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Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
Chiang mai  pres khunying suchada kiranandana
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Chiang mai pres khunying suchada kiranandana

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  • 1. Autonomy from the State vsAutonomy from the Market Professor Khunying Suchada Kiranandana President, Chulalongkorn University president@chula.ac.th
  • 2. Magna Charta Universitatum “The university is an autonomous institution at the heart of societies.” “To meet the needs of the world around it, its research and teaching must be morally and intellectually independent of all political authority and economic power.”
  • 3. Autonomy from the State vsAutonomy from the Market Role of state in higher education Concept of autonomy Universities in the 21st century Autonomy from the state University autonomy in Thailand Trend of public funding Autonomy from the market Autonomy from the state vs autonomy from the market Chulalongkorn University
  • 4. Role of state in public highereducation Ownership and support Guidance and goal setting Regulation and Governance Funding Chulalongkorn University
  • 5. Concept of autonomyAutonomy • Self-governance or independence in running and decision making of an organization • For university, particularly in • Academic affairs- academic freedom • Personnel affairs- independent personnel management system • Financial affairs- independence in financial management Chulalongkorn University
  • 6. University in the 21st century Globalization and free trade agreement Increase in demand for University education Advancement in knowledge and new ICT technology Change in government policy in University funding Chulalongkorn University
  • 7. Globalization and free tradeagreement on education Borderless education- Mobility of • Workers (graduates) • Educational programs/ services • Cross border academic institutions and campuses • Students Chulalongkorn University
  • 8. Demand for University education Increase in Demand for University education in most countries Mass higher education increase in proportion of university educated population New target group of university education Life long learners/workers Cross border demand Chulalongkorn University
  • 9. Advancement in knowledge andICT Speed and volume of new knowledge New technology: ICT new opportunity in teaching and learning Virtual campuses Chulalongkorn University
  • 10. Change in University funding Trend of decreasing public funding of University University has to be more financially self sustained Entrepreneurial university– pros and cons?? Chulalongkorn University
  • 11. Autonomy from the state Freedom from state governance Self-governance for • Academic freedom • Autonomy from government rules and regulations in the use of funds and personnel management Good governance- compulsory • Transparency and accountability • Public participation Public funding Chulalongkorn University
  • 12. University autonomy in Thailand Thai universities in general Autonomous universities in Thailand • Existing autonomous universities: lessons to be learned • Trend for future autonomous universities Chulalongkorn University
  • 13. Thai Universities in general 78 public universities and around 50 private universities 6 autonomous universities: 5 new and one from public university Increasing domestic demand for HE • Undergraduate level: still increasing high schools graduates for the next 4-5 years • Graduate level: both from new graduates and workforce National standard on operation requirements of degree programs Chulalongkorn University
  • 14. Thai Universities in general (cont.) Quality assurance enforced Diversity in characteristics and status of HE institutions: • research, teaching or both • quality of faculty and students • closed and open universities • face to face and e-learning • etc Limited research funds Chulalongkorn University
  • 15. Thai Universities in general (cont.) Diversified revenue Change in budget allocation system for public u. More collaboration with national research institutes and private sectors Different level of internationalization Chulalongkorn University
  • 16. Autonomous universities inThailand 6 universities (2 are for Buddhist monks) Still belong to state but not state agencies Lump sum budget provided by government Self-governance in terms of personnel management and using of fund Academic freedom --normally no problem in general Chulalongkorn University
  • 17. Impact of decrease in fundingGovernment in many countries around the worldtends to decrease overall funding for publichigher educationNew regulations and allocation schemes –performance basedDemand on quality of education– world classuniversities Chulalongkorn University
  • 18. Funding: higher education dilemmaDemand for higher quality–world classuniversities– needs more fundingBasic research needs large fundingDecreasing public funding means university willhave to be more self sustained in financeHow to be financially self-sustained ? Chulalongkorn University
  • 19. How to be more financially selfsustained? Sources of university revenue • Tuition and fees • Academic services and training • Continuing education services • Grants • Donation • commercialized Intellectual property from research • etc Chulalongkorn University
  • 20. Academic services Trend of Academic services: aims to cater to market demand • Training in public and private organizations • Many degree programs offered to fulfill the needs of customers more than academic excellence Market demand vs academic excellence For faculty members: research or service? How far should one go? Chulalongkorn University
  • 21. Autonomy from the marketIndependence from market force on both demand andsupply for• graduates• Research• Academic servicesIndependence from market interference in decisionmaking and operation of university in• Academic• Financial• Administrative affairsUniversity has to consider market demand but not to begoverned by market demand Chulalongkorn University
  • 22. Autonomy from the state vsautonomy from the marketUniversity desires autonomy from the state in order tohave• academic freedom-- to be able to decide what is best academically for the public: what programs to offer, how to offer, what teaching and learning methods to be used, what are the standards of teaching and learning and research, etc• Personnel management– to be able to have one’s own personnel management system that assures the recruitment, retention, development and performance of personnel able to deliver the desired academic outcome• Financial management– to be able to administer the use of fund in order to efficiently and effectively attain the desired academic outcome Chulalongkorn University
  • 23. Autonomy from the state vsautonomy from the marketUniversity desires autonomy from the market in order tohave as main objective• academic freedom-- to be able to decide what is best academically for the public: what programs to offer, how to offer, what teaching and learning methods to be used, what are the standards of teaching and learning and research, etcWith academic freedom, university can aim towards• creating knowledge• disseminating knowledge• educating the next generation of graduatesin a way deemed suitable to serve its own vision and mission Chulalongkorn University
  • 24. Autonomy from the state vsautonomy from the marketWith insufficient funding, university now face avery difficult situation– • Market demand may not go in line with academic excellence or the mission of the university • Increasing revenue is necessary for the sustainability of the university • How to balance between quality and serving market demand? • How far should one travel the path of entrepreneurial university? Chulalongkorn University
  • 25. Final remarksAutonomy from the state is the trend in manycountries, including Thailand, aiming for academicfreedom and self governance in personnel andfinancial affairsTrend in public funding is decreasingPublic funding is a key factor to determine autonomyfrom the marketIf university depends too much on the market forrevenue, it is losing autonomy from the marketWithout autonomy from the market, academic freedomis affected Chulalongkorn University
  • 26. Final remarksTherefore, autonomy from the state andautonomy from the market are both desired byuniversityHowever, autonomy from the state should notcome with less public fundingFinancial independence is necessary forobtaining autonomy from the market Chulalongkorn University
  • 27. Chulalongkorn University

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