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Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
Maria Soledad Parra
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Maria Soledad Parra

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  • 1. IAU 2014 International Conference 19-21 March 2014 Universidad Científica del Perú (UCP) Iquitos, Peru María Soledad Parra, Academic, Universidad Alberto Hurtado
  • 2.  Worldwide Education System  Has to promote the development of values and skills to improve the quality of life of individuals and societies  UNESCO  Higher education should reinforce its role of service to society to eliminate environmental and social problems  Business Education in XXI century o Should be reformulated in the light of the new paradigms emerging, for preserving mankind and planet  Critics to Discipline of Marketing  Deceptive practices; products or services of poor quality, harmful or unsafe; planned obsolescence; etc.  False desires, excessive materialism, insufficient social goods, equipment and cultural pollution, etc. 2
  • 3.  Kotler’s XX century Marketing Definition  Social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others. "Meeting needs profitably“  Marketing Course  2013, Commercial Engineering, UAH in Santiago, Chile  Service-learning methodology applied for first time  Obsolescence of Business Education  Encourage unlimited production, sale and consumption of goods and services harmful, unnecessary and pollutants  Sustainable Marketing (Kotler & Armstrong, 2012)  Responsible marketing to social and environmental level that meets the needs of consumers and businesses, and at the same time preserves or enhances the ability of future generations to meet their needs 3
  • 4.  Kotler… (2012) and Lambin… (2009)  Standard of teaching of marketing during last 25 years  Both have small reference of sustainability and ethics inside  Both books explain marketing mainly as the traditional way  Both include study cases about non sustainable businesses  Service-learning Methodology  Experiential partnership between an institution of higher education and community groups  Two Parallel Marketing Plans  38 students (2nd to 4th year), 10 groups of about 4 people  20 micro-entrepreneurs of various craft sectors  Two Support Organizations  CREAS-Centre for Reflection and Social Action, UAH  Fair Trade Node: promotes it through public policy advocacy, sensitization and mobilization of society 4
  • 5.  Previous Research and Exercise  Harmful or Deceptive Practices in Marketing (3 P’s)  Bad quality, harmful or unsafe products/services (P = product)  Obj.: Show with clarity what should not be done in marketing  Focus Group: compare two food products (organic-industrial)  Obj.: evaluate social and environmental impact of each one  Service-learning Methodology  Presentation on the Service-Learning methodology as well as Fair Trade to 10 students teams and 20 micro-entrepreneurs  Each group was related to two micro-entrepreneurs who were in different sectors: production queen bee and tourist emporium  Two Parallel Marketing Plans  Professor and students were interactively solving doubts and applying the content to real-world examples  In mid-semester, it was corrected part of the items of the final project and the necessary observations were made 5
  • 6.  Some debates about challenges are facing actual businesses and marketing for being more sustainable  Advantages of real economy versus financial economy for sustainability  To what extend is good the growth in a sustainable business  What it means to succeed in a sustainable business  How ethical is promoting products or services sales, only for satisfying any desire of rich consumers  How to apply the 7 R's in current businesses: reducing, reusing, recycling, respecting, repairing, reflecting and refusing  How avoid the impact of a business on an ecosystem for not destroying it  … and so on…  Issues could not be deeply researched by students, but at least they were putting into question in classes  Result was a good starting point for future “sustainable marketing courses” 6
  • 7.  Alternatives or complements to the traditional definition  Expansion of entrepreneurial activity and it was mainly based upon product sale  Marketing should be matched by strong sense of ethics, values and social responsibility  Social Marketing (Kotler, Roberto & Lee, 2002)  Use of marketing principles and techniques to influence a target audience to voluntary accept, reject, modify or abandon a behavior, for the benefit of individuals, groups or society as a whole  Green Marketing (Hunt, 2011)  1st age was "ecological marketing", in the 1970s’  2nd age was "environmental marketing", in the 1980s’  3rd age is "sustainable marketing“, at present o Goal of creating sustainable development o Environmental, social and economic sustainability 7
  • 8.  Sustainable Marketing  Triple Bottom Line (3E’s: environment, equity and economic)  Marketing should be matched by strong sense of ethics, values and social responsibility  Challenges for marketing are concerns about:  Futurity: delivering satisfaction to customers and profits to investors in the current and future generations  Equity: fair distribution across people of the costs and benefits of economic development  Needs/wants: meet the basic survival needs of poor people instead of the wants of wealthy people o Within of business: development that meets the needs of business organizations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs o (4P – Product, Price, Place, Promotion) + (3P – People, Planet, Profit) 8
  • 9.  Origins Marketing Courses (1902 USA)  Knowledge had to be acquired in field of business, not in class  Schools of business should foster that more experienced marketing men pass on their rich knowledge and experience  Ideal way to bring students in direct contact with the realities of business was, of course, an internship or work  In business education, 4 solutions are available:  1) Business Case Studies  2) A Practical Internship within a Company  3) Business Simulation Games  4) A Combination of these Methods  Service-learning methodology seems the optimal combination of those methods  Learning can best be internalized incorporating feedback  Students learn more when they take an active role in the learning process, is a transformation of experience 9
  • 10.  Experiential Learning  Ideas are not fixed or unchangeable elements of thought, but are re-formed through ‘experience’, in a continuous process  Encourage participants to be involved with the content of real life situations involving ambiguity, change, and risk  Students believe that real-world scenarios are more challenging, enjoyable and a more effective learning tool  Live Cases  Involve information available in “real time”  Deal with ambiguity and conflicting data  Keep students upgraded with business environments  Instill a sense of immediacy to the situation  Live case participants  Free to make good and bad decisions in the process  Viability of recommendations depends upon the quality and accuracy of research, analyses, and decision-making 10
  • 11.  Viewpoint of Critical Marketing  Doubts about contribution of marketing to the social good and debates about its credibility  It neglects to discuss how structures of domination and exploitation mediate the relationships  Individuals are encouraged to represent, and relate to each other, as commodities in a marketplace  Social interactions are portrayed as processes of reciprocal manipulation, between egoistic parties, who individually benefit  Theories and methods that claim to weaken or circumvent the will of consumers by inducing them to act in a way  Reinforces infantile fantasies and various problems:  a) consumption brings to happiness and solution problems  b) displacement from the valuing of people to objects  c) consumer identities lead to a precarious self-sense  d) over-stressing economic goals and to minimize others  e) ecological wastefulness and damage 11
  • 12.  Uses of critical approach in business and marketing education  Develop improved thinking, reasoning and analytical skills, via questioning and skeptical stance towards the material  Appreciation of the macro-level ambiguities of business phenomena, via exposure to alternatives to the managerialist  Develop improved learning skills in students, via experiential and reflexive learning techniques  Curricula is technocratic and managerialist, ignoring the political and moral dimensions  Presentation and self-learning components of marketing texts are simplistic and formulaic  Critical pedagogy centers on challenging the status quo  Continuous transformation through which learners and teacher become authentic subjects of the construction and reconstruction of what is being taught 12
  • 13.  Service-learning is rooted in the theories of constructivism  Teaching strategy that enhances students’ learning of academic content by engaging them in authentic activities  They apply the content of the course to address identified needs in the community  Form of experiential learning that involves reflection, which helps connect theoretical with practical experience  Service-learning is a teaching mechanism which  Balance traditional business education with outcomes such as civic responsibility, respect for others, and commitment to the common good  Is based on the values of altruism, empathy, social responsibility, and concern for others  Enhance students’ vision to the greater good of society 13
  • 14.  Service-learning is used in various marketing courses:  Consumer behavior, personal selling, principles of marketing, and advertising courses  Has outcomes, such as: increased volunteerism, social awareness, civic engagement, social responsibility, personal transformation and appreciation of social justice  Serve as a model and guide university education to engage and emphasize ethical principles, and promote social responsibility  Service-learning principles are:  Democratic, participatory and interactive teaching  Has found positive impacts on participating students’ academic, civic, personal, social, ethical, and vocational development 14
  • 15.  Students of marketing should be aware of the impact and responsibility that will have their decision-making in the future, for the society and the planet  Marketing courses should not continue to promote unsustainable business obsolete  It is possible to migrate from traditional to sustainable marketing through the service-learning methodology, where students can make contact with real business  Students can for example experience today a future decision-making, acting as advisers to micro- entrepreneurs and receive feedback of their performance  It is necessary to dispose the obsolete knowledge and unsustainable ideas of traditional marketing and replace them with respect for people and the environment  Students are able to transform their values in the process, to assume the importance of sustainability and ethics 15
  • 16. Thank you very much M. Soledad Parra Universidad Alberto Hurtado maparra@uahurtado.cl 16

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