BOHS_Occupational Health_ Ergonomics
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BOHS_Occupational Health_ Ergonomics






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BOHS_Occupational Health_ Ergonomics BOHS_Occupational Health_ Ergonomics Presentation Transcript

  • BOHSBOHS-Series Ergonomics Training Module
  • 3 IAOH - 2013 What is Ergonomics? Ergo = “work” nomics = “laws or rules ” Ergonomics = “the laws of work” OSHA defines ergonomics as: “the science of designing the job to fit the worker, instead of forcing the worker to fit the job”.
  • 4 IAOH - 2013 “The science of Ergonomics is a body of knowledge about human abilities, human limitations and human characteristics that are relevant to design.”
  • 5 IAOH - 2013 Goals Of Ergonomics Provide a safe and healthful working environment engineered to the capabilities of the human body Increase efficiency and productivity by reducing fatigue. Prevention of Occupational injury & illness. Work quality improvement.
  • 6 IAOH - 2013 Rules Of Ergonomics • Straight Back Rule • Belly Button Rule • Swinging Arm Rule • Straight Wrist Rule • Straight Eye Rule • Skin Rule • No Brain Machine Rule
  • IAOH - 2013 Methodology To Achieve The Goals 7
  • 8 IAOH - 2013 Improving Workplace
  • 9 IAOH - 2013 Awkward postures
  • 10 IAOH - 2013 Posture Posture
  • 11 IAOH - 2013 There are no “right” or “correct” ways to sit, stand or lift.... However, there are more and less demanding ways!
  • 12 IAOH - 2013 Good posture is a great 'tool' to help in prevention of pain.
  • 13 IAOH - 2013 Typical Work Situation Relationship Between User, Keyboard, Monitor And Mouse Graphic Representation Mouse Keyboard Body
  • 14 IAOH - 2013 Risk Factors Force Repetition Posture Pain
  • 15 IAOH - 2013 What Should I Look For? Awkward postures Repetition Force 15
  • 16 IAOH - 2013 Why Ergonomics? Employee Concerns Comfort Fatigue Injuries Job satisfaction Decreased boredom Decreased stress Reasonable workloads Employer Concerns Worker’s comp costs Productivity Errors Products Profit 16
  • 17 IAOH - 2013 Poor Ergonomic Design o Decreased efficiency o Decreased productivity o Errors o Turnover o Absenteeism o Job avoidance
  • 18 IAOH - 2013 What Can Ergonomics Do? ↓ discomfort ↓ accidents and injuries ↑ accuracy ↑ efficiency ↑ satisfaction ↑ job retention 18
  • 19 IAOH - 2013 How Do I Start? Identify problems Complaints of discomfort Symptom surveys Near misses Accidents Injuries Errors High turnover 19
  • 20 IAOH - 2013 How Do I Make a Quick Impact? Reduce lifting Lifting equipment Job redesign 20
  • 21 IAOH - 2013 Tool Use Example Working with bent wrists decreases grip strength Use tools that let you keep your wrist straight
  • 23 IAOH - 2013 Office Comprises Chair Table Computer Other items like- files, phone, etc.
  • IAOH - 2013 24 Chair Adjustment
  • 25 IAOH - 2013 Seven Contact Points
  • 26 IAOH - 2013 Chair Cont.Good chair should have— Adjustability of height Backrest Seat depth Adjustable arm rest Stability.
  • 27 IAOH - 2013 Adjustment Of Chair Adjustment of chair height Adjustment of arm rest
  • 28 IAOH - 2013 Adjustment Of Chair- Cont. Thigh measures Lower back support
  • IAOH - 2013 Keyboard Adjustment 29
  • 30 IAOH - 2013 Key Board Adjustment Pull up close to your keyboard & Position IT directly in front of you. Determine what section of the keyboard you use most frequently, and readjust the keyboard accordingly. Adjust the keyboard height so that your shoulders are relaxed, your elbows are in a slightly open position (100° to 110° and your wrists and ), hands are straight.
  • IAOH - 2013 31
  • 32 IAOH - 2013 Key Board Trays Best height for keyboard is generally –at elbow height or lower. Tray should hold keyboard as well as mouse.
  • 33 IAOH - 2013 Computer Mouse
  • 34 IAOH - 2013 Computer Mouse Hazardous Generally while using the mouse, person stretching the arm outwards and forwards to hold it there with unsupported forearm as long as they are using the mouse.
  • 35 IAOH - 2013 Cont.- Computer Mouse Hazardous This posture caused Pain – on top of the hand, around the wrist Along the forearm and elbow Numbness and tingling in the thumb & index finger May develop the carpel tunnel syndrome Soreness and fatigue by putting extra load on the muscles of upper back & shoulder
  • 36 IAOH - 2013 Correct Method Of Using Mouse Don't squeeze it. Hold it loosely in your hand with a relaxed grip. Keep your fingers relaxed. Keep your wrist straight.
  • IAOH - 2013 37
  • IAOH - 2013 38
  • 39 IAOH - 2013 Monitor Adjustment
  • 40 IAOH - 2013 Position Of Monitor Viewing angle- degree above or below an imaginary horizontal line at the level of viewer’s eyes & center of the object being looked at. place the monitor at about 15 degrees below the horizontal line. Poor angle leads to postural (neck & shoulders) discomfort . Position the top of the screen should be at eye level or slightly lower. (If you wear bifocals, lower the monitor to a comfortable reading level.) Centre the monitor directly in front of you, above your keyboard.
  • IAOH - 2013 Viewing distance Sit at least an arm's length away from the screen and then adjust the distance for your vision 41
  • IAOH - 2013 42
  • IAOH - 2013 Monitor, Document, and Telephone Incorrect positioning of the screen and documents can result in awkward postures. Look for glares and reduce it. Place the documents directly in front , between the monitor and the keyboard. Place your telephone within easy reach. Use headsets and speaker phone to eliminate cradling the handset. 43
  • IAOH - 2013 Incorrect Method of Using Computer 44
  • IAOH - 2013 Correct Method of Using Computer 45
  • 46 IAOH - 2013 Manual Ergonomics
  • 47 IAOH - 2013 Manual handling includes • Lifting • Throwing • Pushing • Pulling • Carrying • Moving • Holding • Repetitive tasks such as : • –packing, typing, assembling, • cleaning, sorting, operating machinery and equipment
  • 48 IAOH - 2013 Anatomy of Back & Back Injuries Knowing what causes back injuries can help you prevent them.
  • 49 IAOH - 2013 Manual Materials Handling Golden rule • Eliminate lifts When you can’t • Keep it off the floor • Reduce lifts o Conveyors o Adjust work flow 49
  • 50 IAOH - 2013 Making a Difference If they have to lift, teach them how! High risk groups first Then campus-wide 50
  • 51 IAOH - 2013 How Should You Lift? Stoop Squat Semi-squat
  • 52 IAOH - 2013 Stoop Can get close to load Less effort and energy than squatting Fast ….but it increases strain on low back
  • 53 IAOH - 2013 Squat Limits strain on low back ….but it is difficult to keep load close ….requires increased effort and energy ….and it is inefficient
  • 54 IAOH - 2013 Semi-Squat Lift Less work Preferred for lifting heavy objects on occasional basis
  • 55 IAOH - 2013 Squat and Semi-Squat Lifts More protective of back Preferred by injured workers
  • 56 IAOH - 2013 Preferred / Not Preferred Position Not Preferred Position Preferred Position
  • 58 IAOH - 2013 Musculo Skeletal Disorders Also known as: Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSIs) Overuse injuries Soft tissue injuries
  • 59 IAOH - 2013 Causes MSDs Risk Factors Awkward Postures High Hand Force Repetitive Motions Repeated Impacts Heavy, Frequent, or Awkward Lifting Moderate to High Vibration =
  • 60 IAOH - 2013 Risk Factors Risk of injury depends upon: Duration of exposure (how long) Frequency of exposure (how often) Intensity of exposure (how much) Combinations of risk factors
  • 61 IAOH - 2013 How Do MSDs Affect the Body? Force Repetition Posture Pain
  • 62 IAOH - 2013 Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) Carpal tunnel syndrome Epicondylitis (Tennis elbow) Rotator cuff tendonitis De Quervains' disease Trigger finger Synovitis Low back pain Muscle strains Disc Herniation Raynaud's phenomenon Sciatica
  • 63 IAOH - 2013 Symptoms of MSDs Discomfort Pain Numbness Tingling Burning Swelling Change in color Tightness, loss of flexibility
  • 64 IAOH - 2013 Stages of Progression • Early Stage-The body aches and feels tired at work, but symptoms disappear during time away from work. The injury will heal completely if dealt with properly at this early stage. • Intermediate Stage-The injured area aches and feels weak near start of work. Work is more difficult to do. The injury will still heal completely if dealt with properly. • Late Stage-The injured area aches and feels weak even at rest. Sleep is affected. Even light duties are very difficult.
  • 65 IAOH - 2013 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Causes– swelling of flexor tendons due to repeated exertions. – Repeated or prolonged forceful exertions of the hand combined with wrist flexion. – Repeated or prolonged nonneutral wrist postures. – Blunt Trauma. – Rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue disorders. – Endocrine disorders: myxedema, acromegaly, diabetes, pregnancy.
  • 66 IAOH - 2013 Tennis Elbow This is caused by prolonged gripping activities such as• hammering • driving screws • weight lifting • playing certain musical instruments • digging in the garden • driving • racquet sports etc. The pain is exacerbated by gripping activities like turning a door handle can cause intense pain.
  • 67 IAOH - 2013 Stages Of Cervical Disc Herniation 1. Poor posture, incorrect and/or repetitive lifting or twisting can place additional stress on spines. 2. Aging. 3. Trauma. 4. Lifestyle - Lack of regular exercise, tobacco use substantially contribute to poor disc health.
  • 68 IAOH - 2013 Back Pain Compression Injury Tension Injury Shearing Forces forward bending of the spine, Overstretching Torsion Forces Acting On A Vertebra Twisting movements of the spine
  • 69 IAOH - 2013 Common causes of back-pain • • • • • • • • Accidents and injuries Twist and sprains Improper working postures Lifting heavy weights Prolonged working in same posture Fatigue and tiredness Infections and diseases Pregnancy
  • 70 IAOH - 2013 Prevention & Control of Ergonomic Risk Conditions Engineering controls Work practice controls Administrative controls
  • 71 IAOH - 2013 Eye Strain While Working On VDT Experienced as – Burning Tightness Sharp or dull pains Watering Blurring Double vision Headache etc.
  • 72 IAOH - 2013 Eye Strain While Working On VDT FactorsGlare– light source shining directly into the eyes e.g. ceiling lights, bright. windows etc. The luminance (brightness) difference between what is being looked at and its immediate environment The distance between the eye and screen and document The readability of screen and document The workers vision and his or her corrective lenses
  • 73 IAOH - 2013 Prevention Of Eye Strain Watch out for glare . Follow “20/20/20 rule” means every twenty minutes, look twenty feet away for twenty seconds. It may be due to dryness of eyes. Lowering the monitor. looking downward– more of eye surface will be covered by the eyelids and eyes blinks more leads more lubrication. Keep the proper distance and angle between eyes and monitor.
  • 74 IAOH - 2013 Cont.- Prevention Of Eye Strain Peoples who needs bifocal glass often experiences sore neck and shoulder because they have to tip their heads back to see the computer screen. Other options for them like— Progressive addition lenses (PAL)– For persons working long hours with computers the PAL is the choice. Wearing contact lenses
  • 75 IAOH - 2013 What you can do? • Recognize and report symptoms • Get involved in ergonomics
  • 76 IAOH - 2013 Symptom Recognition and Reporting Report symptoms if: Pain is persistent, severe or worsening Pain radiates Symptoms include numbness or tingling Symptoms keep you from sleeping at night
  • 77 IAOH - 2013 Key Points To Remember Ergonomics can help you on your job MSDs can happen in jobs with risk factors Risk factors can be reduced and MSDs prevented Reporting symptoms early is important You can help your company put ergonomics changes into place
  • 78 IAOH - 2013 Thumb Rules To Prevent MSDS Use moderate postures for individual joints Don’t use too much force Break for 4-5 min. for every hour spent at workstation to ease muscle aches, eye strain & stress. Vary the tasks. Break up the keyboard task work by doing other job. Look away from the screen & focus your eyes on an object far away time to time. Relax your muscles, stretch & change position.
  • 79 IAOH - 2013 Ergonomic Exercise
  • 80 IAOH - 2013 Reason For Stretch At Work Reduce muscle tension & stress, increase alertness, improve circulation and productivity. Reduction in day to day tiredness. To feel better
  • 81 IAOH - 2013 Stretch At Work Stretches must be performed slowly and carefully. They shouldn’t be painful. If they are painful, stop and consult doctor. Make slow movements- avoid rapid or jerky movements. Hold the stretch for at least 5-7 seconds. Stretch frequently, especially when sitting or in other constrained environments.
  • IAOH - 2013 82 Schedule -Each exercise 3 times 1. Preparations:- Remove shoes. Take out mobiles spectacles, pen, diary etc 2. Neck movement (a) Bending backwards (b) Rotate left – center – right (c) Bend sideways 3. Neck exercise push – counter push by both hands. 4. Eyes (a) Squeezing 10 times (b) Palming 5. Shoulders (a) Up / down (b) Rotate clock-wise (c) Rotate anticlockwise 6. Palm pressure & Fist Rotation
  • 83 IAOH - 2013 Schedule -Each exercise 3 times 7. Namaskar (Front) pose + movement up/down 9. Executive stretch 11.Calf muscle stretch 12.Thigh muscle stretch 13.Walking on heels & toes Executive stretch Calf muscle stretch
  • 84 IAOH - 2013 Thank you Have a Nice Day