Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
BOHSBOHS-Series
Ergonomics Training Module
2

IAOH - 2013

INTRODUCTION
3

IAOH - 2013

What is Ergonomics?
Ergo =
“work”

nomics

=

“laws or rules ”

Ergonomics = “the laws of work”
OSHA defin...
4

IAOH - 2013

“The science of Ergonomics is

a body of knowledge about
human abilities, human
limitations and human
char...
5

IAOH - 2013

Goals Of Ergonomics
Provide a safe and healthful working
environment engineered to the capabilities
of the...
6

IAOH - 2013

Rules Of Ergonomics
• Straight Back Rule
• Belly Button Rule
• Swinging Arm Rule
• Straight Wrist Rule
• S...
IAOH - 2013

Methodology To Achieve The Goals

7
8

IAOH - 2013

Improving Workplace
9

IAOH - 2013

Awkward postures
10

IAOH - 2013

Posture
Posture
11

IAOH - 2013

There are no “right” or
“correct” ways to sit, stand or
lift....
However, there are more and
less demandi...
12

IAOH - 2013

Good posture is a great
'tool'
to help in prevention of pain.
13

IAOH - 2013

Typical Work Situation
Relationship Between User, Keyboard, Monitor And Mouse

Graphic Representation

Mo...
14

IAOH - 2013

Risk Factors

Force

Repetition

Posture

Pain
15

IAOH - 2013

What Should I Look For?
Awkward postures
Repetition
Force

15
16

IAOH - 2013

Why Ergonomics?
Employee Concerns
Comfort
Fatigue
Injuries
Job satisfaction
Decreased boredom
Decreased s...
17

IAOH - 2013

Poor Ergonomic Design
o Decreased efficiency
o Decreased productivity
o Errors
o Turnover
o Absenteeism
o...
18

IAOH - 2013

What Can Ergonomics Do?
↓ discomfort
↓ accidents and injuries
↑ accuracy
↑ efficiency
↑ satisfaction
↑ jo...
19

IAOH - 2013

How Do I Start?
Identify problems
Complaints of discomfort
Symptom surveys
Near misses
Accidents
Injuries...
20

IAOH - 2013

How Do I Make a Quick Impact?
Reduce lifting
Lifting equipment
Job redesign

20
21

IAOH - 2013

Tool Use Example
Working with bent wrists
decreases grip strength

Use tools that let you
keep your wrist...
22

IAOH - 2013

OFFICE ERGONOMICS
23

IAOH - 2013

Office Comprises
Chair
Table
Computer
Other items like- files, phone, etc.
IAOH - 2013

24

Chair
Adjustment
25

IAOH - 2013

Seven Contact Points
26

IAOH - 2013

Chair
Cont.Good chair should have—
Adjustability of height
Backrest
Seat depth
Adjustable arm rest
Stabil...
27

IAOH - 2013

Adjustment Of Chair
Adjustment of chair height

Adjustment of arm rest
28

IAOH - 2013

Adjustment Of Chair- Cont.
Thigh measures

Lower back support
IAOH - 2013

Keyboard
Adjustment

29
30

IAOH - 2013

Key Board Adjustment
Pull up close to your keyboard
& Position IT directly in front
of you.
Determine wha...
IAOH - 2013

31
32

IAOH - 2013

Key Board Trays
Best height for keyboard is generally –at
elbow height or lower.
Tray should hold keyboar...
33

IAOH - 2013

Computer Mouse
34

IAOH - 2013

Computer Mouse Hazardous
Generally while using the mouse, person
stretching the arm outwards and forwards...
35

IAOH - 2013

Cont.-

Computer Mouse Hazardous

This posture caused Pain –
on top of the hand,
around the wrist
Along t...
36

IAOH - 2013

Correct Method Of Using Mouse
Don't squeeze it.
Hold it loosely in your hand with a relaxed
grip.
Keep yo...
IAOH - 2013

37
IAOH - 2013

38
39

IAOH - 2013

Monitor
Adjustment
40

IAOH - 2013

Position Of Monitor
Viewing angle- degree above or below an imaginary
horizontal line at the level of vie...
IAOH - 2013

Viewing distance

Sit at least an arm's length away from the screen and then adjust
the distance for your vis...
IAOH - 2013

42
IAOH - 2013

Monitor, Document, and Telephone
Incorrect positioning of the screen and documents
can result in awkward post...
IAOH - 2013

Incorrect Method of Using Computer

44
IAOH - 2013

Correct Method of Using Computer

45
46

IAOH - 2013

Manual Ergonomics
47

IAOH - 2013

Manual handling includes
• Lifting
• Throwing
• Pushing
• Pulling
• Carrying
• Moving
• Holding
• Repetit...
48

IAOH - 2013

Anatomy of Back & Back Injuries

Knowing what
causes back injuries
can help you prevent
them.
49

IAOH - 2013

Manual Materials Handling
Golden rule
• Eliminate lifts

When you can’t
• Keep it off the floor
• Reduce ...
50

IAOH - 2013

Making a Difference
If they have to lift, teach them how!
High risk groups first
Then campus-wide

50
51

IAOH - 2013

How Should You Lift?
Stoop

Squat
Semi-squat
52

IAOH - 2013

Stoop
Can get close to load
Less effort and energy
than squatting
Fast
….but it increases strain on
low b...
53

IAOH - 2013

Squat
Limits strain on low back
….but it is difficult to keep
load close
….requires increased effort
and ...
54

IAOH - 2013

Semi-Squat Lift
Less work
Preferred for lifting
heavy objects on
occasional basis
55

IAOH - 2013

Squat and Semi-Squat Lifts
More protective of back
Preferred by injured workers
56

IAOH - 2013

Preferred / Not Preferred Position

Not Preferred
Position

Preferred Position
57

IAOH - 2013

MUSCULO SKELETAL DISORDERS
(WMSDS)
58

IAOH - 2013

Musculo Skeletal Disorders
Also known as:
Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs)
Repetitive Strain Injuries (...
59

IAOH - 2013

Causes MSDs
Risk Factors
Awkward Postures
High Hand Force
Repetitive Motions
Repeated Impacts
Heavy, Freq...
60

IAOH - 2013

Risk Factors
Risk of injury depends upon:
Duration of exposure (how long)
Frequency of exposure (how ofte...
61

IAOH - 2013

How Do MSDs Affect the Body?

Force

Repetition

Posture

Pain
62

IAOH - 2013

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)
Carpal tunnel
syndrome
Epicondylitis
(Tennis elbow)

Rotator cuff tendon...
63

IAOH - 2013

Symptoms of MSDs
Discomfort
Pain
Numbness
Tingling
Burning
Swelling
Change in color
Tightness, loss of fl...
64

IAOH - 2013

Stages of Progression
• Early Stage-The body aches and feels tired at work,
but symptoms disappear during...
65

IAOH - 2013

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Causes– swelling of flexor tendons due to
repeated exertions.
– Repeated or prolon...
66

IAOH - 2013

Tennis Elbow
This is caused by prolonged
gripping activities such as• hammering
• driving screws
• weight...
67

IAOH - 2013

Stages Of Cervical Disc Herniation
1. Poor posture, incorrect and/or
repetitive lifting or twisting can p...
68

IAOH - 2013

Back Pain
Compression
Injury

Tension
Injury

Shearing
Forces

forward
bending of
the spine,

Overstretch...
69

IAOH - 2013

Common causes of back-pain
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Accidents and injuries
Twist and sprains
Improper working pos...
70

IAOH - 2013

Prevention & Control of Ergonomic
Risk Conditions
Engineering controls
Work practice controls
Administrat...
71

IAOH - 2013

Eye Strain While Working On VDT
Experienced as –
Burning
Tightness
Sharp or dull pains
Watering
Blurring
...
72

IAOH - 2013

Eye Strain While Working On VDT
FactorsGlare– light source shining directly into the eyes e.g.
ceiling li...
73

IAOH - 2013

Prevention Of Eye Strain
Watch out for glare .
Follow “20/20/20 rule” means every twenty minutes, look
tw...
74

IAOH - 2013

Cont.-

Prevention Of Eye Strain

Peoples who needs bifocal glass often experiences sore
neck and shoulde...
75

IAOH - 2013

What you can do?

• Recognize and report symptoms
• Get involved in ergonomics
76

IAOH - 2013

Symptom Recognition and Reporting
Report symptoms if:
Pain is persistent, severe or worsening
Pain radiat...
77

IAOH - 2013

Key Points To Remember
Ergonomics can help you on your job
MSDs can happen in jobs with risk factors
Risk...
78

IAOH - 2013

Thumb Rules To Prevent MSDS
Use moderate postures for individual joints
Don’t use too much force
Break fo...
79

IAOH - 2013

Ergonomic
Exercise
80

IAOH - 2013

Reason For Stretch At Work
Reduce muscle tension & stress, increase
alertness, improve circulation and pr...
81

IAOH - 2013

Stretch At Work
Stretches must be performed slowly and carefully. They
shouldn’t be painful. If they are ...
IAOH - 2013

82

Schedule -Each exercise 3 times
1. Preparations:- Remove shoes. Take out mobiles spectacles, pen,
diary e...
83

IAOH - 2013

Schedule -Each exercise 3 times
7. Namaskar (Front) pose + movement up/down
9. Executive stretch
11.Calf ...
84

IAOH - 2013

Thank you
Have a Nice Day
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

BOHS_Occupational Health_ Ergonomics

565

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
565
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
38
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "BOHS_Occupational Health_ Ergonomics"

  1. 1. BOHSBOHS-Series Ergonomics Training Module
  2. 2. 2 IAOH - 2013 INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. 3 IAOH - 2013 What is Ergonomics? Ergo = “work” nomics = “laws or rules ” Ergonomics = “the laws of work” OSHA defines ergonomics as: “the science of designing the job to fit the worker, instead of forcing the worker to fit the job”.
  4. 4. 4 IAOH - 2013 “The science of Ergonomics is a body of knowledge about human abilities, human limitations and human characteristics that are relevant to design.”
  5. 5. 5 IAOH - 2013 Goals Of Ergonomics Provide a safe and healthful working environment engineered to the capabilities of the human body Increase efficiency and productivity by reducing fatigue. Prevention of Occupational injury & illness. Work quality improvement.
  6. 6. 6 IAOH - 2013 Rules Of Ergonomics • Straight Back Rule • Belly Button Rule • Swinging Arm Rule • Straight Wrist Rule • Straight Eye Rule • Skin Rule • No Brain Machine Rule
  7. 7. IAOH - 2013 Methodology To Achieve The Goals 7
  8. 8. 8 IAOH - 2013 Improving Workplace
  9. 9. 9 IAOH - 2013 Awkward postures
  10. 10. 10 IAOH - 2013 Posture Posture
  11. 11. 11 IAOH - 2013 There are no “right” or “correct” ways to sit, stand or lift.... However, there are more and less demanding ways!
  12. 12. 12 IAOH - 2013 Good posture is a great 'tool' to help in prevention of pain.
  13. 13. 13 IAOH - 2013 Typical Work Situation Relationship Between User, Keyboard, Monitor And Mouse Graphic Representation Mouse Keyboard Body
  14. 14. 14 IAOH - 2013 Risk Factors Force Repetition Posture Pain
  15. 15. 15 IAOH - 2013 What Should I Look For? Awkward postures Repetition Force 15
  16. 16. 16 IAOH - 2013 Why Ergonomics? Employee Concerns Comfort Fatigue Injuries Job satisfaction Decreased boredom Decreased stress Reasonable workloads Employer Concerns Worker’s comp costs Productivity Errors Products Profit 16
  17. 17. 17 IAOH - 2013 Poor Ergonomic Design o Decreased efficiency o Decreased productivity o Errors o Turnover o Absenteeism o Job avoidance
  18. 18. 18 IAOH - 2013 What Can Ergonomics Do? ↓ discomfort ↓ accidents and injuries ↑ accuracy ↑ efficiency ↑ satisfaction ↑ job retention 18
  19. 19. 19 IAOH - 2013 How Do I Start? Identify problems Complaints of discomfort Symptom surveys Near misses Accidents Injuries Errors High turnover 19
  20. 20. 20 IAOH - 2013 How Do I Make a Quick Impact? Reduce lifting Lifting equipment Job redesign 20
  21. 21. 21 IAOH - 2013 Tool Use Example Working with bent wrists decreases grip strength Use tools that let you keep your wrist straight
  22. 22. 22 IAOH - 2013 OFFICE ERGONOMICS
  23. 23. 23 IAOH - 2013 Office Comprises Chair Table Computer Other items like- files, phone, etc.
  24. 24. IAOH - 2013 24 Chair Adjustment
  25. 25. 25 IAOH - 2013 Seven Contact Points
  26. 26. 26 IAOH - 2013 Chair Cont.Good chair should have— Adjustability of height Backrest Seat depth Adjustable arm rest Stability.
  27. 27. 27 IAOH - 2013 Adjustment Of Chair Adjustment of chair height Adjustment of arm rest
  28. 28. 28 IAOH - 2013 Adjustment Of Chair- Cont. Thigh measures Lower back support
  29. 29. IAOH - 2013 Keyboard Adjustment 29
  30. 30. 30 IAOH - 2013 Key Board Adjustment Pull up close to your keyboard & Position IT directly in front of you. Determine what section of the keyboard you use most frequently, and readjust the keyboard accordingly. Adjust the keyboard height so that your shoulders are relaxed, your elbows are in a slightly open position (100° to 110° and your wrists and ), hands are straight.
  31. 31. IAOH - 2013 31
  32. 32. 32 IAOH - 2013 Key Board Trays Best height for keyboard is generally –at elbow height or lower. Tray should hold keyboard as well as mouse.
  33. 33. 33 IAOH - 2013 Computer Mouse
  34. 34. 34 IAOH - 2013 Computer Mouse Hazardous Generally while using the mouse, person stretching the arm outwards and forwards to hold it there with unsupported forearm as long as they are using the mouse.
  35. 35. 35 IAOH - 2013 Cont.- Computer Mouse Hazardous This posture caused Pain – on top of the hand, around the wrist Along the forearm and elbow Numbness and tingling in the thumb & index finger May develop the carpel tunnel syndrome Soreness and fatigue by putting extra load on the muscles of upper back & shoulder
  36. 36. 36 IAOH - 2013 Correct Method Of Using Mouse Don't squeeze it. Hold it loosely in your hand with a relaxed grip. Keep your fingers relaxed. Keep your wrist straight.
  37. 37. IAOH - 2013 37
  38. 38. IAOH - 2013 38
  39. 39. 39 IAOH - 2013 Monitor Adjustment
  40. 40. 40 IAOH - 2013 Position Of Monitor Viewing angle- degree above or below an imaginary horizontal line at the level of viewer’s eyes & center of the object being looked at. place the monitor at about 15 degrees below the horizontal line. Poor angle leads to postural (neck & shoulders) discomfort . Position the top of the screen should be at eye level or slightly lower. (If you wear bifocals, lower the monitor to a comfortable reading level.) Centre the monitor directly in front of you, above your keyboard.
  41. 41. IAOH - 2013 Viewing distance Sit at least an arm's length away from the screen and then adjust the distance for your vision 41
  42. 42. IAOH - 2013 42
  43. 43. IAOH - 2013 Monitor, Document, and Telephone Incorrect positioning of the screen and documents can result in awkward postures. Look for glares and reduce it. Place the documents directly in front , between the monitor and the keyboard. Place your telephone within easy reach. Use headsets and speaker phone to eliminate cradling the handset. 43
  44. 44. IAOH - 2013 Incorrect Method of Using Computer 44
  45. 45. IAOH - 2013 Correct Method of Using Computer 45
  46. 46. 46 IAOH - 2013 Manual Ergonomics
  47. 47. 47 IAOH - 2013 Manual handling includes • Lifting • Throwing • Pushing • Pulling • Carrying • Moving • Holding • Repetitive tasks such as : • –packing, typing, assembling, • cleaning, sorting, operating machinery and equipment
  48. 48. 48 IAOH - 2013 Anatomy of Back & Back Injuries Knowing what causes back injuries can help you prevent them.
  49. 49. 49 IAOH - 2013 Manual Materials Handling Golden rule • Eliminate lifts When you can’t • Keep it off the floor • Reduce lifts o Conveyors o Adjust work flow 49
  50. 50. 50 IAOH - 2013 Making a Difference If they have to lift, teach them how! High risk groups first Then campus-wide 50
  51. 51. 51 IAOH - 2013 How Should You Lift? Stoop Squat Semi-squat
  52. 52. 52 IAOH - 2013 Stoop Can get close to load Less effort and energy than squatting Fast ….but it increases strain on low back
  53. 53. 53 IAOH - 2013 Squat Limits strain on low back ….but it is difficult to keep load close ….requires increased effort and energy ….and it is inefficient
  54. 54. 54 IAOH - 2013 Semi-Squat Lift Less work Preferred for lifting heavy objects on occasional basis
  55. 55. 55 IAOH - 2013 Squat and Semi-Squat Lifts More protective of back Preferred by injured workers
  56. 56. 56 IAOH - 2013 Preferred / Not Preferred Position Not Preferred Position Preferred Position
  57. 57. 57 IAOH - 2013 MUSCULO SKELETAL DISORDERS (WMSDS)
  58. 58. 58 IAOH - 2013 Musculo Skeletal Disorders Also known as: Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSIs) Overuse injuries Soft tissue injuries
  59. 59. 59 IAOH - 2013 Causes MSDs Risk Factors Awkward Postures High Hand Force Repetitive Motions Repeated Impacts Heavy, Frequent, or Awkward Lifting Moderate to High Vibration =
  60. 60. 60 IAOH - 2013 Risk Factors Risk of injury depends upon: Duration of exposure (how long) Frequency of exposure (how often) Intensity of exposure (how much) Combinations of risk factors
  61. 61. 61 IAOH - 2013 How Do MSDs Affect the Body? Force Repetition Posture Pain
  62. 62. 62 IAOH - 2013 Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) Carpal tunnel syndrome Epicondylitis (Tennis elbow) Rotator cuff tendonitis De Quervains' disease Trigger finger Synovitis Low back pain Muscle strains Disc Herniation Raynaud's phenomenon Sciatica
  63. 63. 63 IAOH - 2013 Symptoms of MSDs Discomfort Pain Numbness Tingling Burning Swelling Change in color Tightness, loss of flexibility
  64. 64. 64 IAOH - 2013 Stages of Progression • Early Stage-The body aches and feels tired at work, but symptoms disappear during time away from work. The injury will heal completely if dealt with properly at this early stage. • Intermediate Stage-The injured area aches and feels weak near start of work. Work is more difficult to do. The injury will still heal completely if dealt with properly. • Late Stage-The injured area aches and feels weak even at rest. Sleep is affected. Even light duties are very difficult.
  65. 65. 65 IAOH - 2013 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Causes– swelling of flexor tendons due to repeated exertions. – Repeated or prolonged forceful exertions of the hand combined with wrist flexion. – Repeated or prolonged nonneutral wrist postures. – Blunt Trauma. – Rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue disorders. – Endocrine disorders: myxedema, acromegaly, diabetes, pregnancy.
  66. 66. 66 IAOH - 2013 Tennis Elbow This is caused by prolonged gripping activities such as• hammering • driving screws • weight lifting • playing certain musical instruments • digging in the garden • driving • racquet sports etc. The pain is exacerbated by gripping activities like turning a door handle can cause intense pain.
  67. 67. 67 IAOH - 2013 Stages Of Cervical Disc Herniation 1. Poor posture, incorrect and/or repetitive lifting or twisting can place additional stress on spines. 2. Aging. 3. Trauma. 4. Lifestyle - Lack of regular exercise, tobacco use substantially contribute to poor disc health.
  68. 68. 68 IAOH - 2013 Back Pain Compression Injury Tension Injury Shearing Forces forward bending of the spine, Overstretching Torsion Forces Acting On A Vertebra Twisting movements of the spine
  69. 69. 69 IAOH - 2013 Common causes of back-pain • • • • • • • • Accidents and injuries Twist and sprains Improper working postures Lifting heavy weights Prolonged working in same posture Fatigue and tiredness Infections and diseases Pregnancy
  70. 70. 70 IAOH - 2013 Prevention & Control of Ergonomic Risk Conditions Engineering controls Work practice controls Administrative controls
  71. 71. 71 IAOH - 2013 Eye Strain While Working On VDT Experienced as – Burning Tightness Sharp or dull pains Watering Blurring Double vision Headache etc.
  72. 72. 72 IAOH - 2013 Eye Strain While Working On VDT FactorsGlare– light source shining directly into the eyes e.g. ceiling lights, bright. windows etc. The luminance (brightness) difference between what is being looked at and its immediate environment The distance between the eye and screen and document The readability of screen and document The workers vision and his or her corrective lenses
  73. 73. 73 IAOH - 2013 Prevention Of Eye Strain Watch out for glare . Follow “20/20/20 rule” means every twenty minutes, look twenty feet away for twenty seconds. It may be due to dryness of eyes. Lowering the monitor. looking downward– more of eye surface will be covered by the eyelids and eyes blinks more leads more lubrication. Keep the proper distance and angle between eyes and monitor.
  74. 74. 74 IAOH - 2013 Cont.- Prevention Of Eye Strain Peoples who needs bifocal glass often experiences sore neck and shoulder because they have to tip their heads back to see the computer screen. Other options for them like— Progressive addition lenses (PAL)– For persons working long hours with computers the PAL is the choice. Wearing contact lenses
  75. 75. 75 IAOH - 2013 What you can do? • Recognize and report symptoms • Get involved in ergonomics
  76. 76. 76 IAOH - 2013 Symptom Recognition and Reporting Report symptoms if: Pain is persistent, severe or worsening Pain radiates Symptoms include numbness or tingling Symptoms keep you from sleeping at night
  77. 77. 77 IAOH - 2013 Key Points To Remember Ergonomics can help you on your job MSDs can happen in jobs with risk factors Risk factors can be reduced and MSDs prevented Reporting symptoms early is important You can help your company put ergonomics changes into place
  78. 78. 78 IAOH - 2013 Thumb Rules To Prevent MSDS Use moderate postures for individual joints Don’t use too much force Break for 4-5 min. for every hour spent at workstation to ease muscle aches, eye strain & stress. Vary the tasks. Break up the keyboard task work by doing other job. Look away from the screen & focus your eyes on an object far away time to time. Relax your muscles, stretch & change position.
  79. 79. 79 IAOH - 2013 Ergonomic Exercise
  80. 80. 80 IAOH - 2013 Reason For Stretch At Work Reduce muscle tension & stress, increase alertness, improve circulation and productivity. Reduction in day to day tiredness. To feel better
  81. 81. 81 IAOH - 2013 Stretch At Work Stretches must be performed slowly and carefully. They shouldn’t be painful. If they are painful, stop and consult doctor. Make slow movements- avoid rapid or jerky movements. Hold the stretch for at least 5-7 seconds. Stretch frequently, especially when sitting or in other constrained environments.
  82. 82. IAOH - 2013 82 Schedule -Each exercise 3 times 1. Preparations:- Remove shoes. Take out mobiles spectacles, pen, diary etc 2. Neck movement (a) Bending backwards (b) Rotate left – center – right (c) Bend sideways 3. Neck exercise push – counter push by both hands. 4. Eyes (a) Squeezing 10 times (b) Palming 5. Shoulders (a) Up / down (b) Rotate clock-wise (c) Rotate anticlockwise 6. Palm pressure & Fist Rotation
  83. 83. 83 IAOH - 2013 Schedule -Each exercise 3 times 7. Namaskar (Front) pose + movement up/down 9. Executive stretch 11.Calf muscle stretch 12.Thigh muscle stretch 13.Walking on heels & toes Executive stretch Calf muscle stretch
  84. 84. 84 IAOH - 2013 Thank you Have a Nice Day
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×