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Student Mobility: National Strategies &        International Trends A Perspective from the United States           Rajika ...
Topics    A brief introduction to the Institute of    International Education (IIE)    Mobility Trends for the U.S.    Glo...
About the Institute of International Education (IIE) Administers the Fulbright Fellowships on behalf of the U.S. Departmen...
Open Doors Report on International EducationalExchangeIIE publishes data annuallyin Open Doors, with supportfrom the US De...
International Students in the U.S.Annual survey of international studentenrollment on U.S. campusesTimeframe: 2006/07Respo...
Open Doors 2007 reports that InternationalStudent numbers in the U.S. are rebounding         Total   700,000 international...
New International Enrollments, 2006/07New               180,000internationalstudent           120,000enrollment           ...
Leading Places of Origin, 2006/07                                            % ChangeRank    Place of Origin              ...
Leading Place of Origin Trends, 2000 – 2007 Japan Korea   46,497 45,685   46,810 49,046   45,960 51,519      90,000   40,8...
Types of Institutions                        International Students, 2006/07400,000                                       ...
Fields of StudyThe top 2 fields                      Physical/                                    Life Scienceof study:   ...
International Scholars in the U.S.U.S. campuses    110,000hosted 98,239    100,000international     90,000scholars in     ...
International Scholars: Leading places of origin1    China                    20,149                                      ...
International Scholars: Fields of specialization                                     % of Intl   • Leading four fields ofF...
U.S. Study AbroadWho is counted?U.S. citizens and permanent residentsenrolled for a degree at an accredited U.S.higher edu...
U.S. Participation in Study Abroad is Increasing250,000200,000                             223,534 U.S. students          ...
Destinations of U.S. Study Abroad StudentsEurope remains the leading host region for U.S. students studying abroad, with 5...
Destinations of U.S. Study Abroad Students (cont.)     Destination      2004/05   2005/06   % Change     WORLD TOTAL      ...
Study in Non-traditional Destinations is GrowingStudy abroad to all regions except North Americaincreased in 2005/06.     ...
Duration of U.S. Study Abroad                                                                                             ...
International Educational Exchange Balance There were 2.5 times more international students studying in the U.S. than U.S....
Global Student MobilityProject Atlas:TrackingInternationalMobilityhttp://atlas.iienetwork.org
Project Atlas: Measuring Global Student Mobility       Mobility data from 21 other countries, through data       sharing a...
India as a destination
India as sending country
Global Share of International Students The U.S. hosts 30% of international students among the eight top destinations, and ...
Higher Education Capacity of Top Host Destinations: International enrollment as proportion of total enrollment  The U.S. h...
Factors likely to affect enrollment shifts:   Increased recruitment by other countries   Expanded capacity in home country...
U.S. Government’s Role in International StudentRecruitment   Decentralized approach typifies the U.S. higher education   s...
What is the U.S. Government Doing?1. Speeding the Visa Review Process Continuing to streamline visa review procedures, wit...
What is the U.S. Government Doing?2. Public Diplomacy  Strong public endorsement by President Bush, and key  cabinet offic...
What is the U.S. Government Doing?3. New Programs and Increased Funding  Increased Funding for Fulbright Program and launc...
What is the U.S. Government Doing?4. Supporting the Promotion of U.S. Higher Education  U.S. Department of State provides ...
What are U.S. Campuses Doing?  Steps Taken Include:   • New international programs/collaborations   • New staff/additional...
What is IIE Doing?   Helping U.S. campuses meet potential students:    • Over 100 U.S. campuses met with 10,000 local stud...
IIE’s Role in Promoting Study Abroad  Scholarship and Exchange Programs:   • Freeman Awards for Study Abroad in Asia (Free...
IIE’s Online Resources for International Education•    www.iie.org: IIE Homepage•    www.iienetwork.org: Resources for Int...
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Utrecht sb- rajika bhandari

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  1. 1. Student Mobility: National Strategies & International Trends A Perspective from the United States Rajika Bhandari, Ph.D. Director of Research and EvaluationInstitute of International Education (IIE), USA IAU 13th General Conference Utrecht, The Netherlands
  2. 2. Topics A brief introduction to the Institute of International Education (IIE) Mobility Trends for the U.S. Global Student Mobility The Role of National Strategies and Policies in promoting mobility
  3. 3. About the Institute of International Education (IIE) Administers the Fulbright Fellowships on behalf of the U.S. Department of State & 200 other programs Serves 18,000 students, teachers, scholars, and professionals in 175 countries annually Runs the IIENetwork: a global resource for 4,500 professionals at 900 member colleges & universities Provides resources and information on study abroad Collects and disseminates data on international student mobility via Open Doors and Project Atlas
  4. 4. Open Doors Report on International EducationalExchangeIIE publishes data annuallyin Open Doors, with supportfrom the US Department ofState56 years of trend data oninternational students andscholars on U.S. campusesand on over 20 years of USstudents abroadhttp://opendoors.iienetwork.org
  5. 5. International Students in the U.S.Annual survey of international studentenrollment on U.S. campusesTimeframe: 2006/07Respondents: Regionally accredited U.S.higher education institutions
  6. 6. Open Doors 2007 reports that InternationalStudent numbers in the U.S. are rebounding Total 700,000 international 600,000 enrollment 500,000increased 3% 400,000 to 582,984 300,000 international 200,000 students in 100,000 2006/07. 0 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007
  7. 7. New International Enrollments, 2006/07New 180,000internationalstudent 120,000enrollment 60,000increased by10% to 157,178 0in 2006/07. 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 Undergraduate Graduate Other
  8. 8. Leading Places of Origin, 2006/07 % ChangeRank Place of Origin 2006/07 Total % of Total from 2005/06 •Top 5 leading places WORLD TOTAL 582,984 100.0 3.2 of origin are all in Asia1 India 83,833 14.4 9.6 (48% of all2 China 67,723 11.6 8.2 international students)3 South Korea 62,392 10.7 5.74 Japan 35,282 6.1 -8.95 Taiwan 29,094 5.0 4.4 •Notable increases:6 Canada 28,280 4.9 0.3 Saudi Arabia, Nepal,7 Mexico 13,826 2.4 -0.88 Turkey 11,506 2.0 -1.0 India, China9 Germany 8,656 1.5 -2.010 Thailand 8,886 1.5 1.4 •Notable declines:11 United Kingdom 8,438 1.4 2.012 Saudi Arabia 7,886 1.4 128.7 Japan, Indonesia13 Nepal 7,754 1.3 27.914 Hong Kong 7,722 1.3 -1.615 Indonesia 7,338 1.3 -3.1
  9. 9. Leading Place of Origin Trends, 2000 – 2007 Japan Korea 46,497 45,685 46,810 49,046 45,960 51,519 90,000 40,835 52,484 42,215 53,358 38,712 58,847 35,582 63,392 80,000 70,000 China 60,000 India Japan 50,000 Korea 40,000 30,000 00/01 01/02 02/03 03/04 04/05 05/06 06/07
  10. 10. Types of Institutions International Students, 2006/07400,000 Doctoral/research300,000 institutions host the largest number of200,000 international students,100,000 followed by Master’s and Associate’s institutions. 0 Doctoral/ Masters Baccalaureate Associates Specialized Research Baccalaureate, Percent change since 2000/01 Associate’s, and 20 Master’s institutions 15 have seen the largest 10 growth in international 5 enrollments since 2000. 0 Doctoral/ Masters Baccalaureate Associates Specialized Research
  11. 11. Fields of StudyThe top 2 fields Physical/ Life Scienceof study: 9% Social SciencesBusiness & 33% 8%Management Engineering 15% Math &and Business/ Comp. Sci. 8%Engineering, Mgmt. 18% Arts 5%account for Health 5%33% of all All Others 32%internationalstudents
  12. 12. International Scholars in the U.S.U.S. campuses 110,000hosted 98,239 100,000international 90,000scholars in 80,0002006/07, an 70,000increase of 60,0001.3% from the 50,000previous year. 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06
  13. 13. International Scholars: Leading places of origin1 China 20,149 •Leading four places: all in Asia2 Korea, Rep. of (South) 9,2913 India 9,1384 Japan 5,557 • Leading five places account5 Germany 5,039 for 50% of international6 Canada 4,398 scholars7 France 3,5888 Italy 3,148 •Leading place of origin: China,9 United Kingdom 2,87710 Spain 2,193 with 20,149 scholars, accounts11 Russia 2,102 for 20.5%12 Brazil 1,86213 Taiwan 1,813 • Decline in the number of14 Israel 1,591 scholars from: Germany,15 Turkey 1,362 Canada, U.K., Russia, Australia16 Mexico 1,21817 Australia 1,175
  14. 14. International Scholars: Fields of specialization % of Intl • Leading four fields ofField of Specialization Scholars specialization: SciencesHealth Sciences 24.3 and EngineeringBiological and Biomedical Sciences 19.7Engineering 12.0 • These four fieldsPhysical Sciences 11.7 account for 68% of allAgriculture 4.0 scholarsSocial Sciences 3.3 • Leading fields haveBusiness and Management 3.0 remained steady overComputer and Information Sciences 3.0 the past decadeForeign Languages and Literature 2.3Mathematics 2.2
  15. 15. U.S. Study AbroadWho is counted?U.S. citizens and permanent residentsenrolled for a degree at an accredited U.S.higher education institution who receivedacademic credit towards their degree for studyabroad during the 2005/06 academic year(including summer 2006).
  16. 16. U.S. Participation in Study Abroad is Increasing250,000200,000 223,534 U.S. students received academic150,000 credit for study100,000 abroad in 2005/06, 50,000 an 8.5% increase 0 over the previous 85/86 87/88 89/90 91/92 93/94 94/95 95/96 96/97 97/98 98/99 99/00 00/01 01/02 02/03 03/04 04/05 05/06 year.
  17. 17. Destinations of U.S. Study Abroad StudentsEurope remains the leading host region for U.S. students studying abroad, with 58% of the total. Latin Asia Multiple America 9% Oceania Destinations 15% 6% 6% Africa 4% Middle East 1% North Europe America 58% 0.5%
  18. 18. Destinations of U.S. Study Abroad Students (cont.) Destination 2004/05 2005/06 % Change WORLD TOTAL 205,983 223,534 8.5 11 of the Top 20 destinations 1 United Kingdom 32,071 32,109 0.1 (highlighted in red) are 2 3 Italy Spain 24,858 20,806 26,078 21,881 4.9 5.2 outside Europe 4 France 15,374 15,602 1.5 5 Australia 10,813 10,980 1.5 19 of the Top 20 destinations 6 Mexico 9,244 10,022 8.4 7 China 6,389 8,830 38.2 showed an increase in 2005/06. 8 Germany 6,557 6,858 4.6 9 Costa Rica 4,887 5,518 12.9 Double-digit increases:10 Ireland 5,083 5,499 8.211 Japan 4,100 4,411 7.6 Argentina, China, Greece,12 Greece 2,445 3,227 32.0 Ecuador, Brazil, Czech Rep.,13 Argentina 2,013 2,865 42.3 Costa Rica14 Czech Republic 2,494 2,846 14.115 Austria 2,757 2,792 1.316 Chile 2,393 2,578 7.7 Ecuador is new to Top 20.17 New Zealand 2,657 2,542 -4.318 South Africa 2,304 2,512 9.019 Brazil 1,994 2,328 16.820 Ecuador 1,711 2,171 26.9
  19. 19. Study in Non-traditional Destinations is GrowingStudy abroad to all regions except North Americaincreased in 2005/06. Middle East 35% +31% Asia 30% +26% 25% Africa +19% Latin 20% America +14% 15% Europe 10% +5% Oceania North 5% +2% America -2% 0% -5%
  20. 20. Duration of U.S. Study Abroad Short-term programs120,000 have seen the largest growth in the past decade.100,000 80,000 60,000 Mid-length programs also continue to rise. 40,000 20,000 The number of students in 0 long-term programs has 1993/94 1994/95 1995/96 1996/97 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 remained constant over the past decade. S hort-term Mid-length Long-term Short-term: Summer, January term, 8 weeks or less Mid-length: One, Two Quarters, One Semester Long-term: Academic Year, Calendar Year
  21. 21. International Educational Exchange Balance There were 2.5 times more international students studying in the U.S. than U.S. students studying abroad in 2005/06. 350,000 Total U.S. Study Abroad (223,534) 300,000 Total International Students in U.S. (564,766) Number of Students 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 Africa Asia Europe Latin Middle North Oceania America East America
  22. 22. Global Student MobilityProject Atlas:TrackingInternationalMobilityhttp://atlas.iienetwork.org
  23. 23. Project Atlas: Measuring Global Student Mobility Mobility data from 21 other countries, through data sharing agreements with agencies around the world Goal: Building a community of researchers to share accurate and timely data on student mobility Countries represented: South Africa (IEASA); Australia (AEI); India (AIU); China (CSC); Mexico (ANUIES); Netherlands (NUFFIC); U.K. (British Council); Germany (DAAD); Ireland (Education Ireland); USA (IIE); and many others. Supported by the Ford FoundationInstitute of International Education
  24. 24. India as a destination
  25. 25. India as sending country
  26. 26. Global Share of International Students The U.S. hosts 30% of international students among the eight top destinations, and 22% worldwide. Worldwide, international students increased from 2.5 to 2.7 million in the last two years. Worldwide: A Growing Pie Top 8 Destinations (200,000 additional students) U.K. U.K. U.S. 18% U.S. 13% 30% 22% France 10% France Germany 13% Canada All others 9% 4% 27% Australia 4% Japan 6% Germany China Australia 12% Canada Japan 6% China 8% 4% 9% 3%Sources: Project Atlas and UNESCO 2007 data
  27. 27. Higher Education Capacity of Top Host Destinations: International enrollment as proportion of total enrollment The U.S. has the largest Leading Five Countries International Enrollment as a Percent of Total Higher Education Enrollment higher education capacity to host 25 International Enrollment (%) international students 20 among the five leading 15 destinations 10 5 Substantial scope for expansion and growth in 0 Australia United Germany France United international education Kingdom StatesSources: Project Atlas 2006 data from partner organizations; UNESCO/OECD 2005 data; and IAUWorld Higher Education Database
  28. 28. Factors likely to affect enrollment shifts: Increased recruitment by other countries Expanded capacity in home country higher education sectors of major sending countries such as China and India Domestic (political, economic, social and educational) shifts within key sending countries Transnational Education (TNE, CBE) and alternative modes of educational delivery
  29. 29. U.S. Government’s Role in International StudentRecruitment Decentralized approach typifies the U.S. higher education system and its relation to the federal government No “Ministry of Education” in U.S. regulates higher education, secondary education or international education Strong federal commitment to attracting more international students to the United States. • 1. Speeding visa review process • 2. Public Diplomacy • 3. Funding • 4. Outreach to international students
  30. 30. What is the U.S. Government Doing?1. Speeding the Visa Review Process Continuing to streamline visa review procedures, with ongoing priority to students and scholars Increased hiring and training of consular officers, especially in high volume posts. Expanded training, with focus on importance of international students Enhanced communication, with visa appointment wait times posted on website Increased visa issuance: number of student/exchange visas issued in FY07 rose 10.2% (larger increases in busiest posts: Beijing and Mumbai up 40%)
  31. 31. What is the U.S. Government Doing?2. Public Diplomacy Strong public endorsement by President Bush, and key cabinet officers on importance of international students U.S. University Presidents Summit on International Education in January 2006, convened by US President and Secretaries of State and Education. Next Summit in DC: April 2008 University Presidents Delegations to Asia (Japan, Korea, China, India) and Latin America (Brazil, Chile), led by U.S. Secretary of Education and Asst Secretary of State
  32. 32. What is the U.S. Government Doing?3. New Programs and Increased Funding Increased Funding for Fulbright Program and launched the Fulbright International Science & Technology Fellowships Launched the Community College Initiative for International Students Created the Opportunity Grants for U.S. Studies and English Access Micro-scholarships for in-country language training Developed an Education Initiative for Latin America Renewed EU-US Atlantis Program to support joint/dual degree programs
  33. 33. What is the U.S. Government Doing?4. Supporting the Promotion of U.S. Higher Education U.S. Department of State provides support to EducationUSA Advising Network: • 450 EducationUSA Advising Centers in 170 Countries • Assisting over 25 million students each year • USEFI offices house India’s Education USA advisors Advisers provide unbiased, comprehensive information on study opportunities in the U.S., including assistance with: • Choosing an institution • Identifying financial aid • Understanding the admission process • Applying for a student visa
  34. 34. What are U.S. Campuses Doing? Steps Taken Include: • New international programs/collaborations • New staff/additional staff time devoted to int’l recruitment • New funding for international recruitment trips and marketing • New emphasis on dual degree programs abroad Recruitment is concentrated on Asia If your institution has devoted more resources for intl student recruitment trips, which countries/regions did you focus on? China 25% Japan 13% Korea 16% India 15% Other Asia 18% Latin America 14% Middle East 11% Europe 11% Africa 3% Other 7% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30%
  35. 35. What is IIE Doing? Helping U.S. campuses meet potential students: • Over 100 U.S. campuses met with 10,000 local students through IIE 2007 Higher Education Fairs in Asia Providing direct advice and assistance: • IIE manages the Regional Educational Advising Coordinators (REACs), who train EducationUSA advisers around the world. • IIE advises students directly through its own EducationUSA offices in 4 countries. • IIE briefs each new class of Consular Officers on the importance of international student visas • IIE offers web-based information on financial aid and for study in the U.S. to all international students.
  36. 36. IIE’s Role in Promoting Study Abroad Scholarship and Exchange Programs: • Freeman Awards for Study Abroad in Asia (Freeman-ASIA) • Gilman International Scholarship Program • National Security Education Program • Fulbright U.S. Student Program • Whitaker International Fellows and Scholars Program Providing advice and information to students and advisers: • IIEPassport Study Abroad Directories (www.iiepassport.org) includes over 7,500 study abroad programs for U.S. students • Special Featured Countries of the Month New Website and CD-Rom: • StudyAbroadFunding.org – directory of study abroad scholarship, grants and fellowships: www.StudyAbroadFunding.org.
  37. 37. IIE’s Online Resources for International Education• www.iie.org: IIE Homepage• www.iienetwork.org: Resources for International Educators• www.opendoors.iienetwork.org: Academic Mobility Data to and from the U.S.• www.atlas.iienetwork.org: Project Atlas: Global Student Mobility• www.iiebooks.org: IIE’s Online bookstore• www.iiepassport.org: IIE’s directory of over 7,000 study abroad programs• www.IntensiveEnglishUSA.org: IIE’s directory of intensive English programs• www.FundingUSStudy.org: Funding for U.S. Study: A guide for international students• www.fulbrightonline.org: Fulbright Program Website
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