Utr. prog. frid. ying cheng


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Utr. prog. frid. ying cheng

  1. 1. Academic Ranking of World Universities : Purpose, Methods and Future Efforts Presented By Dr. Ying CHENGGraduate School of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China Observatoire des Sciences et des Techniques (OST), France July 18, 2008 1
  2. 2. OutlinePurposeMethodology, Results and ProblemsFuture EffortsFinal Remarks 2
  3. 3. Purpose of ARWU 3
  4. 4. Dream of Chinese for WCUWorld-class university (WCU) is a dream forgenerations of Chinese. It’s not only for pride, but alsofor the future of China.Since 1990s, Chinese government has launched severalinitiatives for research universities. The best-known oneis specially designed to build WCU (985 Project). 4
  5. 5. Goals of Top Chinese Universities Many top Chinese universities have setup their strategic goals as WCU. Most of them have also set time tables for reaching the goal of WCU. For example: 2016 for Peking University 2020 for Tsinghua University 5
  6. 6. Questions About WCUWhat is WCU?How many WCU should there be in the world?What are the positions of top Chineseuniversities in the world?How can Chinese universities improvethemselves to reach the goal of WCU? 6
  7. 7. Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) Our original purpose of doing the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) was to find out the position of Chinese universities in the world and the gap between them and WCU. ARWU was put on the internet upon the encouragement of colleagues from all over the world. 7
  8. 8. Features of ARWUARWU uses a few internationally comparable, objectivecriteria and publicly accessible data that everyone couldverify in some way.It has been carried out by a ranking team (chaired byProfessor Nian Cai LIU) in the Graduate School ofEducation of Shanghai Jiao Tong University for theiracademic interests.It has been done independently without any financialsupport from any sources outside. 8
  9. 9. Methodology, Results and Problems 9
  10. 10. Selection of UniversitiesAny university that has any Nobel Laureates, Fields Medals,Highly Cited Researchers, or papers published in Nature orScience.Major universities of every country with significant amount ofpapers indexed by Citation Indexes of Thomson.Number of universities scanned: >2000Number of universities actually ranked: >1000Number of ranked universities on our web: 500 10
  11. 11. Ranking Criteria and Weights Criteria Indicator Code Weight Quality of Alumni of an institution winning Nobel Alumni 10% Education Prizes and Fields Medals Staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes Award 20% Quality of and Fields Medals Faculty Highly cited researchers in 21 broad HiCi 20% subject categories Research Articles published in Nature and Science * N&S 20% Output Articles indexed in SCIE and SSCI SCI 20% Per Capita Academic performance with respect to the Size 10%Performance size of an institution *: For institutions specialized in humanities and social sciences such as London School of Economics, N&S is not considered and the weight of N&S is relocated to other indicators 11
  12. 12. Results of ARWUPublished in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 Top 500 universities in the world Top 100 universities in North and Latin America Top 100 universities in Asia/Oceania Top 100 universities in Europe Statistics of top universities by region and country Percentage distribution of top universities by country as compared with the share of global population and GDP 12
  13. 13. Ranking by Broad Subject Fields (ARWU-FIELD) (ARWU-FIELD) 13
  14. 14. Definition of Broad Subject Fields Natural Sciences and Mathematics (SCI) Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences (ENG) Life and Agriculture Sciences (LIFE) Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy (MED) Social Sciences (SOC) Arts and humanities are not ranked 14
  15. 15. ARWU-FIELD Indicators and Weights Code SCI ENG LIFE MED SOC Alumni 10% 10% 10% 10% Award 15% 15% 15% 15% HiCi 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% PUB 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% TOP 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% Fund 25% 15
  16. 16. Results of ARWU-FIELDPublished in 2007 and 2008 Top 100 universities in SCI Top 100 universities in ENG Top 100 universities in LIFE Top 100 universities in MED Top 100 universities in SOC Statistics of top universities by region & country List of top universities by number of top fields 16
  17. 17. Problems and Limitations of ARWUOther functions are not well taken into account Education Social serviceDiversity of universities may not be properlyreflected Disciplinary characteristics, such as those do very well in social science and humanities Size, big is beautiful? Technical problems 17
  18. 18. Future Efforts 18
  19. 19. Study the Methodological and Technical Problems Welcome idea and suggestions! 19
  20. 20. Update ARWU AnnuallyIn order to observe changes of UniversitiesIn order to monitor countries’ performanceServe as the basis of related academic studies andpolicy analysis 20
  21. 21. Provide Different RankingsRanking by per capita performance Based on reliable and international comparable data of academic staffRanking of universities specialized or strongin engineering, medicine, etc. Based on the classification of world universities 21
  22. 22. Establish Database of WCUBasic profiles Students, staff, programs, budget, …Strategic indicators R&D expenditure, publications and citations, international academic awards, …Data at college/department or discipline level 22
  23. 23. Publish Annual or Biennial Report on World-Class UniversitiesNot limited to top 100 but may include 500 ormore research universitiesProvide internationally comparable indicatorsas many as possiblePerform detailed data analysis rather than acomposite ranking2009 ? 23
  24. 24. Final Remarks 24
  25. 25. Controversy of RankingAny ranking is controversial and no ranking isabsolutely objective.University rankings become popular in manycountries. Whether we agree or not, ranking systemsclearly are here to stay.The key issue then becomes For rankers: how to improve ranking systems? For users: how to wisely use the rankings? 25
  26. 26. Use of RankingRankings are information tools for different purpose.Rankings should be used with cautions. Theirmethodologies must be read carefully beforereporting or using their results.For any kind of decision-making, rankings should beused only as a starting point and comprehensiveanalysis are always necessary 26
  27. 27. http://www.ARWU.org/E-mail: ARWU@sjtu.edu.cn 27