are implemented differently to accommodate requirements speciﬁc to public and private clouds.
18 Getting cloud computing rightThe reference architecture was also used in deﬁning thearchitectural overview of the cloud services themselves (see IBM provides a comprehensive set of cloud capabilitieselement shaded in purple in Figure 5). The operating system ● Technology, tools, and skilled resources to help clientscomponents of each dev/test environment, for example, reﬂect plan, build and deliver cloud services. IBM provides clearthe speciﬁc needs of each end user group, with the public cloud economic value and helps the client work through the rightenvironment supporting both Microsoft® Windows® and mix of delivery models and choices by workload to reapRed Hat Enterprise Linux service instances, while the the maximum beneﬁt.internal dev/test cloud is designed to support only Linux. ● A proven, common architecture for the design, build and management of all services across the IBM portfolio,Similarly, the software for the public cloud service—consisting including the cloud environment. The IBM architectureof development and runtime applications delivered as virtual captures the aggregate experience of hundreds ofmachine images through the cloud—is designed to support sev- IBM experts in building cloud environments and service-eral development environments, based on marketplace demand. oriented architectures, across all divisions specializing inThese include IBM DB2 information management systems, hardware, software, service management, research, andIBM WebSphere Application Server and IBM WebSphere MQ, security. ● Unequalled experience and expertise with hybrid cloudto name a few. For the internal development environment, the solutions.cloud service only needs to support the IBM corporate standard ● Global relevance. IBM has partners, delivery centers, andenvironment. a worldwide network of partners in 174 countries. IBM also has the experience of running a globally integrated enter-Once the architecture overview for a new cloud service is prise and understands what it takes to make a globaldeﬁned, architects can focus on specifying the OSS, BSS and company run.cloud service component models, operational models, service ● IT ﬂexibility. Easy connectivity across a wide infrastructureﬂows that result in the ﬁnal implementation—again working and ecosystem of partners.from the reference architecture-level models for domain-speciﬁc ● Robust and secure cloud solutions, based on theand cross-domain areas as the starting point. As a key part of this demanding needs for clear visibility of assets, complexapproach, architectural decisions and implementation-speciﬁc data governance, and security and resilience of thestandards are also captured and documented. solution. ● Simplicity of design. From sourcing to usage to mainte- nance, IBM cloud solutions are designed to be simple,When IBM employs the reference architecture to build cloud intuitive and based on how people actually work.projects like the two just discussed, the resulting service-speciﬁc ● Open standards. IBM has taken a leadership role inarchitecture is captured as an applied pattern. These applied developing standards for cloud computing built on currentpatterns can then be reused to further accelerate development architecture, industry and open standards, including SOA,of similar new cloud services. assuring consistency and compatibility across all cloud platforms.
IBM Global Technology Services 19Summary IBM has a proven reference architecture for building and man-Cloud computing promises a new approach to IT economics— aging cloud solutions, providing an integrated approach that usesbut also presents new challenges. Everyone, from the CIO to the same standards and processes across the entire portfolio ofthe enterprise end user, has come to expect a new standard from products and services. IBM’s expertise and experience in design-technology, including masking complexity, providing enterprise- ing, building and implementing cloud solutions—beginning withclass security, delivering “dial tone” reliability, and wrapping it all its own—offers clients the conﬁdence of knowing that they arein a friendly, easy to use self service package. These expectations engaging not just a provider, but a trusted partner in their ITare fueled in part by users’ personal consumer experiences with endeavors. The IBM Cloud Computing reference architecturecompanies such as Amazon and Google. builds on IBM’s industry-leading experience and success in implementing SOA solutions.Companies are moving ahead with cloud computing projectsas a way to address end user expectations while reducing costs. In the ﬁnal analysis, cloud computing is not just about dataBecause cloud computing can potentially be a disruptive change center technology. It’s about streamlining business processes toto the way an enterprise’s IT services are delivered, the stakes are make organizations and people more strategic, more responsivehigh when it comes to selecting a cloud vendor. One way CIOs to change and more oriented to service delivery. With experi-can narrow the selection gap is by examining candidate vendors’ ence at all levels—from technology, consulting and strategyreference architecture for cloud. services to business processes—IBM is uniquely positioned to collaborate with clients and enable them to reap the signiﬁcant beneﬁts of cloud computing.