CS III.4 - W. Lawton

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CS III.4 - W. Lawton

  1. 1. Higher Education and the Global Agenda: Alternative Pathways to the Future IAU 14th General Conference ‘TNE, branch campuses and hubs: Drivers and trends’ William Lawton The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico 30 November 2012
  2. 2. INTERNATIONAL BRANCH CAMPUSES DATA AND DEVELOPMENTS WILLIAM LAWTON ALEX KATSOMITROS JANUARY 2012 IN ASSOCIATION WITH EVERSHEDS LLP
  3. 3. Joined i-graduate in 2010
  4. 4. Outline TNE typologies TNE growth TNE drivers International branch campuses (IBCs) Education hubs: Role of governments New collaborations MOOCs
  5. 5.  Types of TNE  online & distance  articulation  twinning  franchising  validation  branch campuses
  6. 6. Growth of UK TNE Global demand for UK Higher Education1,400,0001,200,0001,000,000 800,000 Study in own country 600,000 Study in UK 400,000 200,000 0 03 05 10 15 20 25 20 20 20 20 20 20 Anthony Böhm et al, Vision 2020: Forecasting international student mobility (BC, UUK, IDP, 2004)
  7. 7. Australia & UKOnshore and TNE numbers in higher education 1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 TNE 500,000 504,000 Onshore 400,000 300,000 108,000 200,000 428,000 100,000 (including 225,000 130,000 EU) 0 Sources: AEI, HESA Australia (2011) UK (2010-2011)
  8. 8. Source: British Council c.2010
  9. 9. Top 5 TNE markets Australia UK• Singapore • Malaysia• China • Singapore• Malaysia • China• Vietnam • Pakistan• Hong Kong • Hong Kong Sources: AEI (08.2012), BC (2011)
  10. 10. Drivers of TNE For universities For students and families For host governments
  11. 11. INTERNATIONAL BRANCH CAMPUSES DATA AND DEVELOPMENTS WILLIAM LAWTON ALEX KATSOMITROS JANUARY 2012 IN ASSOCIATION WITH EVERSHEDS LLP
  12. 12. Observatory’s branch-campus report • 200 degree-awarding IBCs in operation worldwide in 2011 • (162 in 2009) • 40 more to open over the next two years. • number of ‘home’ (source) countries was 24 (22 in 2009) • number of host countries was 67 (52 in 2009)
  13. 13. Number of international branch campuses (IBCs) 2006-14 300 250 250-260 225+ 200 200Number of IBCs International branch 162 150 campuses 2009-2011 (2009 definition) International branch campuses 2006 - 2014 100 (estimate) 82 50 0 2006 2009 2011 2014 © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  14. 14. 2011Number of IBCs hosted, by world region Number of IBCs originating, by world region North Europe North Asia (70) America Europe MENA (69) Asia (26) America (82) (33) (62) MENA (10) (7) Central & Australia Central & Africa Africa Australia South (2) South (2) (13) (12) America America (2) (10) © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  15. 15. Host countries Number of IBCs, 2009 and 201145 4040 37353025 2009 201120 18 1715 12 10 1010 9 7 6 5 5 5 550 0 0 UAE Singapore China (M) Qatar Malaysia UK India Mauritius © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  16. 16. Home countries Number of IBCs, 2009 and 201180 78 78706050 200940 201130 27 2520 17 13 14 11 11 1210 5 6 4 6 6 3 4 1 0 © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  17. 17. Number of IBCs as share Estimated world market share of world total, 2011 by number of students, 2011 6 7.5 17.5 4.5 25 Australia 8.5 Australia USA USA UK UK13.5 India India 39 11 Malaysia Malaysia France France 3 Other Other 24 8.5 19.5 12.5 © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  18. 18. 200 IBCs 40 IBCs from non- traditional exporters34 South-to-South IBCs
  19. 19. Education Hubs: Governments in on the actUnited Arab Emirates Education City, near Kuala LumpurAbu Dhabi Iskandar, south MalaysiaDubai Knowledge Village Global Schoolhouse, SingaporeDubai International Academic City Incheon Free Economic Zone, KoreaDubai International Financial City Jeju Global Education City, KoreaDubai Health Care City BotswanaDubai Silicon Oasis MauritiusBahrain Sri LankaEducation City, Qatar City of Knowledge, PanamaNew York City
  20. 20. Newcastle University Medical school (NUMed) Iskandar, Malaysia, April 2012
  21. 21. CUSP in New York CityCenter for Urban Science & Progress, Brooklyn• Multinational university hub• Integrated academic programmesNew York University IBMNYU – Poly CiscoCity University of New York OthersCarnegie MellonTorontoWarwickIIT Bombay
  22. 22. Coursera – Partners to date US• Berklee College of Music UK Australia• Brown University• CalTech • Edinburgh • Melbourne• Columbia • London• Duke• Emory Hong Kong• Georgia Tech• Johns Hopkins• Mount Sinai School of Medicine Canada • HK University of• Ohio State Science and• Princeton Technology • UBC• Rice• Stanford • Toronto• UC, Irvine Israel• UC, San Francisco• Florida • Hebrew University• Illinois at Urbana-Champaign of Jerusalem• Maryland, College Park• Michigan India• Pennsylvania • IIT Delhi• Pittsburgh Switzerland • Indraprastha Institute• Virginia• Washington of Information • EPFL• Vanderbilt Technology Delhi• Wesleyan
  23. 23. Coursera – Where do students come from? August 2012
  24. 24. Coursera Udacity 207 courses 19 Courses 35 university partners Colorado State University (25 US, 2 UK, 2 Can,2 Indian, 1 Aus, 1 HK, 1 Israeli, 1 Swiss ) 1,950,000 students (11/12) c1,000,000 students38% USA, 6% Brazil, 5% India, 42% USA, 7% India, 5% UK, 4% China (08/12) 4% Germany (08/12)
  25. 25. Two important considerations about MOOCs • How quickly MOOC completion certificates will be integrated into formal credit at universities • How MOOC methods may impact on traditional pedagogy
  26. 26. MOOCs and branch campuses ‘The branch-campus model‘MOOCs will attract is not fading… Without ‘MOOCs and IBCs are not‘glocal’ students with global local endorsement of mutually exclusive… Itaspirations and local MOOC initiatives, it is might be better to think ofexperiences… Newer branch doubtful that students will MOOCs and internationalcampuses will face see them as a superior branch campuses asunexpected competition from option… They serve independentMOOCs’ different purposes and internationalisation strategy options’ different clientele’Rahul Choudaha, Jason Lane & Kevin Observatory, 21.08 Kinser, SUNY, 06.09WES, 05.08 © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  27. 27. Higher Education and the Global Agenda: Alternative Pathways to the Future IAU 14th General Conference ‘TNE, branch campuses and hubs: Drivers and trends’ William Lawton The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico 30 November 2012
  28. 28. International branch campusesThings can go wrong• Japan: 38 of 40 IBCs closed during economic crisis in 1990s• RMIT in Malaysia: Malaysian partner’s financial losses in Asian economic crisis (1997)• Central Queensland University in Fiji: low enrolments & political instability (2007) • also closed campus in New Zealand in 2008• Uni of New South Wales in Singapore: low enrolments (2007)• George Mason University in Dubai: depends on whose story you believe; either poor enrolments or thrown out by UQAIB (2009)• University of Phoenix in Calgary and Vancouver: Unclear; possible relation to a lawsuit against parent company, Apollo Group of Arizona (2010)• University of Northern Virginia in HK and Northern Cyrpus: accreditation revoked (2010?)
  29. 29. © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  30. 30. Number of students at IBCs in each country (actual + extrapolations)30000 27,50025000 20,20020000 15,30015000 12,700 Estimate10000 Actual - Based on survey data 11,821 5,8205000 9,530 7,049 2,100 1,660 0 UAE China - M Malaysia Singapore Bahrain Qatar (16/37) (8/17) (7/7) (10/18) (3/3) (8/10) Host countries © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  31. 31. Average number of students at IBCs in each country2,500 2,189 1,9402,0001,500 1,1911,000 739 705 730 500 208 0 UAE China - M Malaysia Singapore Bahrain Qatar Average (16/37) (8/17) (7/7) (10/18) (3/3) (8/10) Host countries © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  32. 32. Where are they coming from? (%)100% 5 90% 7 32 24 80% 1 45 42 35 70% 8 60% 3 50% 1 88 40% 18 Students from other 75 countries 30% 60 Students from home 20% 57 62 country Students from host 10% 37 country 0% UAE China (M) Malaysia Singapore Bahrain Qatar Host countries © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  33. 33. © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  34. 34. Number of students at IBCs from each country (actual + extrapolations)3500030000 30,000 28,900 Estimate25000 23,30020000 Actual - Based on survey data15000 27,545 13,600 10,10010000 17,733 13,340 5,400 5000 4,802 3,366 2,004 0 Australia USA UK India Malaysia France (11/12) (36/78) (19/25) (6/17) (2/6) (10/27) Home countries © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  35. 35. Average number of students at IBCs originating from these countries3,000 2,5042,5002,000 1,6831,500 9331,000 800 730 500 371 200 0 Australia USA UK India Malaysia France Average (11/12) (36/78) (19/25) (6/17) (2/6) (10/27) Home countries © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  36. 36. Where are they going?100% 90% 20 24 80% 0.5 29.5 30.5 31 70% 60% 18.5 5 19 50% 51 79.5 Students from other countries 40% Students from home country 30% Students from host country 20% 52 64 50.5 10% 25 0% UK France India USA Australia Home countries © The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2012
  37. 37. Validation Franchise Supported CampusReputation risk High Medium Low LowFinancial risk Low Medium Medium HighControl exerted Low Medium High HighInstitutional Adoptive Parent - child Diverse Clonerelationship ParentMarket High Medium Low Highresponsiveness Worldwide Access | Opportunity | International Standards
  38. 38. Observatory’s branch-campus report• US universities still provide the greatest number of IBCs (78) • but no net change since 2009• UAE still hosts the greatest number (37) • though three fewer than in 2009• France is now source country for 27 IBCs • 12 from ESMOD International Fashion group.• UK has almost doubled its provision, from 13 to 25 • 8 more at least on the way• shift in activity from the Middle East to the Far East• number hosted by mainland China has increased by 70% • (10 to 17)• number in Singapore has increased by 50% • (12 to 18).

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