Digitalised collections and approaches


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Digitised collections offer a wealth of resources for improving a wide variety of literacies that promote critical thinking skills, instruction and curriculum enhancements.

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Digitalised collections and approaches

  1. 1. Enhancing Literacy and Curriculum Using Digitalized Collections and Approaches Bill Lukenbill, Professor Emeritus University of Texas at Austin UTA 5.442 – D8600 Austin, Texas 78701-1213 USA Diversity Challenge Resilience: School Libraries in Action - The 12th Biennial School Library Association of Queensland, the 39th International Association of School Librarianship Annual Conference, incorporating the 14th International Forum on Research in School Librarianship, Brisbane, QLD Australia, 27 September – 1 October 2010.
  2. 2. Why Digitization? 1. Digitized collections offer a wealth of resources for improving a wide variety of literacies. 2. Promote critical thinking skills and creative. 3. Enhances instruction and curriculum.
  3. 3. What Is Digitalization? Digitization is the process of converting analog information into digital format. Analog signals are continuous electrical signals. Digital signals are non-continuous. 1. Analog 2. Digital 3. Binary coded digital
  4. 4. Materials and Digital Conversion The materials to be converted can include letters, manuscripts, books, photographs, maps, audio recordings, microforms, motion pictures, ephemera three-dimensional objects medical objects. .
  5. 5. Goal: Providing Access The goal of digitization is to improve access to the materials and to preserve materials for future use. To that end, most digitized materials become searchable via the Internet and other forms of electronic media
  6. 6. The World Community and Digitalized Information 1. Governments around the world offer an abundance of digitalized information, often with curriculum guidance. 2. Content and evaluation of government materials 2. Widespread availability of digitalization affects our perception of the world and our attitudes and beliefs about the world as a community.
  7. 7. Problems and Issues 1. Digitized collections and processes are increasing rapidly in their development and availability. 2. Issues such as : public access, copyright laws, limitations on use, integration of both free, self-created and commercially available digitalized materials into curriculum and instruction.
  8. 8. Evidence-Based Learning Question: Can evidence-based research support the claim that electronic learning facilitates literacy? Evidence-based learning centers on hard evidence showing the effectiveness of instruction.
  9. 9. How Effective Is Digital Learning? Evidence-Based Learning Is Influenced by Medical Practice
  10. 10. The “If” Questions If evidence-based learning shows digitalization is effective, it might free us from older theories and practices about how students learn and allow us to look at learning and the methods of learning in new ways.
  11. 11. Examples of Processes and Products Conversion into digital format requires devices that can transform analog signals into digitalized signals. Typically this is done by scanning, digital photography, and digital recording.
  12. 12. PROCESSES 1. Collaboration (scientific and educational) 2. Text to digital (print items) (e.g., ebooks, ejournals) 3. Preservation of library, museum, and archival items 4. Records and their management (health records, business files and data) 5. Fictional creation, interactions and gaming 6. Medical imaging 7. Music and video.
  13. 13. 8. Instruction and Virtual Learning Synchronous technologies Web-based VoIP Telephone Videoconferencing Web conferencing Direct-broadcast satellite Internet radio Live streaming
  14. 14. Teaching Technologies Asynchronous technologies Audiocassette E-mail Message board forums Print materials Voice Mail/Fax Videocassette/DVD On Demand Streaming (Delayed)
  15. 15. Web 2.0 Web 2.0 allows schools to have many ways of making digitalization products and instruction available to students. Web applications … facilitate interactive information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design, and collaboration on the World Wide Web. .
  16. 16. Web 2.0 and Personal Interaction A Web 2.0 site gives its users the free choice to interact or collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue as creators (prosumer) of user-generated content in a virtual community.
  17. 17. Format Examples of Web 2.0 Examples of Web 2.0 include: social-networking sites, blogs, wikis, video-sharing sites, hosted services, web applications, smashups and folksonomies (Definitions: “folksonomies”, e.g., collaborative tagging, social classification, social indexing, and social tagging); “smashups is a Web page or application that uses and combines data, presentation or functionality from two or more sources to create new services). [Source for definitions and examples: ].
  18. 18. Helpful Guides Scott Kelby Lynne Schrum and Barbara B. Levin Miranda Ross Doyle Harvey
  19. 19. Literacy and Digitalization across the Curriculum Reading and Writing Literacy Cultural Literacy Art and Visual Literacy Science Literacy Health Literacy Visual Literacy.
  20. 20. Instructional Examples Examples from Beverly E. Crane Language Arts – Blogging A blog is a personal log where information can be placed and updated: Discussions and questions about literature Personal writing on topics Book reviews Storytelling Oral histories Sharing of photographs, digital videos, sound files and other media.
  21. 21. History and Geography – Podcasts Podcasts transmit audio or visual content automatically over a network via free subscription (e.g., RSS. Atom feeds). Geography. Students create and give clues as to where they are located in the world. History. Students create information about historical events, (e.g., immigration based on primary sources, interviews, films, stories, oral histories, etc.) For suggestions, see “K-12 Handhelds” at
  22. 22. Social Sciences -- Wikis A wiki is a collaboratively developed and upgraded website, e.g., Wikipedia. Historical events Local and community history Local demographics Mapping projects Health and history Sociology of community For examples see:
  23. 23. Other Curriculum Areas that Support Digitalization Art and Visual Literacy Artistic techniques Artistic styles Art in history Biography of artists Science and Environment Literacy Energy Astronomy Biology Health Literacy Health issues in communities Prevention and care Sports medicine and exercises
  24. 24. Examples of Digitalized Resources
  25. 25. BBC Digital Curriculum
  26. 26. BBC – Reading, Writing, & Thinking, grades 6-9
  27. 27. The British Library
  28. 28. Bibliothèque nationale de France
  29. 29. The Cuban National Library
  30. 30. International Children’s Digital Library—University of Maryland, USA
  31. 31. New York Public Library’s Digital Gallery
  32. 32. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture – National Library of Agriculture
  33. 33. U.S. Dept. of State. Bureau of International Information Programs
  34. 34. The Library of Congress
  35. 35. The U.S. Library of Congress Lesson Plans
  36. 36. U. S. Library of Congress— World Digital Library
  37. 37. U. S. National Library of Medicine
  38. 38. U. S. National Library of Medicine – History of Medicine
  39. 39. University of Texas at Austin Libraries – Digital Map Collection
  40. 40. Access to and Using Electronic Collections Copyright laws in each country vary but most countries protect the right of creators to control the distribution of their intellectual works. The United States provides limited use through its “Fair Use” provision: 1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes 2. The nature of the copyrighted work 3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole 4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work.
  41. 41. Students’ Rights to Copyright Protection Principle of the creator having control of his or her materials Do students have the right to their digitalized materials produced within a school assignment or expectation? Do school have control over the student’s creation? Policy: Schools may ask or even require students to sign over their rights so that it becomes the property of the school for later use.
  42. 42. Acceptable Use Standards and Policies Certain norms of behavior and attitudes of respect are expected. Establish an Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) “AUP is a written agreement, signed by students, their parents, and teachers outlining the terms and condition of Internet Use” (Crane 2009, p. 3) and expectations for student-produced digitalized resources
  43. 43. Cultural Differences and Respect Encourage students to produce and distribute digitalized products that respect and are sensitive to differing cultural and social norms: Gender roles, Religious symbols National Images Social issues Narratives as well as pictorial displays must be considered in terms of cultural differences and respect (International Council of Museums/Conseil International des Musées, 2006).
  44. 44. Filtering Censorship and Government Controls Many governments, including most American states and the U. S. federal government have passed filtering laws in order to protect students from harmful content from the Internet. Filtering programs often use keywords to screen and prevent information from being posted. Some examples: Human anatomy Diseases associated with body parts Controversial personal lives Legitimate information is then barred although it may contain scientific and/or academically accepted information
  45. 45. . Creating School Websites Many schools published websites for both information for the school as well as educational and instructional purposes. Programs for website creation include: Dreamweaver an Adobe program that is widely used by educators to create high-end websites ( Weekly ( Google Sites ( PBWorks in Education (
  46. 46. Library Website created with PBWorks in Education
  47. 47. Google provides a wide-range of applications for digital work: Apps [Applications]. Alerts Blogs Documents Groups Earth Notebook Reader Graphic Organizer Section for educators (Google resources; Crane 2009, p 110).
  48. 48. Voice Thread Ed.VoiceThread, part of VoiceThread, is: a “communications network for K-12 students and educators.” (Crane 2009, pp. 134-150). • Create and work together “on digital stories and documentaries, • Practicing and documenting language skills, • Explore geography and culture, • Solve math problems, • Study multiculturalism and foreign languages See:
  49. 49. Social Networking in Education (Wikipedia, Social Network). A social structure made of individuals (or organizations) called ‘nodes, Nodes are connected by one or more specific types of interdependency: friendship kinship beliefs knowledge prestige Schools can use social networking well, but there are precautions that must be observed such as ensuring inappropriate behavior will not occur: (“Kim Klein : Weblog…” at Klein suggests that those who are pondering social networking as an instructional tool visit
  50. 50. The eBook in School Libraries Questions and Issues Best practices for library ebook collections New and evolving models for ebook content discovery http://ebook- and delivery. Content offerings: How to identify and evaluate content Platform vendors and device availability and library needs Source: Patricia Bordelon and Leslie Smith. LASL Presentation : “EBooks and School Libraries: Will We Be Bookless>”
  51. 51. What Are the Advantages? Accessibility Cheaper when compared with traditional materials Note Taking Embedded media and links Quick updating May engage students more What are the Disadvantages? Limited number of sources No standard format Technological needs Page access difficulties
  52. 52. Ebook Contents Availability Materials: EBSCO Gale eBooks – Reference Made Easy (e.g., Literature for Students Online) Newsbank Scribner Writers Series Twayne’s Authors Series Textbooks (e.g., various pubs.) Journals and newspapers Documents
  53. 53. Acquisitions and Review Sources Review sources Distributors and sources
  54. 54. Venues for eBooks Personal eReaders (various models Sony, Kindle, Nook, Ebookwise) Computers with Internet connections to supplier Schools and Public Library (purchase and rental contracts) Ellen Brooks West Memorial Library of Forney, Forney Texas (High School) Illinois State Library (sharing program with public and school libraries) New York Public Library
  55. 55. Starting an eBook Program: Some Ideas Investigate acceptance by students and faculty, cost, policies and procedures needs. Technical needs (circulation and control systems) Access the existing availability of readers and laptops, etc. Start with required courses (e.g., English Literature) Consider the advantages of having etextbooks available through the library Offer eReference and eNonfiction support Provide access to ePopular fiction Provide for technical help Develop a selection and acquisition plan and policy (including contract provisions)
  56. 56. Let’s Conclude Comments and Questions Digitalization: →Celebrates the wonders of electronic technology and the rapid expansions of information. →Meets and satisfies the intellectual and developmental needs of students as they prepare to move into today’s complex world. →Education within digital frameworks must always be humane, paying close attention to ethnic and personal diversities, cultures, and school environments and expectations that arise with these sources (“Study on Value Orientation of Educational Resources' Digitization”). →Digitalization means change not only in how we teach and learn, but how we accommodate change itself.
  57. 57. References on Request Bill Lukenbill – Professor Emeritus