Chemical Hazards
BOHS Series
2

IAOH - 2013

December 3rd 1984
IAOH - 2013

3

Bhopal Gas Disaster
 The Union Carbide Pesticide Plant in Bhopal, released 40 tons of Methyl
Isocyanate (...
IAOH - 2013

4

 The gas being heavier than air, started entering into the homes of the unwary
population. Many who panic...
IAOH - 2013

 Doctors and Hospitals were unaware of the nature of the Gas, nor were
they informed of the proper treatment...
IAOH - 2013

Red Page in Annals of Occupational Health
 The Bhopal disaster brought into sharp focus the unprecedented
po...
IAOH - 2013

 There have been many more such incidents of a relatively minor
nature. One such was a Petroleum tanker acci...
IAOH - 2013

 Another frequent accident occurs when workers descend into empty
confined spaces such as disused Wells, Foo...
IAOH - 2013

Post Bhopal Gas Disaster
 Factories Act was amended to assign responsibility for workplace safety to
the Occ...
IAOH - 2013

 India at present is achieving new milestones, major economic
breakthroughs and moving ahead towards the vis...
11

IAOH - 2013






The Indian Chemical Industry contributes to 6.7% of the GDP.
Indian Fertilizer Industry is the f...
IAOH - 2013

 There are around 1790 Major Accident Hazard units in the country,
handling large number of chemicals as raw...
IAOH - 2013

13
IAOH - 2013

Impact of a chemical Disaster

14
IAOH - 2013

 A chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition.
 New chemicals are being discover...
IAOH - 2013

Toxicology
 Toxicology is the science concerned with poisons and how they affect the
body.
 The main factor...
IAOH - 2013

Duration of Exposure to Chemicals

 Acute - Short Mins to Hrs
 Sub acute - Longer up to 90 days
 Chronic -...
18

IAOH - 2013

Measurement of Toxic Substances
 Threshold Limit value (TLV): Time weighted (average)
concentration of a...
IAOH - 2013

Susceptibility to Toxic Chemicals
Genetic factors
State of Health
Hypersensitivity or Allergy
Personal Hygien...
IAOH - 2013

Effects, Metabolism & Excretion of Poisons
 Local- contact site such as Skin, URT
 Systemic Organs other th...
IAOH - 2013

 Poisons are detoxified in different organs
notably the Liver.
 Excretion takes place thro gut, urinary tra...
IAOH - 2013

Hazards
 Skin Irritation
 Eye Irritation
 Inhalation Effects
 Ingestion Effects
 Carcinogenicity
 Mutag...
IAOH - 2013

23

Nature of Chemicals
 Inorganic and organometallic Substances- Antimony, Arsenic, Barium,
Beryllium, Cadm...
IAOH - 2013

 Alcohols, Glycols & derivatives- Ehtylene glycol, Methanol
 Cetones- Acetone
 Aldehydes-Formaldehyde
 Am...
IAOH - 2013

 DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Hexachlorbenzene
 Carbamate Insecticides
 Lindane
 Organophosphorus esters
 Para...
IAOH - 2013

Lead
Inorganic & Organic
Inorganic Lead  Mining & Smelting
 Lead Paint
 Lead Storage Batteries
 Pottery e...
IAOH - 2013

Effects of Lead Exposure






Peripheral Neuropathy
Anaemia
Nephrotoxicity
GI Spasm
Treated with Chelat...
IAOH - 2013

Mercury
Inorganic & Organic
 In Scientific Measuring Instruments-Thermometers,
barometers,Transformers, Rect...
IAOH - 2013

Effects of Mercury Exposure
 Miamata Bay,Japan- (Untreated Inorganic Mercury released into sea
waters-contam...
IAOH - 2013

Other Metals
 Phosphorus - Phossy Jaw (matches)
 Arsenic - Smelting, Pesticides, Weed Killer, Metal
smeltin...
IAOH - 2013

Carbon Compounds
Aliphatic & aromatic
 Aliphatic -Methyl Alcohol, Tetrachlorethane, Carbon tetrachloride,
Tr...
IAOH - 2013

Health Effects

 Occupational Dermatitis
 CNS depressants
 CVS disturbances esp CS2
 Nephro toxic
 Bone ...
IAOH - 2013

Pesticides
Poisoning through skin absorption & GI tract.
 Insecticides & Fungicides - - Pyrethrum & Pyrethri...
IAOH - 2013

Gases
Inert, Irritant & gases with Systemic Effects
 Inert gases - Act by displacing O2 -Anoxic Anoxia, eg: ...
IAOH - 2013

 Halogen Gases like Cl2,Br,Flourine,Iodine have an Irritant effect on URT.
 Flourine could cause Flourosis,...
IAOH - 2013

 Carbon Monoxide - Anoxia, Headache, Cough, Paralysis, Sensory Loss,
Parkinsonism, Death.
 Hydrogen Sulphid...
IAOH - 2013

General Principles for Prevention & Control of
Exposure at Worksite
 Substitution
 Segregation
 Enclosure
...
IAOH - 2013

Management of Poisoning Cases
Basic Principles
 Removal from further Exposure / Evacuation
 Detoxification ...
IAOH - 2013

39
40

IAOH - 2013

Conclusion
Need to increase Awareness
 About the Industries in your area
 About the nature of Chemicals...
IAOH - 2013

41
IAOH - 2013

Thank you
Acknowledgements: Dr Chaitanya S Gulvady

42
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BOHS_Chemical Hazards

  1. 1. Chemical Hazards BOHS Series
  2. 2. 2 IAOH - 2013 December 3rd 1984
  3. 3. IAOH - 2013 3 Bhopal Gas Disaster  The Union Carbide Pesticide Plant in Bhopal, released 40 tons of Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) gas, killing between 2,500 to 5,000 people in the early hours of the morning.  The World’s worst Industrial Disaster
  4. 4. IAOH - 2013 4  The gas being heavier than air, started entering into the homes of the unwary population. Many who panicked and ran out also got crushed in stampedes.  Around 500,000 were estimated to be exposed to the gas & around 20,000 have died as a result. Over 120,000 continue to suffer from the from the effects of the disaster.
  5. 5. IAOH - 2013  Doctors and Hospitals were unaware of the nature of the Gas, nor were they informed of the proper treatment of the inhalation of MIC gas, being merely asked to give cough medicine & eye drops.  If they were informed about the same, proper treatment could have been instituted & a lot of lives could have been saved. 5
  6. 6. IAOH - 2013 Red Page in Annals of Occupational Health  The Bhopal disaster brought into sharp focus the unprecedented potential of hazardous chemical release in terms of loss of life, health, injury and evacuation.  It created a compelling evidence to approach disaster management and chemical safety holistically.  The disaster brought in its wake, an era of restructuring and inducting new hazardous chemical control systems and procedures all over the world 6
  7. 7. IAOH - 2013  There have been many more such incidents of a relatively minor nature. One such was a Petroleum tanker accident on the highway near Mumbai. Spillage of the chemical on to the road came to the attention of the local impoverished tribal population, which started collecting the liquid, presuming it to be cooking fuel. A spark led to a conflagration consuming the lives of innocents.  Such incidents brought into focus the vulnerability and the need for Risk assessment of transportation of Hazardous chemicals. 7
  8. 8. IAOH - 2013  Another frequent accident occurs when workers descend into empty confined spaces such as disused Wells, Food silos, Sewage channels etc, due to presence of noxious gases such as H2S & CO.  Many a lives have been lost and even those who tried to save the victims, due to lack of knowledge, have fallen prey to the same gas exposure. 8
  9. 9. IAOH - 2013 Post Bhopal Gas Disaster  Factories Act was amended to assign responsibility for workplace safety to the Occupier.  Environment Protection Act was introduced in 1986.  The Manufacture, Storage & Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules,1989.  The Chemical Accidents, Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response,1996 introduced. 9
  10. 10. IAOH - 2013  India at present is achieving new milestones, major economic breakthroughs and moving ahead towards the vision of a developed nation. A sustained industrial growth including progress of the chemical sector is crucial to attaining this goal.  The growth of the chemical sector has led to increase in the manufacture, storage and use of Hazardous chemicals (Hazchem) resulting in enhanced threats of accidents. Occurrence of accidents remains a cause of concern. 10
  11. 11. 11 IAOH - 2013     The Indian Chemical Industry contributes to 6.7% of the GDP. Indian Fertilizer Industry is the fourth largest in the world. Largest manufacturer of Pesticides in Asia second only to Japan. Indian Pharmaceutical industry is the largest in the developing world
  12. 12. IAOH - 2013  There are around 1790 Major Accident Hazard units in the country, handling large number of chemicals as raw materials, in processes, products and wastes with flammable, explosive, corrosive, toxic and noxious properties.  Handling of large quantities of hazardous chemicals in installations, isolated storages and during transportation, poses grave risk of sudden release of copious quantities of toxicants. This may adversely impact both the communities in and around the area and the environment. 12
  13. 13. IAOH - 2013 13
  14. 14. IAOH - 2013 Impact of a chemical Disaster 14
  15. 15. IAOH - 2013  A chemical substance is a material with a definite chemical composition.  New chemicals are being discovered daily & at last count there are about 30 million chemical compounds 15
  16. 16. IAOH - 2013 Toxicology  Toxicology is the science concerned with poisons and how they affect the body.  The main factors which determine the Toxicity of a substance are  Chemical Composition- Some more poisonous than others  Physical State-More toxic in soluble form than gas  Amount  Concentration  Particle Size -especially when inhaled  Routes of Absorption- Inhaled, Skin Contact or Ingestion.  Presence of other poisons -Additive effects  Duration of Exposure 16
  17. 17. IAOH - 2013 Duration of Exposure to Chemicals  Acute - Short Mins to Hrs  Sub acute - Longer up to 90 days  Chronic - Prolonged /Repeated over days, months & years. 17
  18. 18. 18 IAOH - 2013 Measurement of Toxic Substances  Threshold Limit value (TLV): Time weighted (average) concentration of an airborne substance to which workers could be safely exposed over an Eight hour working day throughout a life time.  Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) Peak or Maximum conc. of an airborne substance to which workers could be safely exposed.  Biological Limit values (BLV) : Concentration of the substance in body fluids such as blood & urine below which no toxic effects should occur.
  19. 19. IAOH - 2013 Susceptibility to Toxic Chemicals Genetic factors State of Health Hypersensitivity or Allergy Personal Hygiene & other personal habits such as Smoking etc.  Pregnancy & lactation.     19
  20. 20. IAOH - 2013 Effects, Metabolism & Excretion of Poisons  Local- contact site such as Skin, URT  Systemic Organs other than portal of entry  In general, effects are on the metabolic processes of the body, especially enzymes. Others combine with substances essential for metabolism eg-CO 20
  21. 21. IAOH - 2013  Poisons are detoxified in different organs notably the Liver.  Excretion takes place thro gut, urinary tract, skin or lungs. May also pass thro placenta & milk.  Dose -Effect & Dose response demonstrate the response between the dose and the magnitude of effect. 21
  22. 22. IAOH - 2013 Hazards  Skin Irritation  Eye Irritation  Inhalation Effects  Ingestion Effects  Carcinogenicity  Mutagenecity 22
  23. 23. IAOH - 2013 23 Nature of Chemicals  Inorganic and organometallic Substances- Antimony, Arsenic, Barium, Beryllium, Cadmium & Chromium compounds, Fluoride, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel etc.  Organic Chemicals - Aliphatic Hydrocarbons such as Cyclohexane, n-Hexane, Methyl pentane  Aromatic Hydrocarbons such as Benzene, Styrene, Toluene & Xylene.  Halogenated Hydrocarbons - Halothane, Trichloroethylene & Vinyl Chloride.  Amino & Nitro derivatives - Aniline, Nitroglycerine, Trinitrotoluene
  24. 24. IAOH - 2013  Alcohols, Glycols & derivatives- Ehtylene glycol, Methanol  Cetones- Acetone  Aldehydes-Formaldehyde  Amides & Phenols  Asphyxiants such as Acrylonitrile, Carbon Monoxide,Cyanide & Aliphatic Nitriles.  Pesticides such as Baygon, Carbaryl, Chlorphenoxyacetic acid derivatives 24
  25. 25. IAOH - 2013  DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Hexachlorbenzene  Carbamate Insecticides  Lindane  Organophosphorus esters  Parathion  Mutagenic and carcinogenic Substances  Others such as Carbon Disulfide, Diethylstilboesterol & Ethylene Oxide 25
  26. 26. IAOH - 2013 Lead Inorganic & Organic Inorganic Lead  Mining & Smelting  Lead Paint  Lead Storage Batteries  Pottery enamelling & glazing  Polyvinyl Plastics-Lead stabilisers  Glass manufacture  Fire arms 26
  27. 27. IAOH - 2013 Effects of Lead Exposure      Peripheral Neuropathy Anaemia Nephrotoxicity GI Spasm Treated with Chelating agents such as BAL, EDTA& Penicillamine. 27
  28. 28. IAOH - 2013 Mercury Inorganic & Organic  In Scientific Measuring Instruments-Thermometers, barometers,Transformers, Rectifiers  Mercury Vapour Lamps & Storage batteries  Amalgams for Dental use & Jewellery  Seed Dressings & as Pesticides 28
  29. 29. IAOH - 2013 Effects of Mercury Exposure  Miamata Bay,Japan- (Untreated Inorganic Mercury released into sea waters-contaminated Fish.)  Stomatitis, Gingivitis  CNS Dysfunction  Erethism  Tremors  Chronic Nephritis 29
  30. 30. IAOH - 2013 Other Metals  Phosphorus - Phossy Jaw (matches)  Arsenic - Smelting, Pesticides, Weed Killer, Metal smelting, refining, in manuftrng of chemicals & electronic equipment- Irritant, Peripheral Neuropathy Haemolytic.  Manganese - Dry Electric batteries- Parkinsons Syndrome, Psychosis, Pneumonitis  Cadmium - Used as alloy in Welding, batteries, Dentistry, pigments,paints,pesticides- Nephrotoxic, Emphysema.  Nickel- Dermatitis  Chromium- Chrome Ulcers, Necrosis of Nasal Septum 30
  31. 31. IAOH - 2013 Carbon Compounds Aliphatic & aromatic  Aliphatic -Methyl Alcohol, Tetrachlorethane, Carbon tetrachloride, Trichlorethylene & Glycols  Aromatic - Benzene, Toluene, Xylene etc. Exposure- Degreasing, Metal Machining, painting, Welding, Wood working & Printing. 31
  32. 32. IAOH - 2013 Health Effects  Occupational Dermatitis  CNS depressants  CVS disturbances esp CS2  Nephro toxic  Bone Marrow Depression & Leukemia  Carcinogenesis  Chromosomal aberrations 32
  33. 33. IAOH - 2013 Pesticides Poisoning through skin absorption & GI tract.  Insecticides & Fungicides - - Pyrethrum & Pyrethrins (Mosquito Coils), Organochlorine Compounds such as DDT, Lindane, Dieldrin & Aldrin, Organophosphate compounds such as Parathion, Dichlovos, Carbamates & Organic Mercurials.  Herbicides - Arsenicals, Dinitrophenol,Di nitro Ortho cresol,Phenol herbicides, Paraquat, Diquat, Phenoxy herbicides.  Rodenticides & Fumigants -Calcium Cyanide, Methyl bromide, Phosphine, Anticoagulants. 33
  34. 34. IAOH - 2013 Gases Inert, Irritant & gases with Systemic Effects  Inert gases - Act by displacing O2 -Anoxic Anoxia, eg: Methane  Irritant Gases - Flourine & its compounds, Ammonia, Sulphur Dioxide, Ozone, Phosgene.  Gases with Systemic effects- Carbon Monoxide (Toxic Anoxia),Carbon Disulfide (Chemical Anoxia), Hydrogen Cyanide & Cyanide Salts, Acetylene (Cyanide has a Bitter almonds smell whilst Benzaldehyde has a sweet almonds smell) 34
  35. 35. IAOH - 2013  Halogen Gases like Cl2,Br,Flourine,Iodine have an Irritant effect on URT.  Flourine could cause Flourosis, Fits & Coma.  Ammonia- Irritant, Brochospasm, Pulmonary Oedema & Respiratory Arrest  Sulfur Dioxide So2 - Lassitude, Chronic Bronchitis, Loss of Smell.  Ozone-Irritant, emphysema, Pulmonary Fibrosis.  Phosgene-Pulmonary Oedema, Fibrosis & Emphysema 35
  36. 36. IAOH - 2013  Carbon Monoxide - Anoxia, Headache, Cough, Paralysis, Sensory Loss, Parkinsonism, Death.  Hydrogen Sulphide - Irritant, Loss of Smell, Giddiness, Unconsciousness, Death.  Hydrogen Cyanide - Extremely Poisonous. Bitter Almond Smell, Dermatitis, Headache & Motor Weakness at low conc. Breathlessness & Coma..  Acetylene - Fume Fever 36
  37. 37. IAOH - 2013 General Principles for Prevention & Control of Exposure at Worksite  Substitution  Segregation  Enclosure  Ventilation  Wet Methods  Personal Protective Devices  Monitoring of Work Environment  Monitoring of Exposed Workers  Education & Supervision  Enforcement  Emergency Measures 37
  38. 38. IAOH - 2013 Management of Poisoning Cases Basic Principles  Removal from further Exposure / Evacuation  Detoxification eg Chelating agents  Supportive Therapy - Oxygen & IV Fluids. 38
  39. 39. IAOH - 2013 39
  40. 40. 40 IAOH - 2013 Conclusion Need to increase Awareness  About the Industries in your area  About the nature of Chemicals being used, stored and transported  About their hazards and treatment procedures in the event of exposure.
  41. 41. IAOH - 2013 41
  42. 42. IAOH - 2013 Thank you Acknowledgements: Dr Chaitanya S Gulvady 42

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