ACADEMIC FREEDOM AND INSTITUTIONALAUTONOMY: CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES ÜSTÜN ERGÜDER PROFESSOR EMERITUS AT SABANCI UNIVERSITY Istanbul, Turkey PRESIDENT, MAGNA CHARTA OBSERVATORY Bologna, Italy IAU 2010 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE VILNIUS JUNE 25, 2010
THE UNIVERSITY: ONE OF THE OLDEST INSTITUTIONS IN THE WORLD
CENTRAL IMPORTANCE OF ACADEMIC FREEDOMAND INSTITUTONAL AUTONOMY FOR THE IDEA OF UNIVERSITYThe main idea behind the “Humboldtian” concept of university is thatsociety needs institutions dedicated to the search for truth andunderstanding where scholars and students work together in thepursuit of knowledge. (W. V. Humboldt, On the Spirit and theOrganizational Framework of Intellectual Institutions in Berlin.Minerva, 1970Alfred Whitehead: “The justification for a university is that it preservesthe connection between knowledge and the zest of life, by uniting theyoung and the old in the imaginative considerations of learning.”Alfred Whitehead, The Aims of Education and Other Essays. NewYork: New American Library,1949.Michael Oakeshott in his Idea of a Universityemphasizes thecommunitarian aspects of learning: “What distinguishes a universityis a special manner of engaging in the pursuit of learning. It is acorporate body of scholars, each devoted to a particular branch oflearning: What is characteristic is the pursuit of learning as a co-operative exercise.”
MAGNA CHARTA UNIVERSITATUM: Fundamental Principles (1 and 2)1. The university is an autonomous institution at the heart of societies differently organized because of geography and historical heritage; it produces, examines, appraises and hands down culture by research and teaching. To meet the needs of the world around it, its research and teaching must be morally and intellectually independent of all political authority and economic power.2. Teaching and research in universities must be inseparable if their tuition is not to lag behind changing needs, the demands of society, and advances in scientific knowledge.
MAGNA CHARTA UNIVERSITATUM: Fundamental Principles (3)3. Freedom in research and training is the fundamental principle of university life, and governments and universities, each as far as in them lies, must ensure respect for this fundamental requirement. Rejecting intolerance and always open to dialogue, the university is an ideal meeting ground for teachers capable of imparting their knowledge and well equipped to develop it by research and innovation, and for students entitled, and able and willing to enrich their minds with that knowledge.
MAGNA CHARTA UNIVERSITATUM: Fundamental Principles (4)4. A university is the trustee of the European humanist tradition; its constant care is to attain universal knowledge; to fulfill its vocation it transcends geographic and political frontiers, and affirms the vital need for different cultures to know and influence each other.
ACADEMIC FREEDOM AND INSTITUTONAL AUTONOMY OFTEN CONFUSEDAcademic freedom and university autonomyare concepts that have evolved hand-in-handover centuries in a mutually reinforcingfashion.But they are not identical: Academic freedom is a personal privilege accorded to faculty members. University autonomy, on the other hand, is an institutional privilege.
EMERGENCE OF NATION STATEThe external authority also acted as an agent orchannel for accountability. The various charters,bulls and edicts it issued alsoserved as a licensing,accreditation and quality assurance mechanism.From the 19th century on, the external authoritybecame the nation-state.Scott estimates that of the 1,854 universitiesfounded between 1200 and 1985, three quarterswere established since 1900, and 1,101 werefounded between 1950 and 1985.Thus, themodern university, especially the modern highereducation system is a creation of the nation state. P.Scott (ed.) The Globalization of Higher Education. Buckingham,UK: Open University Press, 1988.
MODERN CONCEPT OF ACADEMIC FREEDOM Academic freedom is the right to teach what one believes, to espouse unpopular academic and nonacademic causes, to act upon knowledge and ideas as one perceives them without fear of retribution from anyone. Nothing can diminish the need for academic freedom; its absence has reduced universities to caricatures in many parts of the world. (Rosovsky 1990, 179-81) There are basic differences between the rights of citizenship in a nation and the rights that are attained by joining a voluntary organization. Faculty members are invited to teach and do research and to set educational policy in their sphere of knowledge. (Rosovsky 1990, 265-6).
MODERN CONCEPT OF ACADEMIC FREEDOM “The freedom of the individual academic to teach, to do research and to publish without any external influence.” It should be noted that the original German concept of academic freedom (Lehrfreiheit) was confined within the university. It did not include any rights for academics to engage in politics outside their employment. The encyclopedia of higher education. (Eds. B. R. Clark and G. Neave, 4 vols.), 1295-6 in vol. 2. Pergamon Press. 1992. “....to ensure that academic staff have freedom within the law to question and test received wisdom and to put forward new ideas and or unpopular opinions without placing themselves in jeopardy of losing their jobs or privileges they may have at their institutions. Article 202 of the Education Reform Act. United Kingdom. 1988
Academic Freedom Statement of Sabancı University PreambleThe University is, by tradition and definition, an autonomous center of learning and research devoted to examining, producing, disseminating and transmitting knowledge for the public good. The Universitys obligation to society and to the world community is to ensure scientific integrity and scholarly quality of education. To fulfill this obligation, its research and teaching must be "morally and intellectually independent of all political authority and economic power," as was expressly set forth in the "Magna Charta Universitatum" signed by the Rectors of 29 European Universities in Bologna in 1988.
Academic Freedom Statement of Sabancı University: StatementWith these universal principles in mind, the Board of Trustees, faculty and administration of Sabancı University jointly take responsibility for assuring fullest protection of freedom of inquiry, thought, and expression. Sabancı Universitys commitment to academic freedom finds expression as follows:All members of the University community involved in the practice of dissemination of knowledge are entitled to freedom in the conduct of their teaching in the classroom, of their research on or off campus, and in the publication, discussion and interpretation of research results.The faculty and administration of Sabancı University are responsible for protecting the right of each member of Sabancı University to artistic expression or to freely expressing his or her personal scholarly opinion.The University does not attempt to influence or control the personal opinion or public expression of that opinion of any member of the University community.
Academic Freedom Statement of Sabancı University: StatementThe University respects the expression of opinion and choice of association of members of the University community in their private, civic capacity.The right to academic freedom carries with it the duty to use that freedom in:• Commitment to ethical obligations and responsibilities to the University community and to ones profession.• Commitment to excellence, innovation, and to advancing the frontiers of knowledge in teaching and research at an individual level and in a collaborative spirit.• Making a clear distinction between ones responsibility to the University and ones rights as an individual, and making sure that the expression of views does not implicate or commit the University in any way.
UNIVERSITY AUTONOMYAND THE CHANGING ROLE OF THE STATEBefore the mid 1980so Regulatory state: Prescribes through input controlsIn the global knowledge economyo Evaluative state: evaluates outcomes and outputs Emergence of national and supranationalagencies of quality and accreditation.Accountability becomes the third andcomplementary concept to academicfreedom and institutional autonomy.
TRADITIONAL UNIVERSITY AUTONOMY: Freedom from (State) Interference Who will teach? Who will be taught? What will be taught? Who will be awarded degrees? What will be researched?Almost no emphasis on financial matters: Freedom to (strategic planning, mission and vision)
OECD IDENTIFIES EIGHT CRITERIAOECD, Education Policy Analysis 2003 .Chapter on CHANGING PATTERNS OF GOVERNANCE IN HIGHER EDUCATION Ownership of property: buildings and grounds Ability to borrow and spend Ability to make budgets and spend according to strategic goals. To be able to make your academic design and set course structure Hiring and firing of academic and administrative personnel. Determining salaries. Deciding on student intake Setting tuition for students
RECENT EUA STUDY TO TAKE STOCKOF UNIVERSITY AUTONOMY IN EUROPEThomas Estermann and Terhi Nokkola,” Unıversity in Europe. An Exploratory Study”. Organizational Staffing Autonomy Autonomy Recruitment of staff Internal Academic Civil servant status Structures Governing Bodies Academic Autonomy Executive leadership Institutonal Strategy Financial Autonomy Academic Profile Funding Framework Degree Programmes Funding Capacity Stdent admission
MAJOR RELATED DEVELOPMENTS/CHALLENGES IMPACTING THE GLOBAL HIGHER EDUCATION AGENDAIncreasing demand and massification of higher educationDemographic shift – population explosion versus agingNon-traditional studentsThe rise of market forcesImpact of technologyNew providers, private institutions and increasing competitionInternationalization in response to globalizationUniversities in the service of societyDecline in public spending and a corresponding need forincome generationFund raisingDiffusion of lay governance : Burton Clark and his concept ofCreating Entrepreneurial University Rise of lay governance in some European countries.
NEW ACTORS/AGENTS IN UNIVERSITY AUTONOMY AND ACCOUNTABILITYInternational quality assurance networks such asENQA/EQAR, INQAAHENational accreditation agencies playing andinternational role (ABET)OECD-UNESCO guidelinesBologna ProcessGATS (General Agreement on Trade and Services)Magna Charta Observatory (MCO) as a watchdog ofacademic freedom and institutional autonomy Gather information, express opinions and prepare documents relating to the respect for, protection and promotion of, the fundamental university values and rights laid out in the Magna Charta Universitatum
ARE THERE TENSIONS BETWEEN ACADEMICFEEDOM AND INSTITUTIONAL AUTONOMY? They are complimentary and reinforce each other. Yet, leadership of the university may violate academic freedom whereas leadership must be a defender of the academic freedom of scholars. A case study of “best practice” from Sabancı University. The reverse is also true: academics can sometimes do violate the autonomy of the institution in the name of academic freedom. A case study from Bogazici University
CHALLENGES?Preserving the integrity of the university. • Research • Ethical values • Malpractice • Income generation • Intrusive quality processesReconciling managerial efficiency with collegialism. • A distinct type of executive leadership: Burton Clark’s “academic core.” Burton R. Clark, Sustaining Change in Universities. New York: Open University Press, 2004.Need for innovation in technology in Energy and EnvironmentEra.Thomas L. Friedman, Hot, Flat, and Crowded. London:Penguin, 2010 .
Importance of the Magna Charta ObservatoryAct as a repository of the ideaMonitor and keep values on the agenda ofhigher educationNetwork with other internationalorganizationsPublicationsParticipate in conferencesBe a part of reform efforts in different partsof the world