Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities?                                                                 ...
Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities?                                                                 ...
Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities?                                                                 ...
Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities?                                                                 ...
Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities?                                                                 ...
Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities?                                                                 ...
Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities?                                                                 ...
Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities?                                                                 ...
Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities?                                                                 ...
Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities?                                                                 ...
Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities?                           Université Laval, Québec Canada11
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  1. 1. Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities? Université Laval, Québec Canada The Impact of Trade Liberalization on Higher Education: Policy Implications1 Dr. Jane Knight Visiting Scholar, University of Toronto 20 September 2002The General Agreement on Trades in Service ( GATS), plus other regional trade agreements, are testimonyto the increased emphasis on trade and the market economy in this era of globalization. GATS is the firstlegal trade agreement which focuses exclusively on trade of services - as opposed to trade of products. It isadministered by the World Trade Organization, a powerful organization with 144 member countries.Education is one of the 12 service sectors covered by GATS. The purpose of GATS is to progressively andsystematically promote freer trade in services by removing many of the existing barriers to trade. Whatdoes this mean for higher education?The current debate on the impact of GATS on higher education is divided, if not polarized. Critics focus onthe threat to the role of government, the ‘public good’ and the quality of education. Supporters highlightthe benefits that more trade can bring in terms of innovations through new providers and delivery modes,greater student access and increased economic gain. Trade liberalization has the potential to profoundlychange the nature and provision of higher education provision and the role that government plays in thatprovision. The purpose of this paper is to discuss both risks and opportunities that GATS brings to highereducation and to identify some of the policy implications and issues which need further analysis.Changes and Challenges in the Provision of Higher EducationThe promotion of trade in education services is directly linked to a number of significant trends in highereducation. These include i) the emergence of new for- profit education providers, ii) the growth of alternateelectronic delivery modes both domestically and internationally, iii) the response to the labour market, iv)the increase in international academic mobility of students, professors and programs, and v) the limitedbudget capacity (or political will) of government to meet the increasing domestic demand for highereducation. In short, these trends are contributing to, as well as responding to, the expanding business ofcross border delivery of higher education services. The GATS aims to capitalize on this market potentialand promote further international trade in education services by establishing rules and procedures toeliminate barriers to trade. 1 This is an abridged and updated version of a paper «Trade in Higher Education Services: Implications of GATS»prepared for The Observatory on borderless higher Education, March 2002 1
  2. 2. Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities? Université Laval, Québec CanadaThe scenario of higher education provision is changing as providers - public and private, new andtraditional - are delivering education services across national borders to meet the need in other countries. Asa result, an exciting but rather complex, picture of higher education provision is emerging. So what? It isimportant to ask ‘so what’. Many educators would point out that demand for higher education has beensteadily increasing for years and that academic mobility for students, scholars, teachers and knowledge hasbeen an integral aspect of higher education for centuries. This is true. But the picture is changing. Now,not only are more people moving; academic programs and providers are also moving across borders. Moreand more, economic rationales and benefits are driving a large part of the international or cross bordersupply of education. This profit motive is a reality today, and applies to both private providers and in somecases public institutions. In short, the business or commercial side of education is growing.A recent OECD study ( Larsen et al, 2002) estimated that the value of trade in education services was about$US 30 billion in 1999. In fact, because this figure only includes students studying abroad and does notinclude other types of cross border education, it represents only a portion of the current level of trade. Thefuture market is growing and this is one reason why education is one of the major sectors targeted byGATS. It is therefore important that educators are cognizant of the impact of trade liberalization on highereducation and are taking steps to maximize the benefits and opportunities, and at the same time, minimizethe threats to a robust and quality higher education system.Structure and Purpose of GATSThe GATS is the first ever set of multilateral rules covering international trade in services. The GATS hasthree parts. The first part is the framework which contains the general principles and rules. The second partconsists of the national schedules which list a country’s specific commitments on access to their domesticmarket by foreign providers. The third part consists of annexes which detail specific limitations for eachsector and are attached to the schedule of commitments. To understand GATS, it is essential to understandwhat kind of education services will be covered by GATS and what is meant by higher education servicesThe GATS defines four ways in which a service can be traded, known as ‘modes of supply’. (WTO, 1998 )These four modes of trade apply to all service sectors in GATS. Chart One provides a generic definition foreach mode, applies them to the education sector and comments on the relative size of the market supply anddemand. Chart One: Mode of Supply Mode of Supply Explanation Examples in Higher Size /Potential of market Education 1. Cross Border -the provision of a -distance education -currently a relatively Supply service where the - e-learning small market service crosses the -virtual universities -seen to have great border ( does not potential through the use of require the physical new ICTs and especially movement of the the Internet consumer) 2. Consumption -provision of the service -students who go to -currently represents the 2
  3. 3. Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities? Université Laval, Québec Canada Abroad involving the another country to largest share of the global movement of the study market for education consumer to the country services of the supplier 3 Commercial -the service provider -local branch or -growing interest and Presence establishes or has satellite campuses strong potential for future presence of commercial -twinning growth facilities in another partnerships -most controversial as it country in order to - franchising appears to set international render service arrangements with rules on foreign investment local institutions 4. Presence of - persons travelling to -professors, teachers, -potentially a strong Natural another country on a researchers working market given the emphasis Persons temporary basis to abroad on mobility of provide service professionalsTrade in education is organized into five categories of service according to the UN Provisional CentralClassification . They are Primary, Secondary , Higher, Adult and Other. The last three are of particularinterest to this paper. Clarification is needed to determine what is included each group, especially the‘Other’ services group. At this time it is wide open and includes services as diverse as language testing,student recruitment and quality assessment of programs.Three Major PrinciplesThe overall framework contains a number of general obligations applicable to all trade in servicesregardless of whether a country has made a specific commitment to sectors or not. These are calledunconditional obligations. There are three which are fundamental to this discussion. The Most FavouredNation (MFN) rule requires equal and consistent treatment of all foreign trading partners. It means treatingone’s trading partners equally. Under GATS, if a country allows foreign competition in a sector, equalopportunities in that sector should be given to service providers from all WTO members. This also appliesto mutual exclusion treatment. For instance, if a foreign provider establishes branch campus in Country A,then Country A must permit all WTO members the same opportunity/ treatment. Or if Country A choosesto exclude Country B from providing a specific service, then all WTO members are excluded. It may applyeven if the country has made no specific commitment to provide foreign access to their markets. Therefore,MFN has implications for those countries who already are engaged in trade in educational services and/orwho provide access to foreign education providersMFN is not the same as National Treatment which requires equal treatment for foreign providers anddomestic providers. Once a foreign supplier has been allowed to supply a service in one’s country thereshould be no discrimination in treatment between the foreign and domestic providers. It is important to notethat it only applies where a country has made a specific commitment and exemptions are allowed. It is thenational treatment principle which GATS critics believe can put education as a ‘public good’ at risk. 3
  4. 4. Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities? Université Laval, Québec Canada The third important element is Market Access. It means the degree to which market access is granted to foreign providers in specified sectors. Each country determines limitations on market access for each committed sector and lists in its national schedules those services for which it wishes to provide access to foreign providers. In addition to choosing which service sector/s will be committed, each country determines the extent of commitment by specifying the level of market access and the degree of national treatment they are prepared to guarantee. The GATS is described as a voluntary agreement because countries can decide which sectors they will agree to cover under GATS rules. This is done through the preparation of their national schedules of commitments and through the ‘request-offer’ negotiation rounds. However, there are aspects of the agreement that question its voluntary nature, notably the built-in progressive liberalization agenda. There are several aspects of GATS which are most controversial and require the serious attention of the higher education sector. One of the key issues is which education services are covered or exempted?Probably, the most controversial and critical issue related to the agreement is the meaning of Article 1.3.(AUCC, 2001) This article defines which services are covered or exempted. According to the WTO, theagreement is deemed to apply to all measures affecting services except ‘those services supplied in theexercise of governmental authority’. GATS supporters (Ascher, 2001) maintain that education providedand funded by the government is therefore exempted.. Sceptics question the broad interpretation of theclause and ask for more a detailed analysis. The agreement states that «in the exercise of governmentalauthority’ means the service is provided on a ‘non-commercial basis’ and ‘not in competition’ with otherservice suppliers. These are the core issues at the heart of much of the debate about which services arecovered.Education critics of the GATS maintain that due to the wide-open interpretation of ‘non-commercial’ and‘not in competition’ terms, the public sector/government service providers may not in fact be exempt.(Cohen, 2000) The situation is especially complicated in those countries where there is a mixedpublic/private higher education system; or where a significant amount of funding for public institutions isin fact, coming from the private sector; or where so called public institutions are providing privatizedprograms. Another complication is that a public education institution in an exporting country is oftendefined as private/commercial when it crosses the border and delivers in the importing country. Therefore,one needs to question what ‘non-commercial’ really means in terms of higher education trade.The debate about what ‘not in competition’ means is fuelled by the fact that there does not appear to be anyqualifications or limits on the term. (Gottlieb and Pearson, 2001). For instance, if non-governmentproviders (private non-profit or commercial) are delivering services, are they deemed to be in competitionwith government providers. In this scenario, public providers may be defined as being «in competition» bythe mere existence of non-governmental providers. Does the method of delivery influence or limit theconcept of «in competition»? Does the term cover situations where there is a similar mode of delivery, orfor instance, does this term mean that public providers using traditional face-to-face classroom methodscould be seen to be competing with foreign for-profit e-learning providers? These are unanswered questionswhich need clarification.Supporters of the GATS emphasize that education is to a large extent a government function and that theagreement does not seek to displace the public education systems and the right of government to regulateand meet domestic policy objectives. Critics express concern that the whole question of the protection ofpublic services is very uncertain and potentially at risk by the narrow interpretation of what governmental 4
  5. 5. Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities? Université Laval, Québec Canadaauthority means and a wide-open interpretation of what ‘not in competition’ and ‘ non- commercial basis’mean. Clearly, the question -which higher and adult education ‘services exercised in governmentalauthority’ are exempted from GATS - needs to be front and centre in the debate on the risks andopportunities associated with the agreement. Further and immediate action is required to gain clarificationof which higher education providers or services are exempt from GATS. The higher education sector is notthe only sector who has been troubled by the ambiguity of the Clause 1.3. For instance the FinancialServices sector, took an important step and prepared two annexes to the agreement which spelled how whatwas meant by financial services and secondly, delineated which ones were considered to be those servicessupplied in the exercise of governmental authority. This is a constructive and concrete step that the highereducation, or perhaps the entire education sector needs to consider.Extent of country commitmentsThe education sector is one of the least committed sectors. The reason is not clear, but perhaps it can beattributed to the need for countries to strike a balance between pursuing domestic education priorities andexploring ways in which trade in education services can be further liberalized. Or it could be linked to thefact that to date, education has taken a very low priority in the major bilateral/regional trade agreementsand rightly or wrongly, the same may be true for GATS.Only 44 of the 144 WTO Members have made commitments to education, and only 21 of these haveincluded commitments to higher education. (WTO, 2000) It is interesting to note that Congo. Lesotho,Jamaica and Sierra Leone have made full unconditional commitments in higher education, perhaps with theinterest and intent of encouraging foreign providers to help develop their educational systems. Australia’scommitment for higher education covers provision of private tertiary education services including at theuniversity level. The European Union has included high education in their schedule with some limitationson all modes of trade except ‘consumption abroad’ which generally means foreign tuition paying students.As of March 2002, only four (USA, New Zealand, Australia, Japan) of the 21 countries with highereducation commitments have submitted a negotiating proposal outlining their interests and issues. In June,2002 all requests for liberalization of trade were due. It should be noted that these were bilateral requestsand are not required to be made public. The response to these requests, known as offers, are due in Januaryof 2003. This is a critical time for educators to be in close contact with the government education and tradeofficials to ensure that their opinions and expertise are heard.Different rationales and approaches exist. For example, a consumer oriented rationale can be interpreted asthe need to provide a wider range of opportunities to consumers or the need to protect consumers byassuring appropriate levels of access to and quality of education services. The economic rationale can beunderstood as a way to increase trade revenues for exporting countries or it can be seen as a means to attractadditional investment for education for importing countries. Other see the economic rationale assabotaging the social development goals of education or even the scientific and knowledge purposes. Anynumber of issues can be used to illustrate the dichotomy of opinions on the rationales and benefits ofincreased trade in education. Different opinions exist between and within countries, and certainly amongeducation groups as well. Further debate and analysis is necessary so that an informed position is taken onwhy or why not trade liberalization is attractive to an individual country and how trade agreements help orhinder achieving national goals and global interests.Developing Country Interests 5
  6. 6. Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities? Université Laval, Québec CanadaThe voices of developing countries need to be heard so that the benefits and risks associated with increasedtrade are clear and do not undermine their own efforts to develop and enhance their domestic highereducation system. However, the voices and interests of the developing countries differ. The opportunity tohave foreign suppliers provide increased access to higher and adult education programs, or to invest in theinfrastructure for education provision is attractive to some. The threat of foreign dominance or exploitationof a national system and culture is expressed by others. Trade liberalization ‘for whose benefit’ or ‘at whatcost’ are key questions.Quality and accreditation are at the heart of this debate. The importance of frameworks for licensing,accreditation, qualification recognition and quality assurance are important for all countries whether theyare importing and exporting education services. Developing countries have expressed concern about theircapacity to have such frameworks in place in light of the push toward trade liberalization and increasedcross border delivery of education. (Singh, 2001)The GATS, is one of many factors or instruments, which is encouraging greater mobility of professions.Although the agreement focuses on temporary movement of the labour force, it may lead to and facilitatepermanent migration as well. The implications from increased mobility of teachers and researchers areparticularly relevant to developing countries. It will be a major challenge to improve education systems ifwell-qualified professionals and graduates are being attracted to positions in other countries.At the root of the question about the impact of GATS on developing countries is the fundamental issue oftheir capacity to participate effectively in the global trading system and to be equal members in the WTO.Strong sentiments exist about the potential for trade rules to make poor countries poorer, instead ofnarrowing the gap between developed and developing countries. The perceived injustice regarding theexpectation that poor nations are expected to remove trade barriers while rich nations retain barriers oncertain goods, contributes to the strong reactions of some developing countries about GATS in general.Trade liberalization and trends in higher educationTrade liberalization is firmly enmeshed with other issues and trends in higher education and it is thereforechallenging to isolate implications emanating from trade alone. These trends include: 1) the use ofinformation and communication technologies ( ICTS ) for domestic and cross border delivery of programs; 2) the growing number of private for-profit entities providing higher education opportunities domesticallyand internationally; 3) the increasing costs and tuition fees faced by students of public (and private)institutions; 4) the need for public institution to seek alternate sources of funding which sometimes meansengaging in for-profit activities or seeking private sector sources of financial support; and 5) the ability (orinability) of government to fund the increasing demand for higher and adult education The following sections identify questions and issues which need to be explored in terms of the impact oftrade liberalization and GATS on policy directions for higher education.Student accessGovernment and public education institutions have keenly felt the responsibility of ensuring access toeducation. In many, if not in most countries, this is a challenging issue as the demand for higher and adulteducation is steadily growing, often beyond the capacity of the country to provide it. This is one reason 6
  7. 7. Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities? Université Laval, Québec Canadawhy some students are interested in out- of -country education opportunities and more providers areprepared to offer higher education services across borders.When increased trade liberalization is factored into this scenario the question of access becomescomplicated. Advocates of freer trade maintain that consumers/students can have greater access to a widerrange of education opportunities at home and abroad. Non-supporters of trade believe that access may bemore limited because trade will commercialize education and consequently escalate the cost of educationand perhaps lead to a two tiered system. This raises a fundamental question regarding the capacity and roleof government with respect to providing open or limited access to higher education and the question offunding.FundingMany governments have limited budget capacity or at least lack the political will to allocate funds to meetthe escalating costs of higher education. Can international trade provide alternate funding sources throughnew providers? Advocates of trade in education services would answer yes. Or, does it mean that publicfunding will be spread across a broader set of domestic and foreign providers because of GATS’ rules suchas national treatment and the unanswered question of whether public funding is seen as an unfair subsidy.Furthermore, does the presence of foreign providers signal to government that they can decrease publicfunding for higher education thereby jeopardizing domestic publically funded institutions. Doesinternational trade in education advantage some countries, such as those with well-developed capacity forexport, and disadvantage others in terms of funding or access?Regulation of foreign or cross border providersThe development of a regulatory framework to deal with the diversity of providers and new cross borderdelivery modes becomes more critical as international trade increases. In some countries, this will likelymean a broader approach to policy which involves licensing, regulating, monitoring, both private (profitand non-profit) and foreign providers in order to ensure that national policy objectives are met and publicinterests protected. More work is necessary to determine how domestic/ national regulatory frameworks arecompatible with, or part of a larger international framework and how they relate to trade agreement rules.Recognition and transferability of creditsNew types of education providers, new delivery modes, new cross border education initiatives, new levelsof student mobility, new opportunities for trade in higher education- all this can spell further confusion forthe recognition of qualifications and transfer of academic credits. This is not a new issue. Trade agreementsare not responsible for the creation of this confusion, but they contribute to making it more complicatedand also to making resolution more urgent. National and international recognition of qualifications and thetransfer of credits have already been the subject of a substantial amount of work and the UNESCO GlobalForum on International Quality Assurance, Accreditation and the Recognition of Qualifications is currentlyfocussing on this important issue.Quality assurance and accreditationIncreased transnational education activity and new legal trade rules require that more attention be given tothe question of quality assurance and accreditation of cross border education programs and providers. It is 7
  8. 8. Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities? Université Laval, Québec Canadaclear that national quality assurance schemes are being challenged by the complexities of the internationaleducation environment. Not only is it important to have domestic/national policy and mechanisms, it isequally important that attention be given to developing an international policy approach to qualityassurance and accreditation. Can coherence between a domestic/national system and an international policyframework actually strengthen national quality schemes not weaken them? Clearly there are risks andopportunities associated with this issue but doing nothing is a risk unto itself.Quality assurance of higher education is in some countries regulated by the sector, and in others by thegovernment to a greater or lesser degree. The key point is that authority for quality assurance, regulation,accreditation for cross border delivery needs to be examined and guided by stakeholders and bodies relatedto the education sector and not left in the hands of trade officials or the market.Mobility of professionalsGATS is facilitating the mobility of professionals to meet the high demand for skilled workers. Thisimpacts many of the service sectors and has particular implications for the mobility of teachers and scholarsin the higher education sector. In many countries, the increasing shortage of teachers is resulting in activerecruitment campaigns across borders. Since many teachers and researchers want to move to countries withmore favourable working conditions and salaries, there is a real concern that the most developed countrieswill benefit from this mobility of education workers.Culture and acculturationLast, but certainly not least, is the issue of culture. Education is a process through which culturalassimilation takes place. Concern about the homogenization of culture, through cross border supply ofeducation is expressed by GATS sceptics. Advocates maintain, that a new hybridization and fusion ofculture will evolve through increasing mobility and the influence of ICTs. In fact, they believe that this hasbeen happening for decades and is a positive development. Once again, the divergence of opinion showsthat there are new opportunities and new threats to consider, especially on the question of acculturation.Trade dominatesFinally, it needs to be asked whether trade liberalization has the potential of dominating the highereducation agenda? There is a risk of ‘trade creep’ where education policy issues are being increasinglyframed in terms of trade and economic benefit. Even though, domestic challenges in education provisionare currently front and centre on the radar screen of most countries, the issue of international trade ineducation services will likely increase in importance and perhaps at the expense of other key objectives andrationales for higher education such as social, cultural and scientific development and the role of educationin promoting democracy and citizenship.At this stage, there seem to be more questions than answers about the impact of GATS and tradeliberalization. The questions are complex as they deal with technical/legal issues of the agreement itself;education policy issues such as funding, access, accreditation, quality and intellectual property and; thelarger more political/moral issues for society such as the role and purpose of higher education and the‘public good’ or ‘market commodity ‘ approach to education. GATS is new, complex, untested and awork-in-progress. It is therefore difficult to understand or predict its impact. The one thing that is certain 8
  9. 9. Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities? Université Laval, Québec Canadathough, is that the higher education sector needs to be better informed and more involved in the debate andprovide advice to the trade officials about potential unintended consequences or possible opportunities.Concluding comments and recommendationsAt this stage, it appears that there are more questions than clear answers about the impact and implicationsof GATS on higher education. The questions are both complex and contentious. They deal withtechnical/legal issues of the agreement itself; education policy issues such as funding, access, accreditation,quality and intellectual property and, the larger more political/moral issues for society such as the role andpurpose of higher education and whether education is a ‘public good’ and/or ‘tradeable commodity».This paper ends with the note and recommendation that education policy makers, researchers and senioradministrators give more attention to analysing the opportunities, risks and policy implications emanatingfrom the inclusion of higher education services in GATS and other international trade agreements. Theeducation sector needs to work more closely with the trade officials, negotiators and researchers to becomebetter informed of the issues but also to exchange information and provide advice on the implications foreducation policy and influence future directions of trade of higher education services. Trade officials alsoneed to take the initiative to consult with educators. It is suggested that international governmental bodies and non-governmental organizations as well asregional and national education groups give more priority to the policy issues emanating from tradeliberalization and be proactive in examining how to fully benefit from new opportunities that are availablefrom global competitive trade and be mindful of risks and unintended consequences. Finally, it is importantnot to overstate the impact of GATS. Trade in education was alive and well prior to trade agreements. Itwill undoubtedly increase under the auspices of GATS but the policy issues such as funding, access andquality assurance need to be addressed and managed by the education sector and not left to the purview oftrade agreements and the WTO.References and BibliographyAscher, B.( 2001) Education and Training Services in International Trade Agreements. Paper presented to Conference on Higher Education and Training in the Global Marketplace: Exporting Issues and Trade Agreements.» Washington, D.C.AUCC. (2001) Canadian Higher Education and the GATS: AUCC Background Paper. Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Ottawa, Canada.AUCC et al (2001) Joint Declaration on Higher Education and the General Agreement on Trade in Services. Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, American Council on Education, European University Association, Council for Higher Education Accreditation. Ottawa, Canada. 9
  10. 10. Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities? Université Laval, Québec CanadaCohen, M. G.. (2000) The World Trade Organization and post-secondary education: Implications for the public system in Australia. Hawke Institute, University of South Australia. Adelaide, Australia. Working Paper Series No. 1.EI/PSI (2000) Great Expectations. The Future of Trade in Services. Joint paper by Education International and Public Services International. Brussels, BelgiumGottlieb and Pearson (2001) GATS Impact on Education in Canada. Legal Opinion. Ottawa, Canada.Knight, J. (1999b) «Issues and Trends in Internationalization: A Comparative Perspective» inS. Bond and J.P. Lemasson. ( Eds) A New World of Knowledge: Canadian Universities and Globalization. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre (IDRC). pp. 201-239.Knight.J. (2002) Trade in Higher Education Services: The Implications of GATS. The Observatory on borderless higher education. London: United KingdomLarsen et al (2002) Trade in Educational Services: Trends and Emerging Issues. Working Paper. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris, FranceNCITE (2001) Barriers to Trade in Transnational Education. National Committee for International Trade in Education. Washington, D.C. USA.OECD (2002) Current Commitments under the GATS in Educational Services. OECD/CERI Paper prepared for the OECD/US Forum on Trade in Education Services. Washington, D.C.OECD ( 2002) Indicators on Internationalisation and Trade of Post-secondary Education. OECD/CERI . Paper prepared for the OECD/US Forum on Trade in Education Services. Washington, D.C.Sauve, P. (2002) Trade, Education and the GATS: What’s in, What’s Out, What’s All the Fuss About? Paper prepared for the OECD/US Forum on Trade in Education Services. Washington, D.C.Scott, P. (2000). «Globalisation and higher education: Challenges for the 21st century» in Journal Of Studies in International Education. Vol 4. No.1.Sinclair, S. . (2000) GATS: How the WTO’s new «services» negotiations threaten democracy Paper prepared for the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Ottawa, Canada.WTO (1998). Education Services. Background Note by the Secretariat. Council for Trade in Services. Geneva, Switzerland. S/C/W/49, 98-3691WTO (1999c) The General Agreement in Trade in Services- objectives, coverage, and disciplines. Prepared by the WTO secretariat. Geneva, Switzerland.WTO. (2001). GATS - Fact and Fiction. World Trade Organization. Geneva. Switzerland. 10
  11. 11. Globalisation: What Issues are at Stake for Universities? Université Laval, Québec Canada11

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