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CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
CS III.4 - B. Wachter
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CS III.4 - B. Wachter

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  • 1. Mobility and InternationalisationBernd WächterDirector, Academic Cooperation Association (ACA) Mobility and Internationalisation IAU 14th General Conference, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 30 November 2012 Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 2. About ACA• A (mainly) European association of national organisations supporting internationalisation• Promoting innovation and internationalisation• Studies and expert opinion on (international) HE developments, for example - Student mobility in Europe and globally - English-medium provision in Europe - Perceptions of European HE worldwide - Student services• Seminars and conferences (2013: 20th-Anniversary Annual Conference in The Hague on mobility and internationalisation)• Electronic news service: ACA Newsletter-Education Europe Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 3. Division of labour• This talk will be on internationalisation overall and on international mobility in particular• Division of labour agreed with William Lawton, who will focus on TNE, off-shore campuses and education hubs• Everybody will concentrate on their areas of expertise• I will touch on TNE and the like occasionally: to make clear that it follows a specific internationalisation approach. Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 4. What is internationalisation? (1) Dialogue Bernd Wächter: “Ulrich Teichler, what is internationalisation?” Ulrich Teichler: Bernd, if I only knew. Twenty years ago, it was clear: the international mobility of students, teachers and researchers. Today, it could be almost anything. And, very importantly, it is different things for different people. Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 5. What is internationalisation ? (2)Jane Knight (2003)“the process of integrating an international,intercultural or global dimension into thepurpose, functions or delivery ofpostsecondary education.” Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 6. The many faces of internationalisation (1)• International mobility of students and scholars (differentiations by credit and degree mobility)• Recognition of degrees and study periods (credits)• Internationalisation of curricula / „internationalisation at home‟: foreign/English- medium instruction; „international content‟, area studies; country-comparative studies; etc.• Institutional networks and partnerships• International marketing and promotion Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 7. The many faces of internationalisation (2)• International alumni• Joint / coordinated system reform across country borders. Example: the Bologna Process (degree architecture, QA and accreditation mechanisms, etc.)• TNE, off-shore operations, collaborative provision, distance/online education Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 8. Internationalisation purposes 1 (per- spective of the student)• Mobility of students and staff: persons moving to another country;• Recognition of qualifications and credits: intended to be mobility-facilitating;• Internationalisation of curricula: for domestic students: providing the international experience „at home (teaching rather than moving to the world) ; for foreign students: facilitating access (through, for example, teaching in English); Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 9. Internationalisation purposes 2 (per- spective of the student)• Institutional networks and partnerships: building mobility-bridges , mobility enhancing• International marketing and promotion: attracting mobile students (mobility-related)• International alumni: keeping in touch with formerly-mobile students• Joint/coordinated system reform (Bologna): at first glance: facilitating mobility; at second: making foreign universities more like the own ones – mobility-undermining? (governmental perspective probaly more important: acting in unison). Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 10. Internationalisation purposes 3 (per- spective of the student)• TNE, off-shore operations, online/distance education: making mobility across country borders unnecessary (because the programme / institution has become mobile). Conclusion• Most forms of internationalisation are directly or indirectly linked to physical mobility to other countries.• Two are not: „internationalisation at home‟ and TNE. In TNE, there is a role switch. The institution/programme becomes mobile, so the learner does not need to move. Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 11. Interlude• Earlier overview was of course intentionally simplistic• Also: reduced to what constitutes the “international” in the perspective of students• There is also the institutional view (universities), the view of the country (government)• But it is striking: together with „internationalisation at home‟ (for domestic students), TNE constitutes the only form of internationalisation not directly linked to international mobility.• Therefore, I would want to look at th end somewhat more closely into mobility issues. Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 12. Types of student mobility• It makes litlle sense to talk about mobility as such. In fact, there are „mobilities‟.• We differentiate into mobility for the study of a whole programme (degree mobility) and temporary or credit mobility (semester or year abroad).• This differentiation is not made for the beauty of methodology.• It is necessary because the forces that drive the two sorts of mobility are very different, as you will soon see. . Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 13. Degree mobility• Degree mobility is „vertical‟ in nature.• Mobility flows are predominantly from countries with quantitavely and/or Qualitatively insufficient provision to such with more and better provision.• Typical example: inflow of students from developing countries into OECD-type countries.• The quest for better academic quality. Far less important: language, culture, climate, etc.• A high outflow of degree mobility is usually bad news for a country: it shows that people do not have trust in the country‟s higher education provision. Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 14. Credit mobility• Credit mobility is „horizontal‟ in nature (not „vertical).• Students seek cultural and lingusistic difference, not (predominantly) better academic quality.• Credit mobility takes place almost exclusively in and between economically and academically advanced parts of the world. It is a „luxury phenomenon‟.• A high inflow of credit-mobile students is not necessarily a sign of superior academic quality, but of cultural and other forms of attractiveness.• Example: Spain. Spain attract very high number of credit-mobile students (Erasmus). It palys a far more modest role as a destination of degree seeking foreign students. Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA
  • 15. Thanks So much more to say ……but you have probably had enough of me. Thank you for your attention. www.aca-secretariat.be Internationalisation and mobility Bernd Wächter, Director, ACA

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