Utrecht sa- jacqueline e. king

383 views
345 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
383
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Utrecht sa- jacqueline e. king

  1. 1. The Access Challenge in the United States:Demographics, Preparation,Information, & Affordability Jacqueline E. King, PhD Assistant Vice President July 16, 2008
  2. 2. The Problem: DifferentialAttainment by Race & Income 56% 38% 24% 21% 18% White African American Hispanic Asian American American Indian Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2006.
  3. 3. The Access Challenge• Growing Diversity• Inconsistent Preparation• Information Overload• Financial Barriers
  4. 4. Public High School Graduates, by Race/Ethnicity, 2001 to 20212,000,000 1,859,514 1,588,4551,500,000 White African American Asian American1,000,000 Hispanic 780,268 480,187 500,000 434,234 393,363 244,143 161,093 0 2000-01 2003-04 2006-07 2009-10 2012-13 2015-16 2018-19 2021-22 Source: WICHE, Knocking at the College Door.
  5. 5. Educational Progress of 2002 10th Graders (15 years old) as of 200688% 93% 91% 82% 82% 81% 77% 75% 70% 67% 60% 62% 59% 54% 46% 49% 45% 40% 33% 22% All Students Asian American White African American Hispanic High School Diploma Any Postsecondary Enrollment Immediate Enrollment University Source: NCES, Education Longitudinal Study: 2002/06. NCES
  6. 6. Educational Progress of 2002 HS Sophomores as of 2006, by Family Income 92% 96%88% 91% 85% 84% 78% 78% 70% 70% 70% 60% 63% 52% 52% 49% 40% 40% 31% 21%All Students Income $20,000 $20,001 to $50,001 to $100,001 or more or Less $50,000 $100,000 High School Diploma Any Postsecondary Enrollment Immediate Enrollment University Source: NCES, Education Longitudinal Study: 2002/06. NCES
  7. 7. Undergraduates with Nontraditional Characteristics Any characteristic 70 Attends part time 51Financially independent 50 Delayed enrollment 38 Works full time 34 Has dependents 27 Single Parent 13 No HS Diploma 9 Source: NCES, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study: 2003-04.
  8. 8. The Access Challenge• Growing Diversity• Inconsistent Preparation• Information Overload• Financial Barriers
  9. 9. High School Does Not Prepare Many Students for Higher Education• 30% of students do not complete high school.• 40% to 45% of recent high school graduates report significant skill gaps.• 30% of first-year college students must take remedial courses.• Faculty estimate 42% of first-year students are unprepared.• Employers estimate 45% of recent high school graduates lack skills to advance. Source: Achieve.
  10. 10. Students Completing College Prep Math, by Income and Race-Ethnicity Trigonometry or Higher Algebra II 68% 63% 50% 33% 26% 25% 23% 23% 26% 25% 18% 17% Low-income High-income Asian White African Hispanic American American Source: NCES, Education Longitudinal Study: 2002/06.
  11. 11. Expectations Gap Between High School & Higher Education • Academic standards in HS not aligned with postsecondary requirements. • HS graduation requirements set too low. • No connection between HS tests and college entrance or course placement. • RESULT: Students often earn a high school diploma without the skills necessary for success in higher education.
  12. 12. American Diploma Project Policy Agenda 1. Align high school and higher education standards. 2. Require students to take a college-ready curriculum to earn a high school diploma. 3. Build college readiness measures into statewide high school assessment systems. 4. Hold high schools and postsecondary institutions accountable for student preparation and success.
  13. 13. State Progress Aligning Standards 11 8 13 13 Aligning Graduation 13 6 12 RequirementsAligning Assessments 8 1 23Aligning Data Systems 5 4 2 36Aligning Accountability 4 7 In place by 2007 In place by 2008 Anticipate in place by 2009 In process/planned Source: Achieve. Closing the Expectations Gap: 2008.
  14. 14. The Access Challenge• Growing Diversity• Inconsistent Preparation• Information Gap• Financial Barriers
  15. 15. 10th Graders Who Completed at Least Algebra II by Postsecondary Participation, Income and Race/Ethnicity 4 8 7 12 25 9 19 20 13 Never attended 19 17 18 89 Enrolled, then Left 83 76 57 62 63 Enrolled Low- High- Asian White African Hispanicincome income American American Source: U.S. Department of Education, Education Longitudinal Study: 2002/06.
  16. 16. Admissions and Financial Aid• 6,500 institutions, most with unique admissions requirements & applications.• Tuition ranging from $0 to more than $40,000.• Hundreds of federal, state, institutional and private grant and loan programs, all with unique criteria and many with their own application.• The main financial aid form has more than 100 questions and requires information from parent’s income tax forms.
  17. 17. Enrolled Students Often Do Not Apply for Financial Aid• 41% of all students do not file the main financial aid form.• 1.8 million low- and moderate-income students do not apply.• 1.5 million of these students miss out on the largest federal grant program. Source: King, J. Missed Opportunities Revisited: New Information on Students Who Do Not Apply for Financial Aid. February 2006 ACE Issue Brief.
  18. 18. A Patchwork of Programs Provide Information & Guidance
  19. 19. The Access Challenge• Growing Diversity• Inconsistent Preparation• Information Gap• Financial Barriers
  20. 20. Average Tuition and Fees Before and After Gift AidTuition and Fees $23,712Tuition and FeesLess Grants & TaxCredits $14,400 $6,185 $2,361 $2,577 $323 Public Community College Public University Private University Source: College Board. Trends in College Pricing: 2007.
  21. 21. Percentage of BA Completers with Debt, by Income Median Debt of All Borrowers: $16,432 69% 63% 61% 58% 48%Less than $30,000 to $50,000 to $70,000 to $100,000 or $30,000 $49,999 $69,999 $99,999 more Source: King, J. Federal Student Loan Debt: 1993 to 2004. June 2005 ACE Issue Brief.
  22. 22. Undergraduates by Role and Workload Employees Did Not Work who Study 22% 26%Avg Hrs/Wk=38 Students who Work 52% Avg Hrs/Wk=25
  23. 23. A Cautionary Tale• California Community Colleges offer open admission and very low tuition ($480/year).• Fantastic access, but very low success rates.• When low tuition means low service levels, it is counter-productive.• Students still need aid to cover living expenses and forgone income.
  24. 24. Some Lessons from U.S. Experience• One size will not fit all: As population becomes more diverse, institutions and public policy must adapt.• Rigorous, consistent and relevant standards are a necessity in elementary/secondary education.• Simplicity matters: In aid and admissions, there can be too much of a good thing.• Affordability is a real problem – but it is not the only problem.
  25. 25. Jacqueline King, PhD. Assistant Vice PresidentAmerican Council on Education Washington, DC www.acenet.edu policy@ace.nche.edu

×