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  • 1. Open Educational Resources (OER):Tomorrow’s Main Educational Provider? IAU 14th General Conference,San Juan Puerto Rico, USA 27-30 November 2012 Gard Titlestad Secretary General ICDE
  • 2. To be adressed:Governments: Universities:• Move on the OER agenda • Take the responsibility!• Optimal policy framework for • Strategies and leadership for OER, incentives for OER, develop Open Education, for Open in dialogue with universities Education Practices• Implement the UNESCO • Overview and organisation. declaration in a contextual way • Partnership between Open• Map the landscape, facilitate and Conventional universities infrastructures. • Build competencies –• Facilitate initiatives for research, participate in research new knowledge on effect and • Flip the classroom for student- impact of OER and on delivering oriented and personalised high quality OER learning
  • 3. What is ICDE?• the leading global membership organization for open and distance education• an NGO official partner of UNESCO, and shares that agency’s key aim – the attainment of quality education for all• member focused – ICDE is an organization which will involve members in decision making, in cooperative action and in cooperative problem solving.• transparent – Members will be able to follow the activities and decisions of ICDE.• ICDE believes that in pursuing education as a universal right, the needs of the learner must be central.• senior management in member institutions is actively involved in ICDE
  • 4. Appr. No. of students 650.000 The ICDE 250.000 Executive Committee 400.000 40.0003.500.000
  • 5. Open Educational Resources - OER and Open Educational Practices - OEP Heard about OER? Know what OER is? Familiar with OER and OEP?
  • 6. Open Educational Resources“... are digital learning resources offered online freely and openly to teachers, educators, students and independent learners in order to be used, shared, combined, adapted, and expanded in teaching, learning and research.” (OECD 2011)“... are teaching, learning and research materials in any medium that reside in the public domain and have beenreleased under an open licence that permits access, use, repurposing, reuse and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions.” (UNESCO 2011)
  • 7. The vision… At the heart of the movement toward Open Educational Resources is the simple and powerful idea that the worlds knowledge is a public good… and that technology in general and the Worldwide Web in particular provide an extraordinary opportunity for everyone to share, use, and reuse it. Hewlett Foundation
  • 8. ”For the first time in human history we have the tools to enable everyone to attain all the education they desire.” (Wiley, Green, & Soares, 2012) Dramatically bringing down the cost of education with OER: How open education resources unlock the door to free learning.
  • 9. Expectations to OER “OERs have the potential to solve the global education crisis and contribute to sustainable economic growth” Sir John Daniel, former CEO for Commonwealth of Learning and David Killion, US ambassador to UNESCO said in Guardian in July 2012
  • 10. Why should universities bother?
  • 11. OER can increase the impact of investments in knowledgeHigh quality education Open Access – open scienceResearch based education Research based OERResource based education Research based teachingOpen education OER Innovation in education – open innovation Innovate the learning system – flip the classroom Knowledge supply for innovation
  • 12. OER can increase the impact of investments in knowledgeHigh quality education Open Access – open scienceResearch based education Research based OERResource based education Research based teachingOpen education OER Innovation in education – open innovation Innovate the learning system – flip the classroom Knowledge supply for innovation
  • 13. Drivers for OER• The benefits from Higher Education – a gold mine• Demand for access to Higher Education• Financial problems, costs• Failure of the current educational system, drop outs/push outs• The need for innovation in HEI – innovation in education• StudentsReinventing education: OER animportant building block
  • 14. EDUCAUSE: ECAR STUDY OF UNDERGRADUATESTUDENTS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, 2012
  • 15. EDUCAUSE: ECAR STUDY OF UNDERGRADUATESTUDENTS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, 2012 19% 57%
  • 16. Governments (OECD) on OER
  • 17. Benefits and challenges of OER Benefits ChallengesOpen and flexible learning Language and culturalopportunities sensitivityEfficiency and quality of Connectivitylearning resourcesCost-efficiency QualityInnovation Copyright and licensingSystemic transformative SustainabilitycapacityHylén, J. et al. (2012): OECDs “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD
  • 18. Relevance of benefits of OERHylén, J. et al. (2012): OECDs “Open Educational Resources: Analysis of Responses to the OECD
  • 19. ICDE SCOP 2012 – a workings group´s reflections on OERo Quality assurance concerns – how do DE institutions whichare already scrutinized for being DE institutions ensure thatOER they adopt does not undermine their existing QA systems(the answer is to ensure that they go through the same QAmechanisms as other course materials)o Cost recoveryo Locating OER - it is difficult for institutions to locate OERthat is appropriate for their needs (call for more work onfacilitating use of search facilities for OER).
  • 20. From the UNESCO OER Declaration• Foster awareness and use of OER• Encourage the development and adaptation of OER in a variety of languages and cultural contexts• Encourage the open licensing of educational materials produced with public funds.
  • 21. MOOCs”A massive open online course (MOOC) is a typeof online course aimed at large-scaleparticipation and open access via the web.MOOCs are a recent development in the area ofdistance education, and a progression of thekind of open education ideals suggested byopen educational resources.”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOOC
  • 22. MOOC ManiaMOOCs have not onlycreated a discussion ondisruptive change in HEI,but also increased themomentum of OER. The Chronicles special report on Online Learning 2012
  • 23. Courseraand more!
  • 24. So, why bother?A wake up call is needed for governments, for universities
  • 25. To be adressed:Governments: Universities:• Move on the OER agenda • Take the responsibility!• Optimal policy framework for • Strategies and leadership for OER, incentives for OER, develop Open Education, for Open in dialogue with universities Education Practices• Implement the UNESCO • Overview and organisation. declaration in a contextual way • Partnership between Open• Map the landscape, facilitate and Conventional universities infrastructures. • Build competencies –• Facilitate initiatives for research, participate in research new knowledge on effect and • Flip the classroom for student- impact of OER and on delivering oriented and personalised high quality OER learning
  • 26. Thank you! titlestad@icde.org www.icde.org
  • 27. Costs
  • 28. ODL in rapid growth• The world’s 18 largest mega-universities are open universities serving more than 14.3 million students. Most of these universities were founded after the 1970s.• China: 1 of every 10 registered students in higher education is a student at The Open University of China.• Africa: African Virtual University has signed up with 21 countries and 28 Universities to provide Open and Distance eLearning, based on OER and the Internet.• Almost one-third of enrolments in HE in the autumn of 2010 in the USA were online enrolments, with more than 30% of the students taking at least one course online.
  • 29. EDUCAUSE: ECAR STUDY OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, 2012
  • 30. EDUCAUSE: ECAR STUDY OF UNDERGRADUATESTUDENTS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, 2012
  • 31. Higher Education – a goldminefor the individual and the society• For the individual – the employment prospects increase• For the individual – the net value is good business• For the public – cost benefit is success! – Documented by OECD in Education at a glance 2012
  • 32. Global need for barrier-free access to higher education• Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO “Higher education: In less than 40 years, enrolments have increased fivefold. Globally it is estimated that demand will expand from less than 100 million students in 2000 to over 250 million students in 2025.” ”A university a week”
  • 33. Educational potential• Increased availability of high quality, relevant learning materials can contribute to more productive students and educators.• The principle of allowing adaptation of materials provides one mechanism amongst many for constructing roles for students as active participants in educational processes, who learn best by doing and creating, not by passively reading and absorbing.• OER has potential to build capacity by providing institutions and educators access, at low or no cost, to the means of production to develop their competence in producing educational materials and carrying out the necessary instructional design to integrate such materials into high quality programmes of learning.“A Basic Guide to Open Educational Resources”, (Butcher, Kanwar and Uvalic´-Trumbic´)
  • 34. World Development Report 2013• “The youth challenge alone is staggering. More than 620 million young people are neither working nor studying. Just to keep employment rates constant, the worldwide number of jobs will have to increase by around 600 million over a 15-year period” October 1, 2012
  • 35. University drop-outs (or push outs?) cost 660 million Euros per year in Spain aloneNorway – 2005 - 2010Total drop outs/push outs in higher education:12% (Health educations)- 37 % (Management and Economy)Only health educations have lower drop out rate than 20%
  • 36. 100 20 40 60 70 80 90 10 30 50 0 % Norway Iceland Switzerland Sweden NetherlandsChart A7.1 Slovenia Germany Denmark Austria Brazil Portugal United Kingdom Luxembourg Poland Finland Australia Belgium Tertiary education the level of education New Zealand France Below upper secondary Czech Republic OECD average Employment prospects increase with Israel Percentage of 25-64 year-olds in employment, by level of education (2010) Slovak Republic Canada Ireland Mexico United States Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary Estonia Greece Spain Japan Chile Hungary Italy Korea Turkey
  • 37. The crisis reinforces theimportance of good education• Over the past decade, more than two-thirds of GDP growth in EU21 countries was driven by labour income growth among tertiary-educated individuals, compared with just 51% in the United States.• Even in the midst of the recession in 2009, labour income growth among tertiary graduates increased in the majority of EU countries with available data.• In contrast, those with mid-range jobs and skills felt the most severe impact of the 2009 drop in GDP. Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2012
  • 38. Universities deliverthrough their three The Knowledge Trianglefunctions: – Education – Research – Innovation
  • 39. 2012: the year of the mega-class.”Colleges and professors have rushed to try anew form of online teaching known asMOOC’s—short for "massive open onlinecourses." The courses raise questions about thefuture of teaching, the value of a degree, andthe effect technology will have on how collegesoperate.”
  • 40. MOOCs• Motivation for MOOCs? Money, Branding or doing the Good things?• Sustainable?• Business models?• The cost savings – for quality or profit?• Pedagogic quality? Flip the classroom?• Lot of interest• Lot of criticism – Criticism can be the mother of progress
  • 41. MOOCs• ‘our cMOOC model emphasises creation, creativity, autonomy and social networking learning. The Coursera model emphasises a more traditional learning approach through video presentations and short quizzes and testing. Put another way, cMOOCs focus on knowledge creation and generation whereas xMOOCs focus on knowledge duplication’. (Siemens, 2012).
  • 42. Case: Open Educational Practice
  • 43. The OEP Guideline• Step 1: Positioning your Organization in the OEP Trajectory• Step 2: Creating a Vision of Openness and a Strategy for OEP in an Organization• Step 3: Implementing and Promoting OEP (OEP MetroMap Tool)