TABULATION AND GRAPHICAL DATADone by: Ibrahim Razzan, Di-HRM_3, International Institute for Professional Development
Statistics is the science of collecting, organizing,presenting, analyzing, and interpreting numerical data toassist in making more effective decisions. Definition by Shayaa Othman “Statistics is a scientific method of collecting, organizing, presenting, analysing and interpreting of numerical information, developed from mathematical theory of probability, to assist in making effective and efficient decision.”
It’s a Secondary Data Collection Air India, passengers carried from MALDIVES 2005-2010 YEARS NO.OF PASSENGERS 2005 81945 2006 93417 2007 92483 2008 91096 2009 85448 2010 79135Air India Passengers carried include both domestic and international aircraft passengers of aircarriers registered in the country.
It is a graph in which the classes are reported on the horizontal axisand the class frequencies are on vertical axis. The class frequenciesare proportional to heights of bars. Air India, passengers carried from MALDIVES 2005-2010 95000 90000 85000 80000 No.of 75000 Passengers 70000
1. Beautiful and neatly constructed diagrams/charts are moreattractive then simple figures2. Comparison is made easy and it will save time of the user tomake quick comparison of large data.3. You can record comparison between two things or objects1. Graph categories can be reordered to emphasize certain effects2. Use only with discrete data3. Limited space for labeling with vertical bar graphs
It is a graph that shows the proportion or percent that each classrepresents of the total number of frequencies. No.o Passangers 2010 2005 15% 16% 2009 2006 16% 18% 2008 2007 17% 18%
1. Visual:- functioning as a visual aid to help your audience examine and interpret the data you present. 2. Percentages:- Presents percentage of DATA1. Not Exact:- Since pie charts use percentages to illustrate numericalvalues, specific figures are not provided.2. Can t Compare 2 Data Sets:-
A graph that uses points connected by lines to show how somethingchanges in value (as time goes by, or as something else happens). Air India, passengers carried from MALDIVES 2005-2010 95 Thousands No. of Passengers 90 85 80 75 70 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Years
A diagram consisting of rectangles whose area is proportional to thefrequency of a variable and whose width is equal to the class interval. 2010 2009 No.of Passengers 2008 2007 2006 2005 70000 80000 90000
For a histogram the advantages are. Visually strong , Usuallyvertical axis is a frequency count of items he disadvantages are cannot read exact values because data is grouped into categories, More difficult to compare two data sets.
graphical representation gives a birds-eye, immediate & overallview/perspective without having to read each column/row in a table.it is also easier to remember, understand & recall since visual cues arealso present to strengthen association.but sometimes, some mathematical data can get lost in trying to convertit to graphics, as in case of average, rounding off, percentages, etc.and not all data can be represented graphically.