Student Mobility: Measuring trends in and out of Africa                 Roshen Kishun, Executive-Director    International...
INTRODUCTION• Higher Education in Africa: The  International Dimension Project• African Network for the  Internationalisat...
CHALLENGES• From the 12 papers presented Project  meetings it seemed that there was  very little research done on student ...
GOALS• Collection of reliable data for the  higher education sector in Africa• To propose that Pan African  statistics on ...
DATA SOURCESAnalyses of trends uses data from   two main sources:a. “External sources” - this is data   from UNESCO, OECD,...
INTERNAL DATAAnalysis of trends from papers   presented by the authors of 4 of the   country reports as follows:a. Student...
c. Regional trends – these are influenced by historical and local factors
EXTERNAL DATAGENERAL MOBILITY TRENDSa. UNESCO data (2005) shows that over   300000 African students travelled to   various...
COLONIAL LEGACY MOVEMENT         –outbound• A striking feature of the mobility on the African   continent is the link with...
EXAMPLES• FRANCE: Benin, Gabon, Congo, DRC  Congo, Cote d”Ivoire, Madgascar, and  Senegal: each of these countries send  m...
• There are of course exceptions – these  include students from Cameroon, Eritrea,  and Ethiopia.• This is also seen in th...
African students studying in the               USA.• Figure 1. African Students in the United  States by Country, 2005 (mi...
UNIQUE MOBILITY TRENDSThe outward bound patterns of student   movement from sub-Saharan Africa   demonstrate two unique ch...
INTERNAL DATA MOBILITY            TRENDSFocus on inbound mobility to the following   countries:a.   Egyptb.   Nigeriac.   ...
•   The data was collected by the authors of 4 country    reports.•   The analyses was categorized as follows in relation ...
INBOUND MOBILITY          TO EGYPTFigure 2.      Scholarship students fromother African countries studying in Egypt,      ...
• The Egyptian practice of giving  scholarships has been institutionalised.• Generally stable but numbers tend to  fluctua...
NIGERIA Table: NigeriaYear 1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005Total 365    243    160    331    3...
• Nigeria has a policy of attracting  international students but this has not  been pursued systematically.• In 1997-2005 ...
BOTSWANA              1995    1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005•   SADC        590    66...
• Botswana reserves a percentage of its  enrollment slots for international students  but the numbers are small.• The numb...
SOUTH AFRICARegion/    1995 1996     1997   1998    1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005    Year           7497 ...
• South Africa represents the most dramatic  increase in the numbers of students  coming to study at its institutions in t...
INBOUND MOBILITY FROM        OUTSIDE OF AFRICA• African Universities have not attracted large  numbers full-time, degree s...
REGIONAL MOBILITY• The regional nature of mobility is evident  by observing that:a. West African Students – go mainly to  ...
• The “colonial legacy movement” is evident  by the continued collaborative relationship  of colonial institutions that ha...
CONCLUSION• Study is limited but presents enormous  opportunities for further research.• Study demonstrates that African c...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Utrecht sb- roshen kishun

388 views
327 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Travel
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
388
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Utrecht sb- roshen kishun

  1. 1. Student Mobility: Measuring trends in and out of Africa Roshen Kishun, Executive-Director International Education Association of South Africa (IEASA) Chair: ANIE Steering Committee With acknowledgement to New Generation Scholars Mathias Bwanika Mulumba, Abdulkarim Obaje, Kagiso Kobedi
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION• Higher Education in Africa: The International Dimension Project• African Network for the Internationalisation of Education (ANIE)• Network of Emerging Scholars for the Internationalisation of Higher Education Africa (NESI) – regarded as a SIG
  3. 3. CHALLENGES• From the 12 papers presented Project meetings it seemed that there was very little research done on student mobility• It was also evident that there a lack of reliable data• Definitions – “Who is an African student?”• Rationale for mobility
  4. 4. GOALS• Collection of reliable data for the higher education sector in Africa• To propose that Pan African statistics on the mobility of African students are consistent with those collected elsewhere in the world.
  5. 5. DATA SOURCESAnalyses of trends uses data from two main sources:a. “External sources” - this is data from UNESCO, OECD, and Open Doors.b. “Internal sources” – data from the ANIE Project papers.
  6. 6. INTERNAL DATAAnalysis of trends from papers presented by the authors of 4 of the country reports as follows:a. Students from Africa who are pursuing studies in these countriesb. Non-African students studying in these countries from outside the continent
  7. 7. c. Regional trends – these are influenced by historical and local factors
  8. 8. EXTERNAL DATAGENERAL MOBILITY TRENDSa. UNESCO data (2005) shows that over 300000 African students travelled to various destination in 2004.b. Top four sending countries were: Nigeria (15138); Kenya (14123); Senegal (10677); and Botswana (9471)
  9. 9. COLONIAL LEGACY MOVEMENT –outbound• A striking feature of the mobility on the African continent is the link with its colonial history:a. Inter-country mobility reproduces patterns of colonisation.b. Southern and Eastern Africa - UK colonial influence.c. West Africa – largely French influence.d. Central and North Africa – France and Germany.
  10. 10. EXAMPLES• FRANCE: Benin, Gabon, Congo, DRC Congo, Cote d”Ivoire, Madgascar, and Senegal: each of these countries send more that 2000 students every year.• PORTUGAL: Angola, Cape Verde, and Mozambique
  11. 11. • There are of course exceptions – these include students from Cameroon, Eritrea, and Ethiopia.• This is also seen in the pattern of those who study in the USA as seen in Figure 1.
  12. 12. African students studying in the USA.• Figure 1. African Students in the United States by Country, 2005 (minimum of 1,000 students) Kenya Nigeria Ghana South Africa Zimbabwe Cameroon Morocco Morocco Ethiopia Tanzania 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
  13. 13. UNIQUE MOBILITY TRENDSThe outward bound patterns of student movement from sub-Saharan Africa demonstrate two unique characteristics:a. The high level of mobility – UNESCO reports that I in 16 students study abroadb. Several countries have more students abroad than at home. These students are not counted in the national statistics.
  14. 14. INTERNAL DATA MOBILITY TRENDSFocus on inbound mobility to the following countries:a. Egyptb. Nigeriac. Botswanad. South Africa.
  15. 15. • The data was collected by the authors of 4 country reports.• The analyses was categorized as follows in relation to the 4 countries:a. Inbound mobility: Students from African countriesb. Inbound mobility: Students from outside of Africac. Regional mobility: Students from within the continent
  16. 16. INBOUND MOBILITY TO EGYPTFigure 2. Scholarship students fromother African countries studying in Egypt, 1995-2005 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
  17. 17. • The Egyptian practice of giving scholarships has been institutionalised.• Generally stable but numbers tend to fluctuate depending on budgetary constraints.
  18. 18. NIGERIA Table: NigeriaYear 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Total 365 243 160 331 304 261 395 67 200
  19. 19. • Nigeria has a policy of attracting international students but this has not been pursued systematically.• In 1997-2005 the numbers did not exceed 400.
  20. 20. BOTSWANA 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005• SADC 590 665 650 685 728 786 624 760 800 773 632• Rest of 160 158 164 151 157 154 148 175 160 140 136 World TOTAL 750 823 814 836 885 940 772 935 960 913 768
  21. 21. • Botswana reserves a percentage of its enrollment slots for international students but the numbers are small.• The numbers fluctuated between a minimum of 750 and a maximum of 960.• It is interesting to note that Botswana attracts more students from “rest of the world” than from its African neighbours.
  22. 22. SOUTH AFRICARegion/ 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year 7497 7876 7822 9800 14987 21318 25546 31724 36207 36302 35218SADCREST OF 1769 2021 2079 2593 3314 4263 4854 6317 6664 6874 7200AFRICAREST OF 4858 5399 5268 4736 4496 5568 5648 6156 7108 7836 7839WORLDTOTAL 14124 15296 15169 17129 22797 31149 36048 44197 49979 51012 50257
  23. 23. • South Africa represents the most dramatic increase in the numbers of students coming to study at its institutions in the short period since 1994.• The numbers more than quadrupled from around 12,500 in 1994 to 53,000 in 2005.• SADC number growth is most impressive – from 7500 to 35000.
  24. 24. INBOUND MOBILITY FROM OUTSIDE OF AFRICA• African Universities have not attracted large numbers full-time, degree seeking non-African students from outside the continent.• Most of those who come are in short term programmes.• Egypt and South Africa may be the exception in that they do attract numbers of full time students as seen the tables presented.
  25. 25. REGIONAL MOBILITY• The regional nature of mobility is evident by observing that:a. West African Students – go mainly to Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, and Senegal.b. East African Students - go mainly to Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, and Tanzania.c. Southern African Students – go mainly to South Africa
  26. 26. • The “colonial legacy movement” is evident by the continued collaborative relationship of colonial institutions that had affiliated colleges but which were now independent universities.• These collaborations took the form of student and faculty exchanges.
  27. 27. CONCLUSION• Study is limited but presents enormous opportunities for further research.• Study demonstrates that African countries are hampered by the crippling lack of reliable data to develop an effective strategy to attract international students and manage brain drain, etc• That African students may be motivated by an entirely different set of reason for studying in another country.

×